Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 8387

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Aerospace Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
Interests: piezoelectric structures and devices; phoxonic crystals and acousto-optic coupling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Interests: mechanics of smart materials and structures; mechanics of composite materials and structures; multifield coupling mechanics; piezotronics and piezophototronics; analysis of piezoelectric/mulitferroic devices

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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Interests: dielectric; ferroelectric; piezoelectric materials and devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Piezoelectricity was discovered as a physical phenomenon by the Curie brothers in 1880. Piezoelectric materials have long been used to make many piezoelectric devices. Piezoelectric devices can be divided into two categories, one of which is high-precision devices, such as resonators, filters, and sensors; the other category is high-energy conversion devices, such as ultrasonic transducers, actuators, motors, energy harvesters, and transformers. With the development of telecommunication, sensing, and other technologies, high-precision piezoelectric devices need higher frequency and frequency stability. Piezoelectric devices with high energy conversion have higher requirements for their energy conversion rate and environmental temperature adaptability. The reduction in characteristic size, such as the film thickness of bulk acoustic wave devices and interdigital electrode spacing of surface acoustic wave devices, will bring a scale effect and nonlinear behavior. Macro-systems are transferred into the micro- and nano-worlds, which introduces challenges to modeling and fabrication. The search for piezoelectric material of lead-free and environmentally friendlier, higher Curie temperature will continue. As a new research field, piezoelectric–semiconducting coupled characteristics are applied to fabricate novel electronic devices.

The goal of this Special Issue is to seek innovative models, fabrications, materials, and solutions to develop novel applications and push the performance of piezoelectric materials, devices, and systems.

Prof. Dr. Hongping Hu
Prof. Dr. Chunli Zhang
Prof. Dr. Jianguo Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • piezoelectric materials
  • piezoelectric devices
  • Curie temperature
  • lead-free
  • piezoelectronics
  • scale effect
  • nonlinear

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 5089 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Analysis of Piezoelectric Semiconductor Thick Plates with Periodic Boundary Conditions
by Jueyong Zhu, Mehrdad Negahban, Jie Xu, Rongyu Xia and Zheng Li
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2174; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122174 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Piezoelectric semiconductors, being materials with both piezoelectric and semiconducting properties, are of particular interest for use in multi-functional devices and naturally result in multi-physics analysis. This study provides analytical solutions for thick piezoelectric semiconductor plates with periodic boundary conditions and includes an investigation [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric semiconductors, being materials with both piezoelectric and semiconducting properties, are of particular interest for use in multi-functional devices and naturally result in multi-physics analysis. This study provides analytical solutions for thick piezoelectric semiconductor plates with periodic boundary conditions and includes an investigation of electromechanical coupling effects. Using the linearization of the drift-diffusion equations for both electrons and holes for small carrier concentration perturbations, the governing equations are solved by the extended Stroh formalism, which is a method for solving the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a problem. The solution, obtained in the form of a series expansion with an unknown coefficient, is solved by matching Fourier series expansions of the boundary conditions. The distributions of electromechanical fields and the concentrations of electrons and holes under four-point bending and three-point bending loads are calculated theoretically. The effects of changing the period length and steady-state carrier concentrations are covered in the discussion, which also reflects the extent of coupling in multi-physics interactions. The results provide a theoretical method for understanding and designing with piezoelectric semiconductor materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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17 pages, 3541 KiB  
Communication
Energy-Trapping Characteristics of Lateral Field Excited GdCOB Crystal Bulk Acoustic Wave Devices Based on Stepped Electrodes
by Bowei Wu, Pengfei Kang, Tingfeng Ma, Yuming Yao, Ning Gan, Peng Li, Zhenghua Qian, Iren Kuznetsova, Ilya Nedospasov and Wenhui Hu
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122162 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 657
Abstract
In this work, high-frequency forced vibrations of lateral field excitation (LFE) devices with stepped electrodes based on monoclinic crystals GdCOB are modeled, and the influence laws of the device parameters (the step number, size, and thickness of the stepped electrodes) on the energy-trapping [...] Read more.
In this work, high-frequency forced vibrations of lateral field excitation (LFE) devices with stepped electrodes based on monoclinic crystals GdCOB are modeled, and the influence laws of the device parameters (the step number, size, and thickness of the stepped electrodes) on the energy-trapping effects of the device are revealed. The results show that the step number has a significant effect on the energy-trapping effect of the device: with the increase in the step number, the stronger energy-trapping effect of the device can be obtained; with the increase in the thickness difference of two layers of electrodes, the energy-trapping effect of the device becomes stronger; with the increase in the difference of the electrode radius, the energy-trapping effect of the device is enhanced gradually. The results of this work can provide an important theoretical basis for the design of stepped-electrode LFE resonators and sensors with high-quality factors based on monoclinic crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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18 pages, 5251 KiB  
Article
Research on Stacked Piezoelectric Cymbal Vibrator
by Xinhu Liu, Yajun Zheng, Yanming Guo, Ningdong Hu and Hongping Hu
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14112039 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 747
Abstract
As demand for haptic feedback increases, piezoelectric materials have become one of the best candidate materials due to their small size, high electromechanical coupling coefficient, and fast response. A stacked piezoelectric cymbal vibrator is proposed based on the common cymbal-type transducer, which is [...] Read more.
As demand for haptic feedback increases, piezoelectric materials have become one of the best candidate materials due to their small size, high electromechanical coupling coefficient, and fast response. A stacked piezoelectric cymbal vibrator is proposed based on the common cymbal-type transducer, which is composed of a piezoelectric stack to drive and a cymbal disk to amplify displacement. A coupling theoretical model between the piezoelectric stack and the cymbal-type structure is established. The longitudinal and radial displacements of the stacked piezoelectric cymbal vibrator are calculated in the low frequency range (<1000 Hz) by the theoretical model and the finite element method. The theoretical and numerical results are in good agreement. The results show that the radial displacement can be converted into longitudinal displacement and then effectively amplified by the cymbal disk with an amplification ratio of 30. The feature is conducive to its widespread application in the field of consumer electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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16 pages, 11486 KiB  
Article
High-Bandwidth Repetitive Trajectory Tracking Control of Piezoelectric Actuators via Phase–Hysteresis Hybrid Compensation and Feedforward–Feedback Combined Control
by Jie Yuan, Haitao Wu, Yanding Qin and Jianda Han
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14112009 - 29 Oct 2023
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are widely used in many nano-resolution manipulations. A PEA’s hysteresis becomes the main factor limiting its motion accuracy. The distinctive feature of a PEA’s hysteresis is the interdependence between the width of the hysteresis loop and the frequency or rate [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are widely used in many nano-resolution manipulations. A PEA’s hysteresis becomes the main factor limiting its motion accuracy. The distinctive feature of a PEA’s hysteresis is the interdependence between the width of the hysteresis loop and the frequency or rate of the control voltage. Generally, the control voltage is first amplified using a voltage amplifier (VA) and then exerted on the PEA. In this VA-PEA module, the linear dynamics of the VA and the nonlinearities of the PEA are coupled. In this paper, it is found that the phase lag of the VA also contributes to the rate dependence of the VA-PEA module. If only the PEA’s hysteresis is considered, it will be difficult to achieve high-frequency modeling and control. Consequently, great difficulties arise in high-frequency hysteresis compensation and trajectory tracking, e.g., in the fast scanning of atomic force microscopes. In this paper, the VA-PEA module is modeled to be the series connection of a linear subsystem and a nonlinear subsystem. Subsequently, a feedforward phase–dynamics compensator is proposed to compensate for both the PEA’s hysteresis and the phase lag of the VA. Further, an unscented Kalman-filter-based proportional–integral–derivative controller is adopted as the feedback controller. Under this feedforward–feedback combined control scheme, high-bandwidth hysteresis compensation and trajectory tracking are achieved. The trajectory tracking results show that the closed-loop trajectory tracking bandwidth has been increased to the range of 0–1500 Hz, exhibiting excellent performance for fast scanning applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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12 pages, 3334 KiB  
Article
Directivity Modeling and Simulation Analysis of a Novel Structure MEMS Piezoelectric Vector Hydrophone
by Wei Deng, Qingqing Fan, Junhong Li and Chenghao Wang
Micromachines 2023, 14(8), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14081495 - 26 Jul 2023
Viewed by 926
Abstract
In this paper, a novel dual-mass MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophone is proposed to eliminate the transverse effect and solve the problem of directivity offset in traditional single-mass MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophones. The reason for the directional offset of the traditional single-mass cantilever MEMS [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel dual-mass MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophone is proposed to eliminate the transverse effect and solve the problem of directivity offset in traditional single-mass MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophones. The reason for the directional offset of the traditional single-mass cantilever MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophone is explained theoretically for the first time, and the angle of the directional offset is predicted successfully. Both analytical and finite element methods are employed to analyze the single-mass and dual-mass cantilever MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophone. The results show that the directivity of the dual-mass MEMS piezoelectric vector hydrophone has no deviation, the transverse effect is basically eliminated, and the directivity (maximum concave point depth) is significantly improved, so more accurate positioning can be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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16 pages, 7244 KiB  
Article
Anisotropy Evaluation and Defect Detection on Laser Power Bed Fusion 316L Stainless Steel
by Zhixin Peng, Wei Xu, Yang Liu, Kai Zhao and Ping Hu
Micromachines 2023, 14(6), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061206 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Because of rapid heating, cooling, and solidification during metal additive manufacturing (AM), the resulting products exhibit strong anisotropy and are at risk of quality problems from metallurgical defects. The defects and anisotropy affect the fatigue resistance and material properties, including mechanical, electrical, and [...] Read more.
Because of rapid heating, cooling, and solidification during metal additive manufacturing (AM), the resulting products exhibit strong anisotropy and are at risk of quality problems from metallurgical defects. The defects and anisotropy affect the fatigue resistance and material properties, including mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties, which limit the applications of the additively manufactured components in the field of engineering. In this study, the anisotropy of laser power bed fusion 316L stainless steel components was first measured by conventional destructive approaches using metallographic methods, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Then, anisotropy was also evaluated by ultrasonic nondestructive characterization using the wave speed, attenuation, and diffuse backscatter results. The results from the destructive and nondestructive methods were compared. The wave speed fluctuated in a small range, while the attenuation and diffuse backscatter results were varied depending on the build direction. Furthermore, a laser power bed fusion 316L stainless steel sample with a series of artificial defects along the build direction was investigated via laser ultrasonic testing, which is more commonly used for AM defect detection. The corresponding ultrasonic imaging was improved with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), which was found to be in good agreement with the results from the digital radiograph (DR). The outcomes of this study provide additional information for anisotropy evaluation and defect detection for improving the quality of additively manufactured products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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11 pages, 5067 KiB  
Communication
Pure- and Pseudo-Lateral-Field-Excitation Characteristics of Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystal PMN-PT
by Fei Sun, Tingfeng Ma, Pengfei Kang, Yuming Yao, Ning Gan, Lili Yuan, Wenhui Hu, Iren Kuznetsova and Ilya Nedospasov
Micromachines 2023, 14(6), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061136 - 28 May 2023
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The relaxor ferroelectric single crystal (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) has high piezoelectric constants, and thus has a good application prospect in the field of highly sensitive piezoelectric sensors. In this paper, for relaxor ferroelectric single crystal PMN-PT, the [...] Read more.
The relaxor ferroelectric single crystal (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) has high piezoelectric constants, and thus has a good application prospect in the field of highly sensitive piezoelectric sensors. In this paper, for relaxor ferroelectric single crystal PMN-PT, the bulk acoustic wave characteristics on pure- and pseudo-lateral-field-excitation (pure- and pseudo-LFE) modes are investigated. LFE piezoelectric coupling coefficients and acoustic wave phase velocities for PMN-PT crystals in different cuts and electric field directions are calculated. On this basis, the optimal cuts of pure-LFE and pseudo-LFE modes of relaxor ferroelectric single crystal PMN-PT are obtained, namely, (zxt)45° and (zxtl)90°/90°, respectively. Finally, finite element simulations are carried out to verify the cuts of pure-LFE and pseudo-LFE modes. The simulation results show that the PMN-PT acoustic wave devices in pure-LFE mode have good energy-trapping effects. For PMN-PT acoustic wave devices in pseudo-LFE mode, when the device is in air, no obvious energy-trapping emerges; when the water (as a virtual electrode) is added to the surface of the crystal plate, an obvious resonance peak and the energy-trapping effect appears. Therefore, the PMN-PT pure-LFE device is suitable for gas-phase detections. While the PMN-PT pseudo-LFE device is suitable for liquid-phase detections. The above results verify the correctness of the cuts of the two modes. The research results provide an important basis for the development of highly sensitive LFE piezoelectric sensors based on relaxor ferroelectric single crystal PMN-PT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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13 pages, 3722 KiB  
Article
A Novel Piezo Inertia Actuator Utilizing the Transverse Motion of Two Parallel Leaf-Springs
by Pingping Sun, Zhike Xu, Long Jin and Xingxing Zhu
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050954 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
A novel linear piezo inertia actuator based on the transverse motion principle is proposed. Under the action of the transverse motion of two parallel leaf-springs, the designed piezo inertia actuator can achieve great stroke movements at a fairly high speed. The presented actuator [...] Read more.
A novel linear piezo inertia actuator based on the transverse motion principle is proposed. Under the action of the transverse motion of two parallel leaf-springs, the designed piezo inertia actuator can achieve great stroke movements at a fairly high speed. The presented actuator includes a rectangle flexure hinge mechanism (RFHM) with two parallel leaf-springs, a piezo-stack, a base, and a stage. The mechanism construction and operating principle of the piezo inertia actuator are discussed, respectively. To obtain the proper geometry of the RFHM, we have used a commercial finite element program COMSOL. To investigate the output characteristics of the actuator, the relevant experiment tests including loading capacity, voltage characteristic, and frequency characteristic are adopted. The maximum movement speed and the minimum step size are 27.077 mm/s and 32.5 nm, respectively, confirming that the RFHM with two parallel leaf-springs can be used to design a piezo inertia actuator with a high speed and accuracy. Therefore, this actuator can be used in applications with fast positioning and high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems)
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