Non-coding RNAs in Human Diseases

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 9530

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40250, Taiwan
Interests: cancer stem cells; precancerous condition; oxidative stress; non-coding RNAs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is widely known that oxidative stress emerges from an imbalance between free radical formation and antioxidant capacity, which may lead to various pathological events. A growing body of evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs appear to play key roles in the modulation of oxidative stress, including sensing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or response of cells to these challenges. Although substantial progress has been achieved in understanding the mechanisms that govern the intracellular redox environment, many questions regarding how non-coding RNAs mediate different aspects of disease progression in response to oxidative stress remain unanswered.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a leading international platform to present the most recent findings and discuss the up-to-date literature on the significance of non-coding RNAs in the regulation of redox homeostasis. Additionally, it is imperative to examine the effects of therapeutic approaches that target these non-coding RNAs on the elimination of oxidative damage in an effort to apply these findings in the future.

Dr. Pei-Ling Hsieh
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Chia Yu 
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • microRNAs
  • long non-coding RNAs
  • redox signaling in cancers
  • age-related conditions
  • degenerative diseases
  • metabolic diseases
  • cardiovascular disorders
  • ischemia-reperfusion injury
  • oral diseases

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1133 KiB  
Article
Long Non-Coding RNA PVT1 and Its Target miRNA-146a as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
by Randa Erfan, Olfat G. Shaker, Mahmoud A. F. Khalil, Yumn A. Elsabagh, Azza M. Ahmed, Abeer K. Abu-El-Azayem, Mohamed S. Gomaa and Asmaa Mohammed
Life 2021, 11(12), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121382 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
Objective: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their target microRNAs were documented in multiple studies to have a significant role in different joint disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The current work aimed to determine the potential role of lnc-PVT1 and [...] Read more.
Objective: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their target microRNAs were documented in multiple studies to have a significant role in different joint disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The current work aimed to determine the potential role of lnc-PVT1 and miR-146a as promising biomarkers to distinguish between RA, OA patients, and healthy individuals. Methods: The expression levels of lnc-PVT1 and its target miR-146a in the serum were measured for three different groups, including patients with RA (40), OA patients (40), and healthy controls (HCs) (40). Participating individuals were subjected to a full history investigation and clinical examination. Blood samples were tested for ESR, RF, CBC, as well as liver and renal functions. Serum was used to detect the relative expression levels of lnc-PVT1 and miR-146a and we correlated the levels with RA and OA activity and severity signs. Results: Lnc-PVT1 expression level was greater among patients with RA compared to that of OA patients, with a fold change median of 2.62 and 0.22, respectively (p = 0.001). The miR-146a fold change was significantly demonstrated between the RA, OA, and HCs groups. There was no correlation between both biomarkers with the disease activity scales (DAS28) of RA, the Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), or any sign of detection of the disease severity of OA. Conclusions: lnc-PVT1 and miR-146a could be considered as promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of RA and OA and may have an important role as therapeutic targets in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs in Human Diseases)
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Review

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13 pages, 5986 KiB  
Review
Regulation of Oxidative Stress by Long Non-Coding RNAs in Vascular Complications of Diabetes
by Pei-Ming Chu, Cheng-Chia Yu, Kun-Ling Tsai and Pei-Ling Hsieh
Life 2022, 12(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020274 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2947
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a well-known metabolic disorder with numerous complications, such as macrovascular diseases (e.g., coronary heart disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease), microvascular diseases (e.g., diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and diabetic cataract), and neuropathy. Multiple contributing factors are implicated in these [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a well-known metabolic disorder with numerous complications, such as macrovascular diseases (e.g., coronary heart disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease), microvascular diseases (e.g., diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and diabetic cataract), and neuropathy. Multiple contributing factors are implicated in these complications, and the accumulation of oxidative stress is one of the critical ones. Several lines of evidence have suggested that oxidative stress may induce epigenetic modifications that eventually contribute to diabetic vascular complications. As one kind of epigenetic regulator involved in various disorders, non-coding RNAs have received great attention over the past few years. Non-coding RNAs can be roughly divided into short (such as microRNAs; ~21–25 nucleotides) or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs; >200 nucleotides). In this review, we briefly discussed the research regarding the roles of various lncRNAs, such as MALAT1, MEG3, GAS5, SNHG16, CASC2, HOTAIR, in the development of diabetic vascular complications in response to the stimulation of oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs in Human Diseases)
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53 pages, 5715 KiB  
Review
The World of Pseudogenes: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Targets in Cancers or Still Mystery Molecules?
by Maciej Stasiak, Tomasz Kolenda, Joanna Kozłowska-Masłoń, Joanna Sobocińska, Paulina Poter, Kacper Guglas, Anna Paszkowska, Renata Bliźniak, Anna Teresiak, Urszula Kazimierczak and Katarzyna Lamperska
Life 2021, 11(12), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121354 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3376
Abstract
Pseudogenes were once considered as “junk DNA”, due to loss of their functions as a result of the accumulation of mutations, such as frameshift and presence of premature stop-codons and relocation of genes to inactive heterochromatin regions of the genome. Pseudogenes are divided [...] Read more.
Pseudogenes were once considered as “junk DNA”, due to loss of their functions as a result of the accumulation of mutations, such as frameshift and presence of premature stop-codons and relocation of genes to inactive heterochromatin regions of the genome. Pseudogenes are divided into two large groups, processed and unprocessed, according to their primary structure and origin. Only 10% of all pseudogenes are transcribed into RNAs and participate in the regulation of parental gene expression at both transcriptional and translational levels through senseRNA (sRNA) and antisense RNA (asRNA). In this review, about 150 pseudogenes in the different types of cancers were analyzed. Part of these pseudogenes seem to be useful in molecular diagnostics and can be detected in various types of biological material including tissue as well as biological fluids (liquid biopsy) using different detection methods. The number of pseudogenes, as well as their function in the human genome, is still unknown. However, thanks to the development of various technologies and bioinformatic tools, it was revealed so far that pseudogenes are involved in the development and progression of certain diseases, especially in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs in Human Diseases)
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