Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 12184

Special Issue Editor

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China
Interests: fire science; combustion characteristics; phase-change material; fire retardant; electrochemical power source
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global energy shortage issues are becoming more and more prominent, with stronger requirements for the development of new energy storage devices and technologies. Such devices and technologies have seen vigorous development in recent years, particularly those based on metallic electrode materials, including Li/Na/K/Mg/Ca/Zn/Al metal batteries, metal-air batteries, secondary batteries, solar energy storage, catalytic hydrogen production, and so on. Some advanced materials exhibit excellent electrochemical properties, such as high energy density, large capacity, long life cycle, and even good safety.

However, from an industrial perspective, the position of lithium-ion batteries in the field of chemical energy storage cannot be replaced in the short term. Currently, metallic electrode materials still have certain defects, especially in large-scale manufacturing. In order to meet the energy storage demand, novel high-performance metallic electrode material systems should be explored, and the preparation methods should be improved, while large-scale production processing of next-generation chemical energy storage devices should be developed. In addition, advanced characterization methods are continuinmg to emerge, providing basic data support for the regulation of structure and properties of metallic electrode materials.

In this Special Issue, original research articles/reviews/case reports/communications/perspectives/viewpoints reporting innovative content on the topic are welcome, to promote further research activities in this field and accelerate the industrialization of high-performance metallic electrode materials.

I look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Que Huang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy storage device
  • metal batteries
  • metal-air batteries
  • rechargeable batteries
  • supercapacitors
  • fuel cell
  • metallic electrode materials
  • metal anode
  • experimental synthesis and manufacturing
  • advanced characterization methods

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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9 pages, 806 KiB  
Editorial
Brief Introduction on Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode and Corresponding Modified Materials
by Que Huang, Silong Wang, Yanjun Chen, Changcheng Liu and Qiyue Li
Metals 2023, 13(4), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040703 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
As an important part in new energy storage devices, electrodes containing metals or their corresponding derivatives are widely used due to the diversity of material types, existing forms and assembly methods. In order to obtain novel energy storage components with superior performance, new [...] Read more.
As an important part in new energy storage devices, electrodes containing metals or their corresponding derivatives are widely used due to the diversity of material types, existing forms and assembly methods. In order to obtain novel energy storage components with superior performance, new technologies and studies on the improvement of electrode materials are emerging in recent years. This editorial paper aims to summarize the classical and latest research highlights on manufacturing, characterization and modification of metallic electrodes, especially new materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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Research

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13 pages, 2944 KiB  
Article
Indentation of Commercial Pure Titanium Processed by Cold Rolling
by Diaoyu Zhou, Jiasheng Yu, Yiwei Dong, Yalu Qin and Xinwei Hao
Metals 2024, 14(3), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14030327 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
In this work, the effects of plastic deformation on the indentation behaviors of commercial pure titanium alloy were investigated. Titanium experienced various kinds of deformation by cold rolling processes, and the indentation behaviors were measured using microindentation. The results showed the most deformed [...] Read more.
In this work, the effects of plastic deformation on the indentation behaviors of commercial pure titanium alloy were investigated. Titanium experienced various kinds of deformation by cold rolling processes, and the indentation behaviors were measured using microindentation. The results showed the most deformed sample experienced the largest indentation resistance and had the highest dislocation density and the indentation size influenced the indentation behavior of the CP-Ti. The effect of strain on Vickers hardness demonstrated the dominant role of the dislocation motion in the indentation deformation of CP-Ti alloy. The dependence of the indentation hardness on both the maximum indentation load and the indentation residual depth suggested there exists size effect in the indentation. The effect of the plastic strain on the energy ratio suggested the energy ratio is related to the microstructure in materials. Additionally, the linear relationship between the energy ratio on the indentation depth ratio was obtained for hcp-structured Titanium alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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19 pages, 3280 KiB  
Article
Design and Validation of Lifetime Prediction Model for Lithium-Thiocarbonyl Chloride Batteries Based on Accelerated Aging Experiments
by Silong Wang, Xiaoyu Hou, Yuhao Wang, Yanjun Chen, Dengji Xu, Changcheng Liu and Que Huang
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091579 - 10 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to establish a life prediction model of lithium-thiocarbonyl chloride batteries by semi-empirical method. In the experiment, accelerated life tests on several groups of batteries at different temperatures were conducted. After a period of operation in the range [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to establish a life prediction model of lithium-thiocarbonyl chloride batteries by semi-empirical method. In the experiment, accelerated life tests on several groups of batteries at different temperatures were conducted. After a period of operation in the range from 25 °C to 74 °C, it was found that the higher the temperature, the less the remaining capacity of the batteries. According to the study of the battery aging mechanism, the characteristic parameter impedance of an aging battery would change exponentially with the increase of storage time and environmental temperature. The established life prediction model showed that the change in battery impedance spectrum had a good law, which made it possible to predict the state of charge (SOC) of the battery according to the local change characteristics of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectrum. The experimental data were compared with the fitted prediction curve, and the maximum deviation of the prediction was only 4.1036%, which indicated that the constructed model had high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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11 pages, 6138 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Low-Crystalline MnO2/MXene Composites for Capacitive Deionization with Efficient Desalination Capacity
by Zhumei Sun, Jun Peng, Shu Yang, Riya Jin, Changcheng Liu and Que Huang
Metals 2023, 13(6), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13061047 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
MXene has drawn widespread attention as a potential material for electrode use in capacitive deionization (CDI). However, the applications of MXene are limited by its property of low electrical capacity. Herein, a MnO2/MXene composite was firstly evaluated in a capacitive deionization [...] Read more.
MXene has drawn widespread attention as a potential material for electrode use in capacitive deionization (CDI). However, the applications of MXene are limited by its property of low electrical capacity. Herein, a MnO2/MXene composite was firstly evaluated in a capacitive deionization system, in which the MnO2 acts as intercalation-type pseudocapacitive electrodes to enhance the electrical capacity, and MXene provides an electron conduction highway network that improves the charge transfer of the MnO2. The result showed that the low-crystallinity MnO2 with irregular particles was well-distributed on the surface of the MXene. The desalination capacity of 30.5 mg·g−1 is achieved at a voltage window of 1.2 V, which was higher than that of the reported pure MXene and MnO2. The electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitive and the diffusion-controlled processes are the main charge storage mechanisms, and the EDL contribution provides 50.3% to the total capacitance. This result suggests a promising direction for further applying a MnO2/MXene composite in CDI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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12 pages, 3164 KiB  
Article
Copper Oxide Nitrogen-Rich Porous Carbon Network Boosts High-Performance Supercapacitors
by Dan Li, Hanhao Liu, Zijie Liu, Que Huang, Beihu Lu, Yanzhong Wang, Chao Wang and Li Guo
Metals 2023, 13(5), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050981 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Transition metal oxides with various valence states have high specific capacitance and have attracted much attention. However, the poor cycle stability caused by material agglomeration seriously limits the play of its high activity. Herein, we create a stress dispersion structure (CuxO [...] Read more.
Transition metal oxides with various valence states have high specific capacitance and have attracted much attention. However, the poor cycle stability caused by material agglomeration seriously limits the play of its high activity. Herein, we create a stress dispersion structure (CuxO composite porous carbon net) by in situ lyophilization and one-step carbonization, effectively anchoring highly reactive copper oxides and highly conductive carbon networks combined with high nitrogen doping of 10.7%, to investigate their electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. Specifically, the specific capacitance of CuxO@NPC can be as high as 392 F/g (0.5 A/g) in the three-electrode system with 6 mol/L KOH as electrolyte. When applied to the two-electrode system, the cycle stability of the whole device can reach 97% after 10,000 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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12 pages, 2767 KiB  
Article
Boosting Electrocatalytic Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia over Co3O4 Nanosheets with Oxygen Vacancies
by Xing Wu, Zhigong Liu, Tianyu Gao, Zhizhuo Li, Zhenhui Song, Jia Tang, Fan Feng, Caiyan Qu, Fubing Yao and Chongjian Tang
Metals 2023, 13(4), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040799 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Electrocatalytic nitrate reduction into ammonia is promising for its restricted activity and selectivity in wastewater treatment, however, it remains challenging. In this work, Co3O4 nanosheet electrodes with rich oxygen vacancies (OVs) (Co3O4−x/NF) are prepared and then [...] Read more.
Electrocatalytic nitrate reduction into ammonia is promising for its restricted activity and selectivity in wastewater treatment, however, it remains challenging. In this work, Co3O4 nanosheet electrodes with rich oxygen vacancies (OVs) (Co3O4−x/NF) are prepared and then applied as efficient catalysts for selective electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia. The resulting Co3O4−x/NF electrodes exhibit high NO3-N removal efficiency and NH4+-N selectivity, at 93.7% and 85.4%, respectively. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra (EPR) results clearly reveal the formation of OVs in Co3O4−x/NF. The electrochemical characterization results confirm that OVs can effectively improve electron transfer as well as the electrochemically active area. The Co2+/Co3+ ratio of Co3O4−x/NF increases after the electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate, highlighting the crucial role played by Co2+ in mediating ammonia production via the Co2+/Co3+ cycle. These findings offer valuable guidelines for the development of more efficient and sustainable approaches for nitrate-contaminated wastewater treatment and ammonia synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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11 pages, 3528 KiB  
Article
Research on the Selective Electrocatalytic Reduction of SO2 to Recover S0 by Pb Electrode
by Xudong Liu, Xiaoyang Wang, Jiaqi Long, Xiaofeng Xie, Lin Wu, Zhujiang Wang, Yingxue Fu, Hao Chen, Kaisong Xiang and Hui Liu
Metals 2023, 13(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030569 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Resource utilization of SO2 from flue gas is a key challenge for the green development of the smelting industry. Recovery of sulfur resources in the form of elemental sulfur (S0), which has a high market demand and is a current [...] Read more.
Resource utilization of SO2 from flue gas is a key challenge for the green development of the smelting industry. Recovery of sulfur resources in the form of elemental sulfur (S0), which has a high market demand and is a current focus in the field of SO2 treatment, can reduce the solid waste from desulfurization. In this study, it was found that Pb as a cathode material had good catalytic activity for the electrochemical reduction of SO2 and good selectivity towards elemental sulfur. However, the cathode suffers from sulfur poisoning. The problem was resolved by introducing surfactant, specifically sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), which significantly lowered the sulfur content ratio on the surface of the electrode from 31.82% to 2.17%. Through the optimization of electrocatalytic parameters, this method enables efficient conversion of SO2 to S0, achieving a selectivity of 83% at pH = 0.25 and E = −0.8 V (vs. SCE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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Review

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21 pages, 6472 KiB  
Review
High-Entropy Materials: Features for Lithium–Sulfur Battery Applications
by Yikun Yao, Jiajun Chen, Rong Niu, Zhenxin Zhao and Xiaomin Wang
Metals 2023, 13(5), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050833 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
The emergence of various electronic devices and equipment such as electric vehicles and drones requires higher energy density energy storage devices. Lithium–sulfur batteries (LSBs) are considered the most promising new-generation energy storage system owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and energy density. [...] Read more.
The emergence of various electronic devices and equipment such as electric vehicles and drones requires higher energy density energy storage devices. Lithium–sulfur batteries (LSBs) are considered the most promising new-generation energy storage system owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and energy density. However, the severe shuttle behaviors of soluble lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) and the slow redox kinetics lead to low sulfur utilization and poor cycling stability, which seriously hinder the commercial application of LSBs. Therefore, various catalytic materials have been employed to solve these troublesome problems. High entropy materials (HEMs), as advanced materials, can provide unique surface and electronic structures that expose plentiful catalytic active sites, which opens new ideas for the regulation of LiPS redox kinetics. Notwithstanding the many instructive reviews on LSBs, this work aims to offer a complete and shrewd summary of the current progress in HEM-based LSBs, including an in-depth interpretation of the design principles and mechanistic electrocatalysis functions, as well as pragmatic perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Characterization of Metallic Electrode Materials)
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