Friction, Wear and Lubrication of Tool Steels in Metal Forming and Machining

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 10675

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden
Interests: material science; tribomaterials and education
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Guest Editor
Sandvik Coromant AB, Sandviken, Gavleborg County, Sweden
Interests: wear; thin films; low friction coatings; tool steels; AM tool steels; tribology in machining

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: high temperature tribology; tribomaterials; surface engineering; tribology of machine componentes; tribotesting

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal forming and machining operations are important industries where new challenges arise constantly due to the development of materials and the current stringent requirements associated with environmental laws. The need for a more sustainable future calls for energy savings, reduced waste, and “green” solutions, which all together proportionally increase the challenges in friction, wear and lubrication in the metal forming and machining operations.

Tooling is a critical aspect in both forming and machining, and thus, significant focus is given to understanding the tribological phenomena in the complex tool–workpiece contact, with the aim of increasing tool life, as well as process quality, and efficiency.

This Special Issue aims to gather current salient research related to tool steels used in metal forming and machining operations. The issue covers aspects related to wear, friction and lubrication, both from a fundamental as well as from an applied research point of view.

Dr. Leonardo Pelcastre
Dr. Sinuhe Hernandez
Prof. Dr. Braham Prakash
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tool steels
  • metal forming
  • machining
  • metal-working lubricants
  • wear of tool steels

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 6804 KiB  
Article
Pressure-Assisted Lubrication of DC01 Steel Sheets to Reduce Friction in Sheet-Metal-Forming Processes
by Tomasz Trzepieciński, Krzysztof Szwajka and Marek Szewczyk
Lubricants 2023, 11(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11040169 - 8 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Friction in sheet-metal-forming processes not only affects the values of the force parameters of the process but also determines the quality of the surface of the drawpieces. This paper presents an approach to reducing the coefficient of friction by directly applying pressurized oil [...] Read more.
Friction in sheet-metal-forming processes not only affects the values of the force parameters of the process but also determines the quality of the surface of the drawpieces. This paper presents an approach to reducing the coefficient of friction by directly applying pressurized oil to the contact zone. For this purpose, a special test stand was built to carry out the strip draw test, commonly used to model the phenomenon of friction in the deep-drawing process. This test consisted of pulling a strip between flat countersamples made of 145Cr6 cold-work tool steel covered with an abrasion-resistant Mtec (AlTiN) coating. During the pilot tests, various contact pressures, lubricants with different viscosities, and different lubricant pressures were used. The influence of friction conditions on the surface roughness of the samples and the relationship between the friction conditions and the value of the coefficient of friction were determined. The supply of the lubricant under pressure into the contact zone has a beneficial effect on reducing friction. The coefficient of friction decreases with increasing lubricant pressure for contact pressures of 2–6 MPa. For a contact pressure of 8 MPa, the lubricant pressure is the least favorable for reducing the coefficient of friction. At higher lubricant pressures (12 and 18 bar), the lubrication efficiency depends on the viscosity of the lubricant and decreases with increasing contact pressure. Full article
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15 pages, 3331 KiB  
Article
Application of an Oleophobic Coating to Improve Formability in the Deep-Drawing Process
by Sutasn Thipprakmas, Juksawat Sriborwornmongkol, Rudeemas Jankree and Wiriyakorn Phanitwong
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030104 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
The competition among sheet-metal-forming manufacturers in recent years has become more severe. Many manufacturers have survived by cutting their production costs. Increasing the formability, which could reduce the production costs, is the focus of many manufacturers and engineers. In the present research, to [...] Read more.
The competition among sheet-metal-forming manufacturers in recent years has become more severe. Many manufacturers have survived by cutting their production costs. Increasing the formability, which could reduce the production costs, is the focus of many manufacturers and engineers. In the present research, to increase the formability over the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) in the cylindrical deep-drawing process, the application of oleophobic coating is proposed. An SUS304 (JIS standard)-stainless-steel cylindrical deep-drawn component was used as the investigated model. First, we applied the oleophobic coating in the sheet-metal-forming process, and tribology tests were carried out to examine the friction coefficients, which were reduced by approximately 60% compared with those of standard lubricant use (Iloform TDN81). Next, deep-drawing tests were performed to investigate the drawing ratio (DR). The LDR recommended in the past could be overcome, and it increased by approximately 12% with the oleophobic coating use. Finally, the deep-drawing mechanism using an extremely low friction coefficient was clarified as well. Based on these results, an oleophobic coating could be applied in the cylindrical deep-drawing process to increase the LDR. The results also clearly expose the multidisciplinary approach that combines an oleophobic coating application and the sheet-metal-forming process. Full article
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20 pages, 14497 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Frictional Property of AISI D2 Tool Steel Surface against JIS SPFC 980Y Advanced High-Strength Steel by Using Laser Texturing Process
by Witthaya Daodon and Viboon Saetang
Lubricants 2023, 11(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11020068 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Surface friction in metal forming processes can be reduced by creating lubricant reservoirs at the interface between surfaces in contact, and a laser texturing process can be employed to produce the micro-dimples that act as the reservoirs on the surfaces. However, the role [...] Read more.
Surface friction in metal forming processes can be reduced by creating lubricant reservoirs at the interface between surfaces in contact, and a laser texturing process can be employed to produce the micro-dimples that act as the reservoirs on the surfaces. However, the role of the laser texturing parameters in the friction reduction of tool steel surfaces has still received very little attention. Therefore, this study aims to reduce the friction of the AISI D2 tool steel surface on which a nanosecond pulse laser was applied to create an array of micro-lubricant pockets for trapping lubricant. The effects of laser power, irradiation duration, and spacing distance between pockets on the pocket diameter, size of the heat-affected zone, surface friction, and wettability were investigated in this work. The average laser power in the range from 5 to 10 W and laser irradiation duration of 0.02 to 0.10 s were applied. The results showed that the increase in laser power and irradiation duration enlarged the pocket diameter and heat-affected zone. The largest pocket diameter of 40 µm was achievable by using 10 W laser power together with 0.10 s irradiation time. The pin-on-disc method was employed to determine the friction coefficient of the tool steel, where JIS SPFC 980Y advanced high-strength steel was used as a disc. The friction coefficient of laser-textured with different spacing distances of 150, 200, and 250 µm versus untextured surfaces was compared and found to vary depending on the applied normal load. The laser-textured surface having a pocket spacing distance of 150 µm and pocket density of 5.6%, offered the lowest friction coefficient of 0.097 on average for all tested loads, whereas the average friction coefficient of the untextured surface was 0.117. In addition, the wettability of textured surfaces was insignificantly changed compared to that of untextured ones, so the micro-lubricant pockets did not cause oleophobicity affecting the performance of lubrication. Well-defined micro-pockets using the most appropriate laser parameters, i.e., 10 W laser power with 0.10 s irradiation duration and 150 µm spacing distance, successfully reduced the sliding friction of contacting couples between the laser-textured tool steel and advanced high-strength steel surfaces. The low surface friction induced by the laser-fabricated micro-lubricant pockets has been feasible for the forming tool and die applications where the energy consumed in their operations can be minimized. Full article
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Review

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31 pages, 4349 KiB  
Review
Conventional and Recent Advances of Vegetable Oils as Metalworking Fluids (MWFs): A Review
by Inês S. Afonso, Glauco Nobrega, Rui Lima, José R. Gomes and João E. Ribeiro
Lubricants 2023, 11(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11040160 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5381
Abstract
Vegetable oils have been used as metalworking fluids (MWFs) for many years, particularly in small-scale metalworking operations and in industries where environmental regulations are strict. Before the development of modern MWFs, vegetable oils were one of the most common lubricants used for metalworking [...] Read more.
Vegetable oils have been used as metalworking fluids (MWFs) for many years, particularly in small-scale metalworking operations and in industries where environmental regulations are strict. Before the development of modern MWFs, vegetable oils were one of the most common lubricants used for metalworking tools. The use of vegetable oils can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece, and Rome, where olive oil was commonly used to lubricate metal tools and weapons. Today, vegetable oils are used as MWFs in a variety of applications. They are often combined with additives or nanoparticles to enhance their performance, such as improving the lubricity, cooling properties, and stability of the oil, as well as reducing friction and wear on the cutting tool. Additives, such as antioxidants, anti-wear agents, and extreme pressure (EP) additives, can be used to improve the performance of vegetable oils as cutting fluids. Compared to standard MWFs, vegetable oils are generally more biodegradable and environmentally friendly, and can be more cost-effective. However, MWFs may offer superior performance in certain areas, such as lubrication and cooling. Ultimately, the choice of MWFs will depend on the specific requirements of the metalworking operation and the balance between performance, cost, and environmental considerations. As the demand for sustainability and environmental responsibility continues, the use of vegetable oils as MWFs is likely to become even more popular in the future. Overall, vegetable oils offer a viable and potentially attractive alternative to standard MWFs in certain applications. This review highlights both conventional and most recent advances in vegetal oils frequently used as lubricant fluids in manufacturing processes. Full article
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