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Advances in Natural Building and Construction Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 5217

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mining, Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: rock mining; rock quality assessment; natural stone; mineral aggregates; properties of dimension stones and mineral aggregates; dimension stones processing technologies; reclamation of post-mining areas; occupational health and safety

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Guest Editor
Department of Geology and Pole of CGeo—Geosciences Center, University of Trás‐os‐Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: natural stone; engineering geology; quarrying; fracturing; land planning and mineral resources

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Guest Editor
Nanotechnology Engineering Department, Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri 38100, Turkey
Interests: engineering geology; natural stones; aggregate science and technology; mining engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural building and construction materials are the basic materials used in civil engineering. The continuous development of the construction industry determines the continuous demand for mineral raw materials. Aggregates and dimension stones, which are commonly used in construction, should be of the highest quality. Defining this quality is very difficult due to the varying properties of rocks and the ways in which they are used. This Special Issue aims to provide an overview of recent developments in the advances in natural materials for building and construction, including the assessment of the quality of dimension stone and mineral aggregates and their applications in different areas of civil engineering. The issue aims to provide selected papers on the analysis of available testing technologies; physical–mechanical properties; quality assessment; and the market and economic, environmental and social aspects of the production and use of natural building and construction materials.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • The use of natural building and construction materials;
  • The geological and petrographic features of natural building and construction materials;
  • The properties of natural building and construction materials;
  • The quality assessment of natural building and construction materials;
  • The deterioration processes of natural building and construction materials;
  • The evaluation of test methods for properties and requirements for natural building and construction materials;
  • The application of modern technologies for the qualitative assessment of natural building and construction materials;
  • Market analysis of natural building and construction materials;
  • The evaluation of production processes of high-quality natural building and construction materials;
  • The economic, environmental and social aspects of the production and use of natural building and construction materials.

Dr. Paweł Strzałkowski
Prof. Dr. Luís M. O. Sousa
Dr. Ekin Köken
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural building and construction materials
  • quality of rocks
  • dimension stones
  • mineral aggregates
  • properties of rocks
  • rock mining
  • engineering geology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 11073 KiB  
Article
Thermal-Induced Microstructure Deterioration of Egyptian Granodiorite and Associated Physico-Mechanical Responses
by Mohamed Elgharib Gomah, Guichen Li, Ahmed A. Omar, Mahmoud L. Abdel Latif, Changlun Sun and Jiahui Xu
Materials 2024, 17(6), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17061305 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Mineral transformations often induce microstructural deteriorations during temperature variations. Hence, it is crucial to understand why and how this microstructure weakens due to mineral alteration with temperature and the correlated physical and mechanical responses. Therefore, in this study, physical, chemical, thermal, petrographic, and [...] Read more.
Mineral transformations often induce microstructural deteriorations during temperature variations. Hence, it is crucial to understand why and how this microstructure weakens due to mineral alteration with temperature and the correlated physical and mechanical responses. Therefore, in this study, physical, chemical, thermal, petrographic, and mechanical analyses were carried out to comprehend better the thermal behaviors of Egyptian granodiorite exposed to temperatures as high as 800 °C. The experimental results indicate that the examined attributes change in three distinct temperature phases. Strength zone (up to 200 °C): During this phase, the temperature only slightly impacts the granodiorite mass loss and porosity, and the P-wave velocity and E slightly decrease. However, the rock structure was densified, which resulted in a minor increase in strength. After that, the transition zone (200–400 °C) was distinguished by the stability of most studied parameters. For instance, mass and porosity did not significantly alter, and the uniaxial compressive strength steadily increased with an axial failure mode. When the temperature rises, transgranular cracks cause the P-wave velocity and elastic modulus to decrease moderately. The decay zone started after 400 °C and continued to 800 °C. This zone is characterized by complicated factors that worsen the granodiorite properties, lead to color shift, and produce a shear failure mode. The properties of granodiorite became worse because of chemical reactions, structural and crystal water evaporation, rising thermal expansion coefficient variation, and quartz inversion at 575 °C (α to β, according to the differential thermal analysis). Thermal damage greatly affected granodiorite’s physical and mechanical properties and microstructure at 800 °C. As a result, UCS measurements were extremely small with a complex failure pattern, making Vp and E unattainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Building and Construction Materials)
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19 pages, 11642 KiB  
Article
Study on the Mechanical Properties of Two General-Purpose Cement–Lime Mortars Prepared Based on Air Lime
by Armando Zagaroli, Jan Kubica, Iwona Galman and Kristian Falkjar
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051001 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
It is believed that the use of mortars based on air lime in the construction and renovation of brick buildings has a number of advantages, especially those closely related to the durability and strength of the structure. However, there is still a noticeable [...] Read more.
It is believed that the use of mortars based on air lime in the construction and renovation of brick buildings has a number of advantages, especially those closely related to the durability and strength of the structure. However, there is still a noticeable difference in the mechanical properties of these materials. This research investigated the mechanical characteristics of a mixed cement–lime mortar with the two most popular proportions of an air lime, cement, and sand mix: 1:1:6 and 1:2:9 (by volume). Mechanical tests were performed on standard and non-standard samples to assess compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, and fracture energy. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using these mixtures in modern masonry construction, as well as in the aspect of sustainable development. Additionally, lime mortar with a higher lime content can be used in non-load-bearing walls and in renovation and repair works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Building and Construction Materials)
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17 pages, 3739 KiB  
Article
Effect of Salt Mist Ageing on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Two Ignimbrites from the Canary Islands (Spain)
by José A. Valido, José M. Cáceres, D. M. Freire-Lista and Luís M. O. Sousa
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227061 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
The aim of this research work is to study the effect of salt mist ageing on the physico-mechanical properties of two ignimbrites from the Canary Islands (Spain). Due to their insular nature and extensive coastlines, these regions are highly susceptible to atmospheric salt [...] Read more.
The aim of this research work is to study the effect of salt mist ageing on the physico-mechanical properties of two ignimbrites from the Canary Islands (Spain). Due to their insular nature and extensive coastlines, these regions are highly susceptible to atmospheric salt aerosols, which is a significant weathering agent for building materials. The ignimbrites analysed are marketed under the names “Azul Lomo Tomás de León” and “Marrón de Abades” and are widely used as building stones. Petrographic, mineralogical and chemical properties were obtained via polarisation microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The samples were subjected to 60 cycles of a salt mist environment, following relevant European standards. Scanning electron microscopy images of the specimens were analysed along with physical properties, including apparent density, open porosity, water absorption, colourimetry and ultrasound propagation velocity, initially and after every 20 cycles, allowing us to assess their evolution during the ageing test. Mechanical properties were evaluated using uniaxial compressive strength and flexural strength under concentrated load tests on two groups of specimens: one unaged and the other subjected to 60 ageing cycles. With the exception of apparent density, the other properties show a decrease between 5% and 30%. However, open porosity increases and is one of the properties most affected by the ageing test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Building and Construction Materials)
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16 pages, 2863 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Acid Casein on the Selected Properties of Lime–Metakaolin Mortars
by Przemysław Brzyski and Renata Boris
Materials 2023, 16(21), 7050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16217050 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
One of the ways to modify selected parameters of lime mortars is the use of biopolymers of animal origin, such as bone glue, skin glue, bovine blood, eggs, and casein. These are protein-based biopolymers. Casein is an example of an organic polymer produced [...] Read more.
One of the ways to modify selected parameters of lime mortars is the use of biopolymers of animal origin, such as bone glue, skin glue, bovine blood, eggs, and casein. These are protein-based biopolymers. Casein is an example of an organic polymer produced from cow’s milk. The aim of the work was to investigate the possibilities of improving selected properties of mortars based on hydrated lime and metakaolin. The mixture was modified with powdered technical casein in amounts of 0.5%, 1.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% as a partial mass replacement for the binding mixture. Additionally, the influence of increasing the amount of water on the properties of the mortar with a casein admixture of 2% was checked. This study examined consistency, shrinkage, water absorption, capillary action, porosity, flexural, compressive strength, and Young’s modulus. The admixture of casein influenced the properties of the mortar, but not in all cases, and it was possible to determine a clear trend related to the variable amount of casein. Strength properties deteriorated as the amount of casein increased. When air bubbles were introduced into the mortar after the casein was dissolved, the porosity increased as the amount of admixture increased. The moisture properties improved; namely, casein led to a reduction in water absorption and water absorption caused by capillary action. No relationship was observed between the amount of casein and the drying shrinkage. Increasing the amount of water in the mixture led to the expected effects, i.e., an increase in porosity, shrinkage, and water absorption, and a decrease in mechanical strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Building and Construction Materials)
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17 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Guidelines for Natural Stone Products in Connection with European Standards
by Paweł Strzałkowski, Ekin Köken and Luís Sousa
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216885 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
The selection of ornamental stones for specific applications requires technical guidance since it should be based on the durability, service life, and aesthetic value of the stones. In most cases, these fundamentals provide quantitative data on the usability and performance of ornamental stones. [...] Read more.
The selection of ornamental stones for specific applications requires technical guidance since it should be based on the durability, service life, and aesthetic value of the stones. In most cases, these fundamentals provide quantitative data on the usability and performance of ornamental stones. The present study attempts to put forward a quantitative classification system for natural stone products concerning critical rock properties. For this purpose, fundamental physical and mechanical rock properties are listed based on European standards. Then, minimum limit values are proposed for different applications of natural stone products based on retrospective analyses of numerous ornamental stone applications. The suggested limit values based on several physical and mechanical rock properties can guide relevant engineers to initially consider possible rock types for use as natural stones in a wide range of applications. In this context, it is believed that the present study contributes to the natural stone industry by discussing the minimum limit values for the consideration of a wide range of rock types possibly usable in the dimension stone industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Building and Construction Materials)
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