Friction and Wear of Metals

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 21298

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Physics, Karlstad University, SE-651 88 Karlstad, Sweden
Interests: additive manufacturing; laser and electron beam powder bed fusion techniques; direct energy deposition; advanced character-ization of microstructure–properties relationship of additively manufactured materials; material design for additive manufac-turing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
Interests: high temperature tribology; friction and wear in dry contacts; tribomaterials; surface engineering for friction and wear control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable development, circular economy, and resource efficiency are all key elements for the global strive toward a sustainable world. Development of new technologies and engineering applications are the prerequisites to enable the transition to a sustainable society. New technologies and engineering applications increase demands on new products and processes focusing on higher energy efficiency, longer service life, and higher power density. In any moving machine assembly, this will translate into harsh operating conditions affecting frictional losses and durability of the materials. In most technological applications, the dominating engineering materials are metal alloys. Most of these materials possess, e.g., high mechanical and thermal properties, easy shaping for efficient production, and recyclability. Understanding the friction and wear mechanisms and characterizing the tribological performance are essential factors in the development and implementation of new metallic materials with improved performance for future sustainable technology.

Potential topics for this Special Issue on friction and wear of metals include but are not limited to the following:

  • Tribology of novel metallic materials, including new manufacturing methods (additive manufacturing, powder metallurgy, etc.);
  • Tribology of metals for electrification;
  • High-temperature tribology of metals;
  • Wear and friction in harsh environment (corrosive, vacuum, etc.);
  • Wear protection by surface engineering and coatings;
  • Novel sustainable lubrication.

Prof. Dr. Pavel Krakhmalev
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jens Hardell
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Friction and wear
  • Wear mechanisms
  • New tribomaterials
  • High-temperature tribology
  • Hard coating
  • Lubrication

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 13184 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Tribo-Magnetization and Wear State during Reciprocating Sliding
by Kunpeng Zhao, Jianchun Fan and Laibin Zhang
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081247 - 5 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1583
Abstract
In order to investigate the relationship between tribo-magnetization and wear phenomena, a series of sliding-friction tests were carried out using a pin-on-block reciprocator type device, which was specially designed to generate sliding friction and to detect magnetic fields. The tribological behavior was observed [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the relationship between tribo-magnetization and wear phenomena, a series of sliding-friction tests were carried out using a pin-on-block reciprocator type device, which was specially designed to generate sliding friction and to detect magnetic fields. The tribological behavior was observed by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in real time, and the magnetic signal was detected by using a two-axis magnetic sensor. It was found that as the friction continues, both the tangential and the normal components of magnetic field on the material surface increase gradually, and that both the average value of the tangential magnetic field ΔH(x)mean and the peak-to-peak value of the normal magnetic field Vpp at the wear scar clearly reflect changes of the wear state. Furthermore, in order to better understand the tribo-magnetization phenomenon, the changes of surface morphology and wear debris in different wear stages were analyzed. Moreover, an improved magnetic dipole model that considered the distribution of magnetic charges on the worn surface was established. This model can successfully describe the tribo-magnetization phenomenon during the stable wear stage, and should be useful for characterizing frictional wear phenomena in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Metals)
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19 pages, 7388 KiB  
Article
Development of a New PM Tool Steel for Optimization of Cold Working of Advanced High-Strength Steels
by Abdulbaset Mussa, Pavel Krakhmalev, Aydın Şelte and Jens Bergström
Metals 2020, 10(10), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10101326 - 3 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
In the present study, Uddeholm Vancron SuperClean cold work tool steel was investigated concerning wear resistance and fatigue strength, using laboratory and semi-industrial tests. The Uddeholm Vancron SuperClean was designed with the help of ThermoCalc calculations to contain a high amount of a [...] Read more.
In the present study, Uddeholm Vancron SuperClean cold work tool steel was investigated concerning wear resistance and fatigue strength, using laboratory and semi-industrial tests. The Uddeholm Vancron SuperClean was designed with the help of ThermoCalc calculations to contain a high amount of a carbonitride phase, which was suggested to improve tribological performance of this tool steel. In order to investigate the tested steel, galling tests with a slider-on flat-surface tribotester and semi-industrial punching tests were performed on an advanced high-strength steel, CP1180HD. Uddeholm Vanadis 8 SuperClean containing only a carbide phase and Uddeholm Vancron 40 containing a mixture of carbides and carbonitrides were also tested to compare the performance of the tool steels. The microstructure and wear mechanisms were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the carbonitrides presented in Uddeholm Vancron SuperClean improved its resistance to material transfer and galling. Semi-industrial punching tests also confirmed that Uddeholm Vancron SuperClean cold work tool steel also possesses enhanced resistance to chipping and fatigue crack nucleation, which confirms the beneficial role of the carbonitride phase in wear resistance of cold work tool steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Metals)
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14 pages, 5985 KiB  
Article
Effect of Grain Size on the Friction-Induced Martensitic Transformation and Tribological Properties of 304 Austenite Stainless Steel
by Bo Mao, Shuangjie Chu and Shuyang Wang
Metals 2020, 10(9), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091246 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3529
Abstract
Friction and wear performance of austenite stainless steels have been extensively studied and show a close relationship with the friction-induced martensitic transformation. However, how the grain size and associated friction-induced martensitic transformation behavior affect the tribological properties of austenite steels have not been [...] Read more.
Friction and wear performance of austenite stainless steels have been extensively studied and show a close relationship with the friction-induced martensitic transformation. However, how the grain size and associated friction-induced martensitic transformation behavior affect the tribological properties of austenite steels have not been systematically studied. In this work, dry sliding tests were performed on an AISI 304 stainless steel with a grain size ranging from 25 to 92 μm. The friction-induced surface morphology and microstructure evolution were characterized. Friction-induced martensitic transformation behavior, including martensite nucleation, martensite growth and martensite variant selection and its effect on the friction and wear behavior of the 304 stainless steel were analyzed. The results showed that both the surface coefficient of friction (COF) and the wear rate increase with the grain size. The COF was reduced three times and wear rate was reduced by 30% as the grain size decreased from 92 to 25 μm. A possible mechanism is proposed to account for the effect of grain size on the tribological behavior. It is discussed that austenite steel with refined grain size tends to suppress the amount of friction-induced martensitic transformed and significantly alleviates both the plowing and adhesive effect during dry sliding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Metals)
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10 pages, 3521 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Wear Performance of Pure Titanium Laser Texturing Surface by Nitrogen Ion Implantation
by Lin Cao, Yun Chen, Jie Cui, Wei Li, Zhidan Lin and Peng Zhang
Metals 2020, 10(8), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10080990 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
The poor tribological performances of titanium have significantly limited its applications in the field of artificial joints. In order to solve problems regarding the wear and corrosion of artificial joints in the body, we fabricated the composite materials utilizing the combination of laser [...] Read more.
The poor tribological performances of titanium have significantly limited its applications in the field of artificial joints. In order to solve problems regarding the wear and corrosion of artificial joints in the body, we fabricated the composite materials utilizing the combination of laser surface texturing and nitrogen ion implantation technology, and investigated the effect of laser surface texturing, nitrogen ion implantation, and different dimple area densities on tribological performance. The results show that the textured surface could reduce the friction coefficient and improve the wear resistance, and the optimum dimple density was found to be 25%. After N ion implantation, the wear resistance of the textured sample was further improved, due to the formation of the nitride layer. Moreover, as shown by the electrochemical test results, the corrosion resistance was enhanced significantly. The friction coefficient decreased the most, and the wear resistance increased by 405% with the lowest wear rate of 0.37 × 10−3 mm3/N·m. However, the specimen with a dimple density of 60% had the worst wear resistance. The results of the study provide a basis for the development and application of artificial joint materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Metals)
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16 pages, 8535 KiB  
Article
Microstructural and Wear Properties of Annealed Medium Carbon Steel Plate (EN8) Cladded with Martensitic Stainless Steel (AISI410)
by Shubrajit Bhaumik, Manidipto Mukherjee, Parijat Sarkar, Anish Nayek and Viorel Paleu
Metals 2020, 10(7), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10070958 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3912
Abstract
Limited work on the wear properties of martensitic stainless-steel weld clads initiated this work which included investigations on microstructural and wear properties of cladded AISI 410 (filler wire)/EN 8 plates (substrate). Three layers of martensitic stainless steel (AISI 410) were deposited using metal [...] Read more.
Limited work on the wear properties of martensitic stainless-steel weld clads initiated this work which included investigations on microstructural and wear properties of cladded AISI 410 (filler wire)/EN 8 plates (substrate). Three layers of martensitic stainless steel (AISI 410) were deposited using metal inert gas (MIG) welding on medium carbon steel (EN 8) achieving a 51.5 ± 2.35 HRC of top layer. The elemental and phase fractions of the cladded layers indicated 98% martensite phase and retained austenite (2%). About 40% dilution was observed between EN 8 and the first weld layer. The results of tests carried out on pin on disc tribometer revealed an enhancement of anti-wear life of the martensitic weld cladded EN 8 by three times that of uncladded EN 8. The uncladded EN 8 plate suffered severe damage and high wear, leading to its failure at 478 s. The failure of the uncladded EN 8 sample was identified by the occurrence of high vibration of the pin on disc tribometer which ultimately stopped the tribometer. On the other hand, the cladded EN 8 sample continued running for 3600 s, exhibiting normal wear. After the tribo test, the surfaces of the pins of both cladded and uncladded EN 8 were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and 3D profilometer. The surface characterization of tribo pairs indicated ploughing and galling to be the primary wear mechanisms. The average grain size of top and middle layer was in the range of 2–3.5 µm, while the base metal showed 5.02 µm mean grain size, resulting in higher hardness of clad layers than base metal, also favoring better wear resistance of the cladded EN 8 samples as compared to uncladded EN 8 samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Metals)
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10 pages, 3765 KiB  
Article
Friction-Induced Martensitic Transformation and Wear Properties of Stainless Steel under Dry and Wet Conditions
by Yoon-Seok Lee, Yuta Kondo and Mitsuhiro Okayasu
Metals 2020, 10(6), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060743 - 3 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
The wear characteristics of SUS304 and SUS316 stainless steels were evaluated at the rotation speeds of 100 m/s, 200 m/s, and 300 m/s under dry and wet conditions. The transition of friction-induced martensite occurred in wear-affected regions of two materials, regardless of the [...] Read more.
The wear characteristics of SUS304 and SUS316 stainless steels were evaluated at the rotation speeds of 100 m/s, 200 m/s, and 300 m/s under dry and wet conditions. The transition of friction-induced martensite occurred in wear-affected regions of two materials, regardless of the wear test conditions. The specific wear rates (Ws) of both stainless steels increase with increasing rotation speeds, regardless of the circumstances. Moreover, Ws of SUS304 and SUS316, obtained under dry conditions, is significantly higher than that of SUS304 and SUS316 obtained under wet conditions, respectively. This is because that the water film on the wet ring can act as a liquid lubricant between the ring and the block during the tests. After the wear tests, the hardness changes of both SUS304 and SUS316 are much higher under dry conditions, compared to those under wet conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Metals)
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11 pages, 37678 KiB  
Article
Wear Resistance of High C High Si Steel with Low Retained Austenite Content and Kinetically Activated Bainite
by Bojan Podgornik, Mihael Brunčko and Peter Kirbiš
Metals 2020, 10(5), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10050672 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
A novel high C high Si carbide free bainitic steel was developed for the production of cold work tools, knives, and rolls, requiring high hardness, toughness, as well as abrasive/adhesive wear resistance and resistance to galling at low costs. The steel was tribologically [...] Read more.
A novel high C high Si carbide free bainitic steel was developed for the production of cold work tools, knives, and rolls, requiring high hardness, toughness, as well as abrasive/adhesive wear resistance and resistance to galling at low costs. The steel was tribologically tested in dry sliding conditions under abrasive and adhesive wear mode, facilitated by using alumina and bearing steel ball as a counter-material, respectively. It was determined that carbide dissolution occurs under high contact pressures, thereby enriching the surrounding matrix with carbon and locally increasing the retained austenite content. The high retained austenite at the sliding interface increases the steels work hardening capacity and promotes superior wear resistance when compared to much more alloyed cold work tool steel, such as AISI D2. The steel has a high resistance to galling as determined by sliding against a soft steel bar due to its chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Metals)
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