Modelling the Deformation, Recrystallization and Microstructure-Related Properties in Metals

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 26025

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Savaria Institute of Technology, Faculty of Informatics, Eötvös Loránd University, Károlyi Gáspár tér 4, 9700 Szombathely, Hungary
Interests: microstructure and texture evolution in polycrystalline materials; texture modelling during thermo-mechanical processing; materials characterization; Al alloys; electrical steels
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Dear Colleagues,

Experimental investigations of the thermomechanical processing (TMP) of metals clearly demonstrates that technological process tuning parameters have a great influence on both the microstructure and texture evolution, which determine the chemical, physical, or mechanical properties. During the processing chain, the behavior of a polycrystalline material is correlated with the grain size, grain crystal structure, and crystallographic orientation. The mesoscopic transformations of polycrystalline aggregates, involving microstructural and crystallographic changes on the grain level, can be interpreted by a vast body of modelling approaches developed. Advances in modelling have created a solid platform for understanding the evolution of microstructural features in polycrystalline systems during particular processing step and bring to light many hidden aspects of production as well as assist in revealing the behavior of materials under specific circumstances. Since mesoscopic changes in TMP are “genetically” connected, the modelling techniques enable tuning particular processing step to tailor the desired material performance for a given application.

In this Special Issue, we intend to provide a wide spectrum of articles dealing with modelling of microstructural aspects involved in deformation and recrystallization as well as simulation of microstructure-based or texture-based properties in various metals. The latest advances in the theoretical interpretation of mesoscopic transformations based on experimental observations are welcome. The studies dealing with the modelling of structure-property relationships are of particular interest.

Prof. Dr. Jurij J. Sidor
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Microstructure
  • Texture
  • Modelling
  • Deformation
  • Recrystallization
  • Microstructure and Texture Related Properties

Published Papers (10 papers)

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10 pages, 2837 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Secondary Deformation Mechanisms on Plastic Deformation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using Viscoplastic Self-Consistent Model
by Yong Lian, Li Hu, Tao Zhou, Mingbo Yang and Jin Zhang
Metals 2019, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9010041 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
Uniaxial tension and compression of AZ31 magnesium alloy were numerically investigated via the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model to shed a light on the effect of secondary deformation mechanisms (prismatic <a> slip, pyramidal <c+a> slip, and { 10 1 ¯ 1 } contraction twinning) [...] Read more.
Uniaxial tension and compression of AZ31 magnesium alloy were numerically investigated via the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model to shed a light on the effect of secondary deformation mechanisms (prismatic <a> slip, pyramidal <c+a> slip, and { 10 1 ¯ 1 } contraction twinning) during plastic deformation. The method adopted in the present study used different combinations of deformation mechanisms in the VPSC modeling. In terms of the pyramidal <c+a> slip, it served as the first candidate for sustaining the extra plastic strain during the plastic deformation. The improvement of activity in the pyramidal <c+a> slip contributed to the increase in the mechanical response and the splitting of pole densities in { 0002 } pole figure during uniaxial tension. As for the prismatic <a> slip, its increasing activity was not only conducive to the improvement of flow stress in mechanical response, but also responsible for the splitting of pole densities in { 0002 } pole figure during uniaxial compression. With respect to the { 10 1 ¯ 1 } contraction twinning, it had a negligible influence on the plastic deformation of AZ31 magnesium alloy in terms of the mechanical response as well as the slip and the twinning activities. However, it is better to include the { 10 1 ¯ 1 } contraction twinning in the VPSC modeling to more accurately predict the texture evolution. Full article
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8 pages, 2770 KiB  
Article
Springback Prediction of a Hot Stamping Component Based on the Area Fractions of Phases
by Xiangji Li, Xu Yan and Zhiqiang Zhang
Metals 2019, 9(6), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9060694 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Different from traditional hot stamping components with full martensite, the new tailored hot stamping (THS) components have different quenched microstructures, which results in their lower shape accuracy. To investigate the influence of different quenched phases on the springback of a component, a THS [...] Read more.
Different from traditional hot stamping components with full martensite, the new tailored hot stamping (THS) components have different quenched microstructures, which results in their lower shape accuracy. To investigate the influence of different quenched phases on the springback of a component, a THS experiment of a U-shaped component was performed with segmented heating and a cooling tool. The area fractions of phases at different tool temperatures were obtained by a two-stage color tint etching procedure. Results showed that the quenched phase of the cold zone was almost full martensite. The area fraction of martensite in the hot zone was reduced to the lowest 13% at the tool temperature of 600 °C, while the bainite content reached the highest at 70%. The springback angles at different tool temperatures for quenching were measured by 3D scanning technology and the reverse modeling method. It was revealed that the springback angle increased with the increase of martensite and yet decreased with the increase of bainite. The relationship between the springback angle and the area fractions of the quenched phases was established by means of multiple linear regression analyses. The error analysis results of the predictions and measurements showed that the springback analysis model, based on the area fractions of quenched phases, could be used to predict the springback of hot stamping components with tailored properties. Full article
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25 pages, 47308 KiB  
Article
Physical and Structural Characterization of Monocrystalline Cu-13.7% Al-4.2% Ni Alloy Submitted to Thermo-Cyclical Treatments under Applied Loads
by Lioudmila A. Matlakhova, Elaine C. Pereira, Serguey A. Pulnev, Carlos Y. Shigue and Natalia A. Palii
Metals 2020, 10(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020219 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Monocrystalline alloy with a nominal composition of Cu-13.7% Al-4.2% Ni (wt.%) that shows reversible martensitic transformations (RMTs) was studied. The alloy, manufactured by the “Memory Crystals Group” in Russia, was subjected to thermo-cyclical treatment (TCT) under tension within a range that included critical [...] Read more.
Monocrystalline alloy with a nominal composition of Cu-13.7% Al-4.2% Ni (wt.%) that shows reversible martensitic transformations (RMTs) was studied. The alloy, manufactured by the “Memory Crystals Group” in Russia, was subjected to thermo-cyclical treatment (TCT) under tension within a range that included critical RMT temperatures. A special device was developed to perform TCTs (up to 500 cycles) and three different loads were applied: 0.11, 0.26, and 0.53 MPa. X-ray diffraction analysis, optical microscopy, differential calorimetry, and Vickers microhardness were involved in the alloy’s characterization. Under TCTs, the alloy displayed complex structural transformation, revealing the sequence of RMT, β1 ↔ R ↔ β′1 + γ′1; the involved phases were coherently precipitated but very sensitive to the experimental conditions. It was found that during TCTs (from 300 cycles) performed under optimum load (0.26 MPa), the processes of martensite reorientation, hardening, and stabilization of the structure were the most intensive thus leading to a reduction of RMT critical intervals and increased microhardness. Full article
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21 pages, 6647 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Flow-Line Model in Rolling Texture Simulations
by Jurij J. Sidor
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101098 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
The nature of the thermomechanical processing of materials can be revealed by means of various numerical approaches. The accuracy of a particular model is linked to the boundary conditions employed. Intensive research activities over the past several decades in the field of finite [...] Read more.
The nature of the thermomechanical processing of materials can be revealed by means of various numerical approaches. The accuracy of a particular model is linked to the boundary conditions employed. Intensive research activities over the past several decades in the field of finite element modeling (FEM) have enabled the development of various processing chains for particular purposes; however, this technique is computationally expensive, and in many instances, the behavior of materials during a processing step is analyzed by highly efficient analytical models. This contribution focuses on the implementation of a recently developed flow-line model (FLM), which enables the effective texture simulation of cold rolling. The results of numerous calculations, performed for a wide spectrum of roll gap geometries and various friction conditions, revealed that the deformation history predicted by the FLM employed was comparable to FEM calculations. A correlation was defined between the FLM model parameters and the rolling process quantitative indicators, implying that this analytical approach is capable of performing simulations of cold rolling without fitting constraints. It was shown that FLM coupled with a Taylor-type homogenization crystal plasticity model (Alamel) could carry out a texture simulation close to the one performed with deformation history obtained by means of FEM. Full article
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10 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Study on Phase Transformation in Hot Stamping Process of USIBOR® 1500 High-Strength Steel
by Pengyun Zhang, Le Zhu, Chenyang Xi and Junting Luo
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9101119 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3610
Abstract
Based on the Kirkaldy-Venugopalan model, a theoretical model for the phase transformation of USIBOR® 1500 high strength steel was established, and a graph of the phase transformation kinetics of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were plotted using the software MATLAB. Meanwhile, with the [...] Read more.
Based on the Kirkaldy-Venugopalan model, a theoretical model for the phase transformation of USIBOR® 1500 high strength steel was established, and a graph of the phase transformation kinetics of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite were plotted using the software MATLAB. Meanwhile, with the use of the software DYNAFORM, the thermal stamping process of an automobile collision avoidance beam was simulated. The phase transformation law of USIBOR® 1500 high-strength steel during hot stamping was studied through a simulation of the phase transformation during the pressure holding quenching process. In combination with the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve, the cooling rate of quenching must be greater than 27 °C/s to ensure maximum martensite content in the final parts, and the final martensite content increases as the initial temperature of the sheet rises. Full article
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8 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Earing of Cross-Rolled Al Sheets from {h00} Pole Figures
by Marton Benke, Bence Schweitzer, Adrienn Hlavacs and Valeria Mertinger
Metals 2020, 10(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020192 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
The plastic anisotropy of rolled Al sheets is the result of a crystallographic texture. It leads to the formation of uneven cup heights during deep-drawing, which is called earing. A new, simple and rapid method had been previously developed by the authors to [...] Read more.
The plastic anisotropy of rolled Al sheets is the result of a crystallographic texture. It leads to the formation of uneven cup heights during deep-drawing, which is called earing. A new, simple and rapid method had been previously developed by the authors to predict earing directly from {h00} pole figures. In the present manuscript, this method is applied to cross-rolling for the first time. 5056 type aluminum sheets were unidirectionally- (conventionally) and cross-rolled from 4 to ~1 mm thickness in 6 or 12 passes. Earing was predicted from recalculated {200} pole figures obtained after X-ray diffraction texture measurements. The results were validated by deep-drawing tests. It is shown that the proposed method predicts the type (locations of ears) and magnitude of earing with satisfactory results. However, a different scaling factor must be used to calculate the magnitude of earing for cross-rolling than for unidirectional rolling even if all other parameters (including cold rolling, texture measurements, and deep-drawing) are the same. This is because the cross-rolled sheets exhibit a similar type but weaker earing compared to the unidirectionally rolled samples. Full article
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14 pages, 8220 KiB  
Article
Hot Workability of 300M Steel Investigated by In Situ and Ex Situ Compression Tests
by Rongchuang Chen, Haifeng Xiao, Min Wang and Jianjun Li
Metals 2019, 9(8), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080880 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3154
Abstract
In this work, hot compression experiments of 300M steel were performed at 900–1150 °C and 0.01–10 s−1. The relation of flow stress and microstructure evolution was analyzed. The intriguing finding was that at a lower strain rate (0.01 s−1), [...] Read more.
In this work, hot compression experiments of 300M steel were performed at 900–1150 °C and 0.01–10 s−1. The relation of flow stress and microstructure evolution was analyzed. The intriguing finding was that at a lower strain rate (0.01 s−1), the flow stress curves were single-peaked, while at a higher strain rate (10 s−1), no peak occurred. Metallographic observation results revealed the phenomenon was because dynamic recrystallization was more complete at a lower strain rate. In situ compression tests were carried out to compare with the results by ex situ compression tests. Hot working maps representing the influences of strains, strain rates, and temperatures were established. It was found that the power dissipation coefficient was not only related to the recrystallized grain size but was also related to the volume fraction of recrystallized grains. The optimal hot working parameters were suggested. This work provides comprehensive understanding of the hot workability of 300M steel in thermal compression. Full article
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16 pages, 8867 KiB  
Article
Constitutive Equation of GH4169 Superalloy and Microstructure Evolution Simulation of Double-Open Multidirectional Forging
by Yongbo Jin, Hao Xue, Zheyi Yang, Lili Zhang, Chunxiang Zhang, Sirui Wang and Junting Luo
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111146 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
This paper presented a double-open multidirectional forging with relatively few deformation passes and a uniform deformation. The constitutive equation and dynamic recrystallization model of the GH4169 superalloy were identified based on a thermal compression test and imported into Deform simulation software. The microstructure [...] Read more.
This paper presented a double-open multidirectional forging with relatively few deformation passes and a uniform deformation. The constitutive equation and dynamic recrystallization model of the GH4169 superalloy were identified based on a thermal compression test and imported into Deform simulation software. The microstructure evolution law of GH4169 superalloy undergoing double-open multidirectional forging was simulated. The evolution of the recrystallization volume fraction and recrystallized grain size of the GH4169 superalloy during double-open multidirectional forging was obtained. Both higher temperatures and more passes were found to produce more complete recrystallization and smaller recrystallization grain size. At the maximum temperature studied, 1000 °C, with nine passes, the recrystallization volume fraction exceeded 95%, and the recrystallized grain size reached 3–5.5 µm. Full article
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3 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Modelling the Deformation, Recrystallization, and Microstructure-Related Properties in Metals
by Jurij J. Sidor
Metals 2021, 11(11), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11111759 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Experimental investigations of the thermomechanical processing (TMP) of metals clearly demonstrate that technological process-tuning parameters have a great influence on the evolution of both microstructure and texture, which determine the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of metals [...] Full article
13 pages, 56202 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Dynamic Recrystallization of FeMnSiCrNi Shape Memory Alloy under Hot Compression Based on Cellular Automaton
by Yu Wang, Xiaodong Xing, Yanqiu Zhang and Shuyong Jiang
Metals 2019, 9(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040469 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) takes place when FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy (SMA) is subjected to compression deformation at high temperatures. Cellular automaton (CA) simulation was used for revealing the DRX mechanism of FeMnSiCrNi SMA by predicting microstructures, grain size, flow stress, and dislocation density. [...] Read more.
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) takes place when FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy (SMA) is subjected to compression deformation at high temperatures. Cellular automaton (CA) simulation was used for revealing the DRX mechanism of FeMnSiCrNi SMA by predicting microstructures, grain size, flow stress, and dislocation density. The DRX of FeMnSiCrNi SMA has a characteristic of repeated nucleation and finite growth. The size of recrystallized grains increases with increasing deformation temperatures, but it decreases with increasing strain rates. The increase of deformation temperature leads to the decrease of the flow stress, whereas the increase in strain rate results in the increase of the flow stress. The dislocation density exhibits the same situation as the flow stress. The simulated results were supported by the experimental ones very well. Dislocation density is a crucial factor during DRX of FeMnSiCrNi SMA. It affects not only the nucleation but also the growth of the recrystallized grains. Occurrence of DRX depends on a critical dislocation density. The difference between the dislocation densities of the recrystallized and original grains becomes the driving force for the growth of the recrystallized grains, which lays a solid foundation for the recrystallized grains growing repeatedly. Full article
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