Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2024 | Viewed by 6298

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Ocupharm Group Research, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Complutense University, 28037 Madrid, Spain
Interests: nucleotides; purinergic signaling; melatonin; glaucoma; dry eye; contact lenses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ocupharm Group Research, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Complutense University, 28037 Madrid, Spain
Interests: purinergic signaling; molecular mechanism of disease; central nervous system; neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration; glaucoma; biomarkers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Eye health is essential in day-to-day life. Ocular retinal pathologies such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy are the foremost causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. At the same time, we can find other common ocular diseases, such as keratoconus, dry eye, cataract, or microbial keratitis, which do not cause blindness but substantially impact patients’ quality of life. The management and treatment of these pathologies have become a worldwide public health burden.

The main goal of the present Special Issue is to highlight both innovative therapeutic approaches and the search for new techniques for the diagnosis of ocular diseases. These findings will provide an overview of the impact of each ocular pathology, not only in humans but also in the eye care system, and could include potential strategies in future therapeutics. We expect to receive both original research and review articles with a focus on (a) new developments in ocular disease diagnosis techniques and (b) new approaches in ocular diseases treatments.

Dr. Alba Martín-Gil
Dr. Laura De Diego-García
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • ocular treatment
  • ocular diseases
  • retina
  • anterior eye
  • posterior eye
  • ocular biomarkers

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Corneal Biomechanics and Other Factors Associated with Postoperative Astigmatism after Cataract Surgery
by Kata Čulina, Martina Tomić, Tomislav Bulum, Aleksej Medić, Ivan Šoša, Kristina Ivanišević and Tomislav Jukić
Life 2024, 14(6), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14060655 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the cornea’s biomechanical properties, corneal hysteresis (CH), and corneal resistance factor (CRF) on postoperative astigmatism after cataract surgery and determine the other factors that influence it. Forty eyes of 40 patients (13M/27F; the median age [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the cornea’s biomechanical properties, corneal hysteresis (CH), and corneal resistance factor (CRF) on postoperative astigmatism after cataract surgery and determine the other factors that influence it. Forty eyes of 40 patients (13M/27F; the median age of 74) were included in this prospective study, underwent 2.75 mm incision cataract surgery, and were followed for 30 days. Visits were scheduled at baseline before surgery (V0), the 1st (V1), the 7th (V2), and the 30th (V3) postoperative days. The main parameters estimated and analyzed with Statistica® 14.0.1 were CH, CRF, astigmatism diopter, and axis. Following the cataract surgery, the CH did not significantly change during the study visits (p = 0.109). However, there was a significant change in the CRF from baseline during the study visits (per protocol set) (p = 0.002). After a slight but insignificant increase from V0 to V1, post hoc analysis found a significant decrease in the mean CRF from V1 to V2 (p = 0.049) with no substantial change from V2 to V3. According to the post hoc analysis, the median astigmatism diopter increased significantly only from V0 to V1 (p = 0.001) and slightly but not significantly decreased to the end of the study with the achievement of a near-baseline value. The main predictors for the final astigmatism diopter (R2 = 0.898) obtained by stepwise regression analysis were its values at V0, V1, and V2 (p < 0.001). The CRF at V1 was marginally significant, with a negative parameter estimate of −0.098303 (p = 0.0623). In conclusion, there was no correlation between preoperative CH and CRF and postoperative astigmatism using 2.75 mm incision cataract surgery. However, the final astigmatism diopter’s main predictors were its baseline values before cataract surgery, the first, and the seventh postoperative days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 3162 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Stress, Persistent Inflammation and Blood Coagulation Alterations in Serum Proteome of Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
by Mateusz Winiarczyk, Bernd Thiede, Tor Paaske Utheim, Kai Kaarniranta, Dagmara Winiarczyk, Katarzyna Michalak and Jerzy Mackiewicz
Life 2024, 14(5), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14050624 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness in elderly populations in developed countries. AMD’s etiopathology is multifactorial, with strong environmental and genetic components, but the exact molecular pathomechanisms underlying the disease are still unknown. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness in elderly populations in developed countries. AMD’s etiopathology is multifactorial, with strong environmental and genetic components, but the exact molecular pathomechanisms underlying the disease are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed blood serum collected from 74 neovascular AMD patients and 58 healthy controls to identify proteins that may serve as potential biomarkers and expand our knowledge about the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The study revealed 17 differentially expressed proteins—11 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated—in neovascular AMD, which are involved in the biological processes previously linked with the disease—oxidative stress and persistent inflammation, impaired cellular transport, lipid metabolism and blood coagulation. In conclusion, the differences in the expressions of the proteins identified in this study may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying AMD and possibly serve in future as promising biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 395 KiB  
Article
The Association between Ovarian Cancer and the Incidence of Newly Developed Dry Eye Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
by Chia-Yi Lee, Shun-Fa Yang, Yu-Ling Chang, Jing-Yang Huang and Chao-Kai Chang
Life 2024, 14(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14040530 - 21 Apr 2024
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Abstract
We aim to investigate the potential correlation between the presence of ovarian cancer and the development of dry eye disease (DED) via the usage of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study was executed, and patients with ovarian [...] Read more.
We aim to investigate the potential correlation between the presence of ovarian cancer and the development of dry eye disease (DED) via the usage of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study was executed, and patients with ovarian cancer were selected according to the diagnostic and procedure codes. One ovarian cancer patient was matched to four non-ovarian cancer participants which served as control group, and a total of 4992 and 19,968 patients constructed the ovarian cancer and control groups, respectively. The primary outcome in the current study is the development of DED according to the diagnostic and procedure codes. Cox proportional hazard regression was utilized to produce the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and related 95% confidence interval (CI) of DED between the two groups. There were 542 and 2502 DED events observed in the ovarian cancer group and the control group, respectively. The ovarian cancer group illustrated a significantly higher incidence of DED development than the control group after the adjustment of several confounders (aHR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.21, p = 0.040). In the subgroup analysis stratified by age, ovarian cancer patients aged older than 60 years showed a higher incidence of DED compared to the non-ovarian cancer population (aHR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.08–1.28, p = 0.011). In addition, ovarian cancer patients with a disease duration longer than five years also showed higher incidence of DED formation than the non-ovarian cancer population (aHR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04–1.22, p = 0.027). In conclusion, the presence of ovarian cancer is associated with higher incidence of subsequent DED, especially in those older than 60 years and with a disease interval of more than five years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 2578 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Changes of Cornea Volume Measured by Means of Anterior Segment-Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Stable and Progressive Keratoconus
by Sabrina Vaccaro, Chiara Vivarelli, Angeli Christy Yu, Nicolò Pecora, Giovanna Lionetti, Raffaella Gioia, Vincenzo Scorcia and Giuseppe Giannaccare
Life 2024, 14(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020176 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 868
Abstract
Keratoconus is a corneal disease which results in progressive thinning and protrusion of the cornea leading to irregular astigmatism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in corneal volume (CV) occurring over time in keratoconus eyes. Consecutive patients affected by [...] Read more.
Keratoconus is a corneal disease which results in progressive thinning and protrusion of the cornea leading to irregular astigmatism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in corneal volume (CV) occurring over time in keratoconus eyes. Consecutive patients affected by keratoconus were evaluated by means of anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) at two different time points: baseline (T0) and after 1 year (T1). Anterior and posterior refractive value; corneal thickness at the thinnest point (TP) and corneal volume (CV) calculated within discs of 3, 5 and 8 mm of diameter; anterior chamber depth (ACD); and anterior chamber volume (ACV) were obtained. Enrolled patients were divided into 3 groups (groups 1, 2, 3) according to the increasing disease severity and into 2 groups (groups A, B) according to the progression or stability of the disease. Overall, 116 eyes of 116 patients (76 males and 40 females, mean age 34.76 ± 13.99 years) were included. For the entire group of keratoconus patients, in comparison with T0, mean TP decreased at T1 from 458.7 ± 52.2 µm to 454.6 ± 51.6 µm (p = 0.0004); in parallel, mean value of CV calculated at 5 mm and 8 mm decreased significantly (from 10.78 ± 0.8 at T0 to 10.75 ± 0.79 at T1 (p = 0.02), and from 32.03 ± 2.01 mm3 at T0 to 31.95 ± 1.98 at T1 (p = 0.02), respectively). Conversely, there were no statistically significant differences in CV at 3 mm from T0 to T1 (p = 0.08), as well as for ACD and ACV. Regarding the course of the disease, patients belonging to group A showed statistically significant differences from T0 to T1 for TP, and for CV at 3 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.0058 respectively). There were no statistically significant differences for ACD (p = 0.6916) and ACV calculated at 3, 5 and 8 mm (p = 0.7709, p = 0.3765, p = 0.2475, respectively) in group A. At the same time, no statistically significant differences for ACD (p = 0.2897) and ACV calculated at 3, 5 and 8 mm (p = 0.9849, p = 0.6420, p = 0.8338, respectively) were found in group B. There were statistically significant positive correlations between changes of TP and CV at 3 mm (r = 0.6324, p < 0.0001), 5 mm (r = 0.7622, p < 0.0001) and 8 mm (r = 0.5987 p < 0.0001). In conclusion, given the strong correlation with TP, CV might be considered an additional AS-OCT parameter to be used in association with conventional parameters when detecting longitudinal changes in keratoconic eyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 791 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Myopic Control between the Dual-Focus Contact Lenses and High-Concentration Atropine in an Asian Population
by Chia-Yi Lee, Shun-Fa Yang, Yu-Ling Chang, Jing-Yang Huang, Ie-Bin Lian and Chao-Kai Chang
Life 2024, 14(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14010118 - 13 Jan 2024
Viewed by 964
Abstract
We aim to investigate the myopic control effect of high-concentration atropine (ATR) and dual-focus contact lenses (DFCLs). A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 182 eyes in 91 individuals who used high-concentration ATR (0.125%) and another 70 eyes in 35 individuals [...] Read more.
We aim to investigate the myopic control effect of high-concentration atropine (ATR) and dual-focus contact lenses (DFCLs). A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 182 eyes in 91 individuals who used high-concentration ATR (0.125%) and another 70 eyes in 35 individuals who used DFCLs were enrolled in the ATR and DFCL groups, respectively. The primary outcomes were spherical equivalent refraction (SER) progression and axial length (AXL) elongation. The generalized estimate equation was utilized to yield the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cycloplegic SER progression and AXL elongation between groups. According to the multivariable analysis, the change in cycloplegic SER progression was similar between the DFCL and ATR groups (aOR: 1.305, 95% CI: 0.247–2.515, p = 0.803). The DFCL group demonstrated a numerically higher rate of AXL elongation compared to the ATR group (aOR: 1.530, 95% CI: 0.980–1.894, p = 0.051). In the subgroup analysis, cycloplegic SER progression was insignificant between ATR and DFCL users in different subgroups (all p > 0.05). The DFCL patients with moderate astigmatism and high AXL (both p < 0.001) presented a high risk of AXL elongation. In conclusion, DFCL usage demonstrated similar myopic control of cycloplegic SER and AXL compared to high-concentration ATR, while DFCLs showed lower AXL control, mainly in patients with moderate astigmatism and high AXL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 670 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Reporting Quality of Glaucoma Randomized Controlled Trial Abstracts: Current Status and Future Perspectives
by Ana Vucinovic, Josipa Bukic, Doris Rusic, Dario Leskur, Ana Seselja Perisin, Marijana Radic, Marko Grahovac and Darko Modun
Life 2024, 14(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14010117 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 740
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) reporting standards in abstracts of randomized controlled trials on glaucoma. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on the aforementioned abstracts, indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed between the years [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) reporting standards in abstracts of randomized controlled trials on glaucoma. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on the aforementioned abstracts, indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed between the years 2017 and 2021. In total, 302 abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were further analyzed. The median score of CONSORT-A items was 8 (interquartile range, 7–10) out of 17 (47.0%). Most analyzed studies were conducted in a single center (80.5%) and the abstracts were predominantly structured (95.0%). Only 20.5% of the abstracts adequately described the trial design, while randomization and funding were described by 6.0% of the abstracts. Higher overall scores were associated with structured abstracts, a multicenter setting, statistically significant results, funding by industry, a higher number of participants, and having been published in journals with impact factors above four (p < 0.001, respectively). The results of this study indicate a suboptimal adherence to CONSORT-A reporting standards, especially in particular items such as randomization and funding. Since these factors could contribute to the overall quality of the trials and further translation of trial results into clinical practice, an improvement in glaucoma research reporting transparency is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition)
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Review

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18 pages, 8603 KiB  
Review
Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: Immunopathological Insights and Therapeutic Applications of Immunomodulators
by Navpreet K. Hehar and DeGaulle I. Chigbu
Life 2024, 14(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14030361 - 9 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a complex and multifactorial disease process that employs Th2 cell-mediated immunologic processes, which involves the overexpression of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-31, and the activation of mast cells that release IL-5 and CCL-11, recruiting eosinophils to [...] Read more.
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a complex and multifactorial disease process that employs Th2 cell-mediated immunologic processes, which involves the overexpression of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-31, and the activation of mast cells that release IL-5 and CCL-11, recruiting eosinophils to the site of inflammation. The disease primarily affects young males and is more common in regions with warm climates. VKC is characterized by persistent and recurrent conjunctival inflammation that can adversely affect the patient’s quality of life, and, when inadequately treated, may lead to a host of ocular complications, such as corneal shield ulcers and scarring. The major distinct forms of VKC include limbal or palpebral, which may occur in combination. The clinicopathological features of VKC include the presence of pseudogerontoxon, limbal gelatinous hyperplasia, and perilimbal hyperpigmentation. Topical immunomodulators are effective anti-steroidal options for controlling severe and chronic cases of VKC. This review will provide a brief overview of topical immunomodulators, including cyclosporin and tacrolimus, and will highlight the clinical manifestations, pathological mechanisms, and fibroproliferative changes in the conjunctiva that can result from recurrent disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd Edition)
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