Advances in Phosphate Materials: Structural, Technological and Biomedical Applications
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 9799
Interests: phosphates; synthesis; structure; ion exchange; catalysis
Interests: HR-TEM; biomaterials; protein crystal growth; biophysics; biomedical
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Phosphates are a large group of materials that are present in nature as minerals and can also be synthesized. The impact of inorganic phosphorus in the form of phosphate PO43− is undeniable in our lives, since it is a basic constituent in the most vital biological macromolecules in living organisms, such as RNA, DNA, ADP, ATP, proteins, and lipids. The biological apatite that forms hard bones and teeth is carbonated hydroxyapatite, which is a phase of calcium phosphates. Nowadays, different phases of biocompatible calcium phosphates can be synthesized and further functionalized by incorporating different elements, such as strontium, zinc, magnesium, silver, etc., and used as filling cement or coating for metallic medical implants. Phosphate salts are also synthesized and used mainly in agricultural applications. Inducing the formation of metal phosphates has dramatically increased the possible applications of phosphate compounds to catalysis, separation, and ion exchange. For instance, titanium phosphates are efficient ion exchangers, acid oxidizers, photocatalysts, solid electrolytes, and, recently, have even been considered as a better variant than titanium oxide for cosmetics applications. Lithium metal phosphates are among the best materials used for realizing lithium-ion batteries. Manganese and strontium phosphates are used as anticorrosive and biocompatible coatings for metals. NASICON-type compounds are crystalline materials with high ionic conductivities. These compounds are therefore used as solid electrolytes in batteries and are conductive at elevated temperatures. NASICON materials are also used in catalysis, the immobilization of radioactive waste, and the removal of sodium from water. Some ceramic phosphate compounds bear the property of negative thermal expansion, and this makes their combination with other compounds that have positive thermal expansion the most adequate solution to synthesize composites with applications in high-precision technologies. Phosphate-based compounds containing actinides have been successfully synthesized and reported for their potential use in the nuclear waste industry. Recently, phosphate-containing or -doped metal–organic frameworks have been synthesized and used to decrease the flame retardancy and toxicity of epoxy resin, realize highly stable and efficient heterostructured photocatalysts, and have been used in supercapacitors and slow-release fertilizer.
We kindly invite you to submit manuscripts for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.
Prof. Dr. José R. García
Dr. Alaa Adawy
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- phosphate salts
- ion exchange
- ionic conductivity
- negative thermal expansion
- nuclear waste