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Surface Engineering in Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 10698

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Management, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow Gramatyka 10, 30-067 Krakow, Poland
Interests: metals; surface engineering; nanomaterials; heat treatment, aluminum alloys, management and risk in metal industry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: surface engineering; corrosion protection; biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Ceramics and Refractories, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: nickel alloys; cobalt alloys; metal matrix composites; laser processing; advanced ceramics; surface engineering; materials engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface engineering is present in almost all areas of the economy. Due to the constant demand for various types of protective, decorative, wear-resistant and other coatings, numerous studies are carried out on the improvement of coating deposition techniques, and the mechanisms of their production are investigated. The search for new solutions in surface engineering is the driving force behind the innovative development of coatings in the automotive and aerospace sectors. This Special Issue covers all aspects related to surface engineering. It focuses on innovative solutions for the improvement and protection of surfaces, anti-corrosion coatings, surfaces covered with various types of coatings, produced by both conventional and unconventional methods and techniques. The presented solutions may also relate to the techniques of coating deposition or surface treatment, or to the protection of surfaces against wear or corrosion. The presented research may concern topics such as decorative surfaces, mechanical treatment and surface strengthening. Issues explaining the mechanisms of the formation of layers, coatings and other surface phenomena will be gladly accepted. All works including not only surface tests of products but also tools will be accepted. In particular, we encourage you to present the results of application or potentially application importance. Circular economy and risk in surface technologies may be the subject of studies, in particular the recovery of rare metals and the risks associated with harvesting them.

Prof. Dr. Maria Richert
Prof. Dr. Jerzy Robert Sobiecki
Dr. Jan Huebner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • structure and phase composition of surface layers
  • surface residual stresses
  • wear resistance, corrosion resistance, heat resistance
  • wettability, biocompatibility
  • forming the properties of metal surfaces
  • composite and ceramic details
  • durability and reliability of surfaces
  • surface heat treatment, nitriding
  • over manufacturing methods, PVD, CVD, thermal spraying
  • surface protection, painting, anodizing
  • mechanisms of coating
  • circular economy and risk in surface technologies

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 6161 KiB  
Article
Strain-Based Assessment to Evaluate Damage Caused by Deep Rolling
by Tobias Pertoll, Martin Leitner, Christian Buzzi and László Boronkai
Materials 2024, 17(9), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17092163 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The positive effects of deep rolling on fatigue strength—reduced surface roughness, work hardening and compressive residual stress—in the near-surface region are achieved by controlled high plasticisation of the treated material. However, excessive and/or repeated plasticising poses a risk of damage to the machined [...] Read more.
The positive effects of deep rolling on fatigue strength—reduced surface roughness, work hardening and compressive residual stress—in the near-surface region are achieved by controlled high plasticisation of the treated material. However, excessive and/or repeated plasticising poses a risk of damage to the machined component. This paper investigates the damage caused by deep rolling of a railway axle. Two sections of the axle are experimentally deep rolled repeatedly at different feed rates until damage is detected. For comparative analysis, these experiments are numerically analysed and the damage is assessed using the strain-based damage calculation. The results are compared and a damage sum of ~120% is evaluated for both tests, thus developing a reliable and conservative assessment method. The single deep rolling treatment at a feed rate of 0.25 mm causes damage of 6.1%, and at a feed rate of 0.5 mm, damage of 4.7%. The developed and experimentally validated evaluation method allows for investigating the limits of applicability of different deep rolling parameters. The influence of the deep rolling force and feed rate and a proposed optimisation with multiple deep rolling with reduced deep rolling forces are investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering in Materials)
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18 pages, 10883 KiB  
Article
Influence of Low Temperature Plasma Oxidizing on the Bioactivity of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy for Medical Applications
by Justyna Witkowska, Tomasz Borowski, Agnieszka Sowińska, Emilia Choińska, Dorota Moszczyńska, Jerzy Morgiel, Jerzy Sobiecki and Tadeusz Wierzchoń
Materials 2023, 16(18), 6086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16186086 - 6 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
The present study elucidates the impact of glow discharge oxidation within a low-temperature plasma environment on the bioactivity characteristics of an NiTi shape memory alloy. The properties of the produced surface layers, such as structure (TEM observations), surface morphology (SEM observations), chemical and [...] Read more.
The present study elucidates the impact of glow discharge oxidation within a low-temperature plasma environment on the bioactivity characteristics of an NiTi shape memory alloy. The properties of the produced surface layers, such as structure (TEM observations), surface morphology (SEM observations), chemical and phase composition (EDS and XRD measurements), wettability (optical gonimeter), and the biological response of osteoblasts and platelets to the oxidized surface compared with the NiTi alloy without a surface layer are presented. The presented surface modification of the NiTi shape memory alloy, achieved through oxidizing in a low-temperature plasma environment, led to the creation of a continuous surface layer composed of nanocrystalline titanium oxide TiO2 (rutile). The findings obtained from this study provide evidence that the oxidized layer augments the bioactivity of the shape memory alloy. This augmentation was substantiated through the spontaneous biomimetic deposition of apatite from a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Furthermore, the modified surface exhibited improved osteoblast proliferation, and enhanced platelet adhesion and activation. This proposed surface modification strategy holds promise as a prospective solution to enhance the biocompatibility and bioactivity of NiTi shape memory alloy intended for prolonged use in bone implant applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering in Materials)
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16 pages, 3711 KiB  
Article
Microstructure Formation and Mechanical Properties of Metastable Titanium-Based Gradient Coating Fabricated via Intense Pulse Ion Beam Melt Mixing
by Mofei Xu, Xiang Yu, Shijian Zhang, Sha Yan, Vladislav Tarbokov, Gennady Remnev and Xiaoyun Le
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083028 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
The unique flash heating characteristics of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIB) offer potential advantages to fabricate high-performance coatings with non-equilibrium structures. In this study, titanium-chromium (Ti-Cr) alloy coatings are prepared through magnetron sputtering and successive IPIB irradiation, and the feasibility of IPIB melt [...] Read more.
The unique flash heating characteristics of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIB) offer potential advantages to fabricate high-performance coatings with non-equilibrium structures. In this study, titanium-chromium (Ti-Cr) alloy coatings are prepared through magnetron sputtering and successive IPIB irradiation, and the feasibility of IPIB melt mixing (IPIBMM) for a film-substrate system is verified via finite elements analysis. The experimental results reveal that the melting depth is 1.15 μm under IPIB irradiation, which is in close agreement with the calculation value (1.18 μm). The film and substrate form a Ti-Cr alloy coating by IPIBMM. The coating has a continuous gradient composition distribution, metallurgically bonding on the Ti substrate via IPIBMM. Increasing the IPIB pulse number leads to more complete element mixing and the elimination of surface cracks and craters. Additionally, the IPIB irradiation induces the formation of supersaturated solid solutions, lattice transition, and preferred orientation change, contributing to an increase in hardness and a decrease in elastic modulus with continuous irradiation. Notably, the coating treated with 20 pulses demonstrates a remarkable hardness (4.8 GPa), more than twice that of pure Ti, and a lower elastic modulus (100.3 GPa), 20% less than that of pure Ti. The analysis of the load-displacement curves and H-E ratios indicates that the Ti-Cr alloy coated samples exhibit better plasticity and wear resistance compared to pure Ti. Specifically, the coating formed after 20 pulses exhibits exceptional wear resistance, as demonstrated by its H3/E2 value being 14 times higher than that of pure Ti. This development provides an efficient and eco-friendly method for designing robust-adhesion coatings with specific structures, which can be extended to various bi- or multi-element material systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering in Materials)
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17 pages, 905 KiB  
Article
Environmental and Economic Impact of an Innovative Biocide-Free Antifouling Coating for Naval Applications
by Simone Venettacci, Gennaro Salvatore Ponticelli, Flaviana Tagliaferri and Stefano Guarino
Materials 2023, 16(2), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020748 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
The work provides an economic sustainability and environmental impact analysis for the validation of a biocide-free antifouling coating for marine applications able to reduce fuel consumption during navigation, CO2 emissions, and the overall environmental impacts associated with shipping, thanks to the reduction [...] Read more.
The work provides an economic sustainability and environmental impact analysis for the validation of a biocide-free antifouling coating for marine applications able to reduce fuel consumption during navigation, CO2 emissions, and the overall environmental impacts associated with shipping, thanks to the reduction of incrustation and the avoidance of biocides release into the water. The results, related to the life cycle of the coating of a motor yacht, with an average sailing life of 25 years, show around 8.8% reduction in overall costs compared to a conventional paint, thanks to a more efficient antifouling action, which reduces the annual fuel consumption by ~13,700 kg/y, or ~9.6%. This leads to a reduction in CO2 emissions, associated with fuel consumption, of ~43.3 ton/y, as well as a lowering of the overall environmental impacts associated with the life cycle of the paint, by almost 10% for the most impactful damage classes, ensuring a greater environmental sustainability of the innovative coating, for the overall service life of the yacht on which it is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering in Materials)
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13 pages, 5483 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Fracture Toughness KIc for Selected Magnetron Sputtering Coatings by Using the Laugier Model
by Jerzy Smolik, Sylwia Sowa, Joanna Kacprzyńska-Gołacka and Artur Piasek
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249061 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Nanoindentation is one of the methods that allows for determining the fracture properties of brittle materials. In this article, the authors present the possibility of the fracture toughness coefficient calculation of ceramic-based coatings doped by metal (W, Cr) by using the nanoindentation method [...] Read more.
Nanoindentation is one of the methods that allows for determining the fracture properties of brittle materials. In this article, the authors present the possibility of the fracture toughness coefficient calculation of ceramic-based coatings doped by metal (W, Cr) by using the nanoindentation method with the Berkovich diamond indenter. The mechanical properties of selected coatings, such as hardness and Young’s modulus, were investigated from nanohardness experiments. We analyzed the brittle fracture, which includes changes in hardness (H), Young’s modulus (E), plasticity index H/E and resistance to plastic deformation H3/E2, enabled the concentration of tungsten and chromium. Due to the size of the indentation and the size of the initial cracks, it is necessary to use Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to observe and measure the indentations made and the generated cracks. For evaluation of the fracture toughness in mode I, the Laugier model was chosen experimentally. The fracture toughness analysis showed that doping with concentrations of 10% W and 10% Cr causes an increase in the fracture toughness for KIc = 4.98 for TiBW (10%) and KIc = 6.23 for TiBCr (10%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering in Materials)
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17 pages, 9911 KiB  
Article
Influence of Operating Temperature on the Service Life of Aluminum Extrusion Dies
by Rafał Hubicki, Maria Richert and Piotr Łebkowski
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196656 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
The article investigates the effect of temperature and annealing time on the surface quality of WNLV nitrided steel used for the production of dies for extrusion of aluminum alloys. Eight annealing variants were tested, differing in the total annealing time at temperatures of [...] Read more.
The article investigates the effect of temperature and annealing time on the surface quality of WNLV nitrided steel used for the production of dies for extrusion of aluminum alloys. Eight annealing variants were tested, differing in the total annealing time at temperatures of 460 °C and 590 °C. The results show the effect of the annealing time on the width of the diffusion layer, which increased with the increasing length of the annealing time. The hardness decreased as the annealing time increased. It was found that annealing of the steel causes its oxidation. The oxide layer formed consisted of two layers, more specifically, an Fe2O3 oxide layer and a lower Fe3O4 oxide layer adhering to the steel surface. The surface of sections pressed on oxidized matrices was tested. The roughness of the surface of the oxide layers was also tested. The research revealed that an increase in the surface roughness of the oxides deposited on the matrices causes an increase in the roughness of the extruded sections. These results can potentially be used to improve the efficiency of the extrusion process and the quality of the extruded sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering in Materials)
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18 pages, 50179 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Impact of Wear of the Working Surface of Rolls on the Reduction of Energy and Environmental Demand for the Production of Flat Products: Methodological Approach
by Mariusz Niekurzak and Ewa Kubińska-Jabcoń
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062334 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
An important element in the correct operation of the rolling mill is appropriate planning of the condition of the rolls because this factor constitutes a limiting element in the production process. In this work, with the aim of indicating the method of proper [...] Read more.
An important element in the correct operation of the rolling mill is appropriate planning of the condition of the rolls because this factor constitutes a limiting element in the production process. In this work, with the aim of indicating the method of proper use of production tools–metallurgical rollers during their operation in a Polish rolling mill, the wear and tear of particular kinds of rollers built in the whole rolling set was determined. For this purpose, data were collected at the strip mill from grinding processes, production reports and roll files, while our statistical analysis, laboratory calculations and measurements were used. These data were used to perform computer calculations on the service life of metallurgical rollers installed in the rolling line. Wear mechanisms were identified in industrial practice. The characteristic features of roller wear were investigated using non-destructive tests, including eddy currents. The laboratory tests reproduced the wear mechanisms in very hot rolling rolls. The statistical method for determining the service life of working rolls indicated that their reconstruction is determined both by natural physical phenomena and inappropriate use in about 30% of cases, mainly in the F5 and F6 cages of the finishing unit. Calculations indicated the possibility of replacing the working rolls made of high chromium cast iron Hi-Cr with those made of HSS in the F5 and F6 cages, which will contribute to an increase in the durability of the rolls, a reduction in production costs and a decrease in the number of roll rebuildings. The service life of HSS rolls is 14,000–20,000 Mg of rolled material per 1 mm of wear on its surface in the radial direction, compared to 2000 Mg for rolls made of high chromium cast iron Hi-Cr. The constructed model may be a source of information for further analyses and decision-making processes supporting the management of metallurgical enterprises. On the basis of the constructed model, it was shown that the analyzed projects, depending on their type and technical specification, will bring measurable economic benefits in the form of reduced annual energy consumption and environmental benefits in the form of reduced carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The constructed model of the roll consumption, verified in the real conditions of the rolling mills, will contribute to the fulfillment of energy and emission obligations with the EU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering in Materials)
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