Tribology for Lightweighting

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 19385

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Eurecat, Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya, Unit of Metallic and Ceramic Materials, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa, Spain
Interests: lubricants; lightweight; metals; ceramics; coatings; tribology; wear; surface integrity

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Guest Editor
Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden
Interests: material science; tribomaterials and education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Design in automotive applications constantly faces new challenges to meet the increasingly more stringent safety and environmental legislations. Lightweight solutions in vehicles have become one of the main goals in the automotive industry, not only for the reduction in fuel consumption in fuel-powered cars, but also for the enhancement of the battery range in electric vehicles. An adequate understanding of tribology contributes towards reducing the carbon footprint of energy-intensive automotive systems and related manufacturing processes mainly acting in the following:

- New lubricants and advanced materials for surface- and contact-demanding applications. Tribology advances enhance the performance and efficiency of moving parts in vehicles. Optimized lubricants, materials and surface conditions are of high interest for components involving gears, bearings, clutches and other mechanical contacts in transmissions or vehicle engines. Advances in lubrication are also relevant for e-mobility-related technologies, where lubricants play a major role in electrical compatibility, thermal management and material adaptability.

- Manufacturing processes of parts for vehicle lightweighting. Advanced materials such as advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and novel high-strength aluminium grades are intensively used in vehicle lightweighting. New challenges in forming (cold and hot stamping, extrusion, casting, trimming, punching, etc.) to obtain lighter and stronger components have emerged, and as a result, new solutions in lubricants and surface technologies for tooling are needed in order to improve the efficiency of such manufacturing processes and to obtain high-quality components.

The emerging lightweighting solutions and tribological optimization are essential for decreasing emissions and the carbon footprint in automotive-related applications. Durability, friction control, wear protection and sustainability are interlinked. This Special Issue is aimed at the latest research on advanced lubricants for automotive parts subjected to harsh tribological requirements and for manufacturing processes of automotive components using advanced materials for lightweighting.

Dr. Montserrat Vilaseca
Dr. Leonardo Pelcastre
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lightweight
  • Automotive contacts
  • Vehicle efficiency
  • E-mobility
  • Advanced high strength steels
  • Aluminium
  • Tribology in manufacturing processes 
  • Novel lubricants
  • Surface integrity
  • Sustainability
  • Green tribology

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 12714 KiB  
Article
Wear Mechanisms in Press Hardening: An Analysis through Comparison of Tribological Tests and Industrial Tools
by Jaume Pujante, Eduard Garcia-Llamas, Giselle Ramírez, Nuria Cuadrado, Agim Ademaj, Montserrat Vilaseca and Daniel Casellas
Lubricants 2023, 11(5), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11050222 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Press hardened components have become widespread in the automotive industry in structural and crash-resistant applications, thanks to the combination of the complex shapes and high mechanical properties obtained. However, the press hardening of coated boron steel results in severe adhesive-based wear, with tool [...] Read more.
Press hardened components have become widespread in the automotive industry in structural and crash-resistant applications, thanks to the combination of the complex shapes and high mechanical properties obtained. However, the press hardening of coated boron steel results in severe adhesive-based wear, with tool maintenance being required in as few as 3000 cycles. The current industrial implementation of press hardening is defined to work around this phenomenon. While this aspect has been studied by different authors, most of the literature deals with laboratory-scale tribosimulators, leaving an open question into how this knowledge transfers to macroscopic effects on the industrial process. In this work, wear in press hardening is studied by comparing the results obtained in laboratory conditions with a pilot-scale line, and finally, with wear mechanisms observed on industrial tools. The aim of this study is to consolidate the current knowledge about the micro-mechanisms involved, and to understand to what extent the existing tests reproduce the actual mechanisms observed in the press floor. The results show how material transfer mainly happens as an accumulation of dust compacted into initial defects on the tool surface. Moreover, this mechanism is effectively reproduced in laboratory tribosimulators and pilot environments, showing a similar morphology to wear on industrial tools. The work sheds light on the underlying causes of wear, and its potential mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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13 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Tribological Performance of Esters, Friction Modifier and Antiwear Additives for Electric Vehicle Applications
by Gerard Cañellas, Ariadna Emeric, Mar Combarros, Angel Navarro, Lluis Beltran, Montserrat Vilaseca and Jordi Vives
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030109 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2627
Abstract
The replacement of conventional lubricants with esters is an alternative to provide a low environmental impact and at the same time excellent lubricity features, the high solubility of additives, good viscosity index, low volatility, and high thermal stability. Friction modifiers and antiwear/extreme pressure [...] Read more.
The replacement of conventional lubricants with esters is an alternative to provide a low environmental impact and at the same time excellent lubricity features, the high solubility of additives, good viscosity index, low volatility, and high thermal stability. Friction modifiers and antiwear/extreme pressure additives are extensively used to save energy and increase operational life in machine components. In this study, the lubricity of a Group IV base oil containing ester and various benchmark friction modifiers and/or antiwear/extreme pressure additives is measured to evaluate the influence of the ester on the tribological performance of the mixture components. The tribological performance is discussed based on the tabulation of the traction coefficient using a Mini-Traction-Machine and on the measurement of the specific wear rate from the wear scar of the experimental studies using an optical profilometer. In general, results show synergies between the ester and the additive formulations, reducing the wear rate to 75% and decreasing the traction coefficient a 20 to 50%, depending on the evaluated additive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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15 pages, 8502 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing of Aluminum Alloy Parts from Recycled Feedstock by PIG Die-Casting and Hot Stamping
by Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Takeshi Kurihara and Hiroki Sakayori
Lubricants 2023, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11010013 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
PIG (Pin-Injection-Gate) die-casting and hot stamping was developed for fabrication of small-sized and thin-walled aluminum alloy parts from the recycled feedstock. The pure aluminum and aluminum alloy granules were utilized as a feedstock model of recycled materials. The measured mass of granules with [...] Read more.
PIG (Pin-Injection-Gate) die-casting and hot stamping was developed for fabrication of small-sized and thin-walled aluminum alloy parts from the recycled feedstock. The pure aluminum and aluminum alloy granules were utilized as a feedstock model of recycled materials. The measured mass of granules with the estimated weight from 3D-CAD (Computer Aided Design) of products was poured into the PIG-nozzles before injection. After quickly melting by induction heating inside the PIG-nozzle units, the aluminum melts were injected into a die cavity through the PIG-nozzle. No furnaces and no crucibles were needed to store the melt aluminum stock in different from the conventional die-casting system. No clamping mechanism with huge loading machine was also needed to significantly reduce the energy consumption in casting. Much less wastes were yielded in these processes; the ratio of product to waste, or, the materials efficiency was nearly 100%. Nitrogen supersaturation and TiAlN coating were used to protect the PIG-nozzle and the stamping die surfaces from severe adhesion from aluminum melt. The pure aluminum gears and thin-walled mobile phone case were fabricated by this process. X-ray tomography proved that both products had no cavities, pores and shrinkages in their inside. Using the hot stamping unit, the micro-pillared pure aluminum heatsink was fabricated to investigate the holding temperature effect on the aspect ratio of micro-pillar height to width. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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11 pages, 5859 KiB  
Article
Super-Hard DLC Coatings as an Alternative to Polycrystalline Diamond for Cutting Tools: Predictive Analysis of Aluminium Alloy Surface Quality
by Giselle Ramírez, Jose M. Gonzalez Castro, Jordi Orrit-Prat, Raül Bonet, Nuria Cuadrado, Montserrat Vilaseca, Lluís Carreras and Jaume Caro
Lubricants 2022, 10(7), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10070135 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
The use of lightweight materials, such as ultra-high-strength aluminium alloys, is in high demand in the automotive and aerospace industries where weight savings are critical. The tool materials used for high-speed cutting of these aluminium alloys are subjected to severe conditions that promote [...] Read more.
The use of lightweight materials, such as ultra-high-strength aluminium alloys, is in high demand in the automotive and aerospace industries where weight savings are critical. The tool materials used for high-speed cutting of these aluminium alloys are subjected to severe conditions that promote premature failure of cutting tools. The application of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) coatings provides cutting tools with increased mechanical and thermal fatigue resistance and improved tribological performance. Despite these good properties, their high cost remains a major limitation in this sector. Super-hard Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coatings offer a technologically and economically feasible alternative to PCD-coated tools for cutting and machining non-ferrous materials. In this paper, the machining performance of coated and un-coated hard metal inserts in the turning of 7075 aluminium alloy has been explored. The surface quality of machined parts, the cutting tool wear resistance and the vibrations generated during turning of un-coated, PCD and super-hard thin DLC coatings on tungsten carbide inserts were compared. The results obtained demonstrate that DLC coatings are a potentially interesting alternative to PCD coatings for machining ultra-high-strength aluminium alloys, where surface component finish is a key factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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9 pages, 1967 KiB  
Article
Interaction of Co3O4 Nanocube with Graphene and Reduced Graphene Oxide: Adhesion and Quantum Capacitance
by Vladislav Shunaev and Olga Glukhova
Lubricants 2022, 10(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10050079 - 2 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1865
Abstract
The composites on the base of Co3O4 and graphene are in demand in the field of portable, flexible energy storage devices due to their small size, lightweight, big specific capacitance, good cycle stability and appropriate capacitance retention. The synthesis of [...] Read more.
The composites on the base of Co3O4 and graphene are in demand in the field of portable, flexible energy storage devices due to their small size, lightweight, big specific capacitance, good cycle stability and appropriate capacitance retention. The synthesis of this material always starts from the treatment of graphene oxide, so as a result, experimenters receive Co3O4 nanocubes incorporated into reduced graphene oxide indicates the presence of different oxygen-containing groups in the compound. This fact may limit the advantages of the considered material. Our theoretical quantum chemical calculations show that the process of Co3O4 incorporation between reduced graphene oxide layers is more energetically favorable in comparison to pure graphene. However, the win in the quantum capacitance in the case of pure graphene is in the range of 300–500 F/g in dependence on the applied voltage. The obtained result may indicate the need for modification of the current methods of graphene/Co3O4 synthesis to improve its application in supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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10 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Carbon Nanotori Reinforced Lubricants in Plastic Deformation Processes
by Jose Jaime Taha-Tijerina, Juan Manuel Martínez, Daniel Euresti and Patsy Yessenia Arquieta-Guillén
Lubricants 2022, 10(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10050074 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
This research presents the effects of carbon nanotori structures (CNst) dispersed as reinforcement for metal-working and metal-forming lubricants. Synthetic (SL) and deep drawing (DD) nanolubricants were prepared following a two-step method at 0.01 wt.%, 0.05 wt.%, and 0.10 wt.% filler fractions. Slight increases [...] Read more.
This research presents the effects of carbon nanotori structures (CNst) dispersed as reinforcement for metal-working and metal-forming lubricants. Synthetic (SL) and deep drawing (DD) nanolubricants were prepared following a two-step method at 0.01 wt.%, 0.05 wt.%, and 0.10 wt.% filler fractions. Slight increases in viscosity (<6%) for nanolubricants were observed as filler fraction was increased through various measured temperatures. Tribological behavior of nanolubricants displayed superb improvements under antiwear and extreme pressure conditions. The load carrying capacity (poz) increased by 16% and 22% at merely 0.01 wt.% CNst reinforcement and up to 73% and 107% at 0.10 wt.% filler fraction for SL and DD nanolubricants, respectively, compared to conventional materials. Additionally, at 0.10 wt.% wear scar evaluations showed a highest benefit of 16% and 24%, for SL and DD nanolubricants, respectively. This enhancement is attributed to diverse mechanisms such as rolling/sliding and load bearing effects, tribofilm formation, and CNst tribosintering behavior (at high pressures) onto metallic surfaces due to nanostructures size and morphology and their interlayer relationship among conventional lubricants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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12 pages, 5987 KiB  
Article
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene Composites Modified by Carbon Fibers and Zeolite
by Tatyana S. Struchkova, Andrey P. Vasilev, Aitalina A. Okhlopkova, Sakhayana N. Danilova and Aleksey G. Alekseev
Lubricants 2022, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10010004 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2908
Abstract
Currently, lightweight and high-strength polymer composites can provide weight savings in the automotive and process equipment industries by replacing metal parts. Polytetrafluoroethylene and polymer composites based on it are used in various tribological applications due to their excellent antifriction properties and thermal stability. [...] Read more.
Currently, lightweight and high-strength polymer composites can provide weight savings in the automotive and process equipment industries by replacing metal parts. Polytetrafluoroethylene and polymer composites based on it are used in various tribological applications due to their excellent antifriction properties and thermal stability. This article examines the effect of combined fillers (carbon fibers and zeolite) on the mechanical, tribological properties, and structure of polytetrafluoroethylene. It is shown that the introduction of combined fillers into polytetrafluoroethylene retains the tensile strength and elongation at break at a content of 1–5 wt.% of carbon fibers, the compressive stress increased by 53%, and the yield stress increased by 45% relative to the initial polymer. The wear resistance of polymer composites increased 810-fold compared to the initial polytetrafluoroethylene while maintaining a low coefficient of friction. The structural features of polymer composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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12 pages, 37351 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Structural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Plasma Electrolytic Hardened Chromium-Nickel Steel
by Bauyrzhan Rakhadilov, Ainur Seitkhanova, Zarina Satbayeva, Gulnara Yerbolatova, Yulianna Icheva and Zhuldyz Sagdoldina
Lubricants 2021, 9(11), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9110108 - 4 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
This paper investigates how electrolytic plasma hardening (PEH) bears upon the changes in the phase structural and tribological properties of steel 0.34C-1Cr-1Ni-1Mo-Fe, which is widely used in manufacturing highly stressed gears. The samples of steel 0.34C-1Cr-1Ni-1Mo-Fe went through the PEH in an electrolyte [...] Read more.
This paper investigates how electrolytic plasma hardening (PEH) bears upon the changes in the phase structural and tribological properties of steel 0.34C-1Cr-1Ni-1Mo-Fe, which is widely used in manufacturing highly stressed gears. The samples of steel 0.34C-1Cr-1Ni-1Mo-Fe went through the PEH in an electrolyte containing an aqua solution of 20% calcined soda (Na2CO3) and 10% carbamide ((NH2)2CO). The initial steel 0.34C-1Cr-1Ni-1Mo-Fe is stated to have the following structural components: a lamellar pearlite with volume share of 35%, a ferrite-carbide mixture of ~45% and a fragmented ferrite of ~20%; after the PEH it contains lath-lamellar martensite, fine particles of cementite and M23C6 carbide. The durability of steel 0.34C-1Cr-1Ni-1Mo-Fe was found to rise by 3.4 times after the PEH and its microhardness increased in 2.6 times. The curve-tension of the crystal lattice was established to be like plastic (χ = χpl) and does not cause the formation of microcracks in the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology for Lightweighting)
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