Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Personalized Therapy and Drug Delivery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 November 2023) | Viewed by 18139

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
2. Center for Innovation and Research in Oral Sciences (CIROS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: biomaterials; endodontics filers; endodontics; regenerative tissue; apexification; apical papilla; stem cells; calcium-silicate-based cements; cyclic fatigue resistance; dental materials; modified adhesives; bioactive materials; dental composites; mineral trioxide aggregate; nanotechnology; regenerative endodontics procedures; revascularization/revitalization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Institute of Oral Implantology and Prosthodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
2. Center for Innovation and Research in Oral Sciences (CIROS), Faculty of Medicine University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: biomechanics; biomimetic dentistry; biomaterials; endodontics; prosthodontics; aesthetic dentistry; ceramics; composite resins; bioceramics; adhesion; bone regeneration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our utmost pleasure to invite you to submit manuscripts to one of the most pressing topics in dentistry worldwide: “Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health”.

The search for a healthcare approach that makes use of the latest technology and advancements to provide the best individualized treatment options is not new and in fact has deep roots among dentistry professionals.

With the advent of digital dentistry and its dissemination throughout several specific knowledge areas (endodontics, periodontics, orthodontics, surgery, implantology, oral rehabilitation, occlusion, etc.), the seemingly intangible concept of deeply customizing every treatment to each patient is nowadays a reality bestowed with a promising future of overcoming boundaries.

The present Special Issue will focus on clinically and scientifically valuable research in dentistry and allied disciplines in order to provide evidence-based information that will contribute to a better understanding and implementation of cutting-edge, patient-centered, and tailored treatment options. 

We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Prof. Dr. Paulo J. Palma
Dr. Rui I. Falacho 
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • digital endodontics 
  • digital dentistry 
  • dental technology 
  • oral rehabilitation 
  • patient-centered dentistry 
  • TaO dentistry

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 701 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Proximity of the Inferior Alveolar Canal with the Mandibular Root Apices and Cortical Plates—A Retrospective Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis
by Swati Srivastava, Hanan M. Alharbi, Afnan S. Alharbi, Mai Soliman, Elzahraa Eldwakhly and Manal M. Abdelhafeez
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(11), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12111784 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3097
Abstract
Various endodontic interventions often lead to iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve present in the inferior alveolar canal (IAC). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationships of IAC with the root apices of mandibular teeth and with the [...] Read more.
Various endodontic interventions often lead to iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve present in the inferior alveolar canal (IAC). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationships of IAC with the root apices of mandibular teeth and with the mandibular cortical plates. Materials: 116 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were examined and the shortest distance of IAC with the root apices of mandibular canines, premolars and molars, and with cortical plates was analyzed. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS. Results: The shortest mean distance between IAC and lingual cortical plate (LCP) was found in the third molar area, and between IAC and buccal cortical plate (BCP) in the second premolar area. A high incidence of 60% direct communication (DC) was present in mandibular second molars; 38% in mandibular third molars; 13% in mandibular second premolars; 12% in mandibular first molars; and 1% in mandibular first premolars. Conclusion: Anteriorly, IAC was found to be significantly present in close approximation to the roots of mandibular canines. Posteriorly, IAC was found to be in significant proximity to the distal roots of mandibular second molars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
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13 pages, 2067 KiB  
Article
Ensemble Deep-Learning-Based Prognostic and Prediction for Recurrence of Sporadic Odontogenic Keratocysts on Hematoxylin and Eosin Stained Pathological Images of Incisional Biopsies
by Roopa S. Rao, Divya Biligere Shivanna, Surendra Lakshminarayana, Kirti Shankar Mahadevpur, Yaser Ali Alhazmi, Mohammed Mousa H. Bakri, Hazar S. Alharbi, Khalid J. Alzahrani, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Hamsa Jameel Banjer, Mrim M. Alnfiai, Rodolfo Reda, Shankargouda Patil and Luca Testarelli
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(8), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12081220 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
(1) Background: Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are enigmatic developmental cysts that deserve special attention due to their heterogeneous appearance in histopathological characteristics and high recurrence rate. Despite several nomenclatures for classification, clinicians still confront challenges in its diagnosis and predicting its recurrence. This paper [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are enigmatic developmental cysts that deserve special attention due to their heterogeneous appearance in histopathological characteristics and high recurrence rate. Despite several nomenclatures for classification, clinicians still confront challenges in its diagnosis and predicting its recurrence. This paper proposes an ensemble deep-learning-based prognostic and prediction algorithm, for the recurrence of sporadic odontogenic keratocysts, on hematoxylin and eosin stained pathological images of incisional biopsies before treatment. (2) Materials and Methods: In this study, we applied a deep-learning algorithm to an ensemble approach integrated with DenseNet-121, Inception-V3, and Inception-Resnet-V3 classifiers. Around 1660 hematoxylin and eosin stained pathologically annotated digital images of OKC-diagnosed (60) patients were supplied to train and predict recurrent OKCs. (3) Results: The presence of SEH (p = 0.004), an incomplete epithelial lining, (p = 0.023), and a corrugated surface (p = 0.049) were the most significant histological parameters distinguishing recurrent and non-recurrent OKCs. Amongst the classifiers, DenseNet-121 showed 93% accuracy in predicting recurrent OKCs. Furthermore, integrating and training the traditional ensemble model showed an accuracy of 95% and an AUC of 0.9872, with an execution time of 192.9 s. In comparison, our proposed model showed 97% accuracy with an execution time of 154.6 s. (4) Conclusions: Considering the outcome of our novel ensemble model, based on accuracy and execution time, the presented design could be embedded into a computer-aided design system for automation of risk stratification of odontogenic keratocysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
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9 pages, 1841 KiB  
Article
Multifactorial Analysis of Endodontic Microsurgery Using Finite Element Models
by Raphael Richert, Jean-Christophe Farges, Jean-Christophe Maurin, Jérôme Molimard, Philippe Boisse and Maxime Ducret
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(6), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12061012 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Background: The present study aimed to classify the relative contributions of four biomechanical factors—the root-end filling material, the apical preparation, the root resection length, and the bone height—on the root stresses of the resected premolar. Methods: A design of [...] Read more.
Background: The present study aimed to classify the relative contributions of four biomechanical factors—the root-end filling material, the apical preparation, the root resection length, and the bone height—on the root stresses of the resected premolar. Methods: A design of experiments approach based on a defined subset of factor combinations was conducted to calculate the influence of each factor and their interactions. Sixteen finite element models were created and analyzed using the von Mises stress criterion. The robustness of the design of experiments was evaluated with nine supplementary models. Results: The current study showed that the factors preparation and bone height had a high influence on root stresses. However, it also revealed that nearly half of the biomechanical impact was missed without considering interactions between factors, particularly between resection and preparation. Conclusions: Design of experiments appears to be a valuable strategy to classify the contributions of biomechanical factors related to endodontics. Imagining all possible interactions and their clinical impact is difficult and can require relying on one’s own experience. This study proposed a statistical method to quantify the mechanical risk when planning apicoectomy. A perspective could be to integrate the equation defined herein in future software to support decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
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12 pages, 3640 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Postoperative Results Prediction for Orthognathic Surgery through Deep Learning-Based Alignment Network
by Seung Hyun Jeong, Min Woo Woo, Dong Sun Shin, Han Gyeol Yeom, Hun Jun Lim, Bong Chul Kim and Jong Pil Yun
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(6), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12060998 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
To date, for the diagnosis of dentofacial dysmorphosis, we have relied almost entirely on reference points, planes, and angles. This is time consuming, and it is also greatly influenced by the skill level of the practitioner. To solve this problem, we wanted to [...] Read more.
To date, for the diagnosis of dentofacial dysmorphosis, we have relied almost entirely on reference points, planes, and angles. This is time consuming, and it is also greatly influenced by the skill level of the practitioner. To solve this problem, we wanted to know if deep neural networks could predict postoperative results of orthognathic surgery without relying on reference points, planes, and angles. We use three-dimensional point cloud data of the skull of 269 patients. The proposed method has two main stages for prediction. In step 1, the skull is divided into six parts through the segmentation network. In step 2, three-dimensional transformation parameters are predicted through the alignment network. The ground truth values of transformation parameters are calculated through the iterative closest points (ICP), which align the preoperative part of skull to the corresponding postoperative part of skull. We compare pointnet, pointnet++ and pointconv for the feature extractor of the alignment network. Moreover, we design a new loss function, which considers the distance error of transformed points for a better accuracy. The accuracy, mean intersection over union (mIoU), and dice coefficient (DC) of the first segmentation network, which divides the upper and lower part of skull, are 0.9998, 0.9994, and 0.9998, respectively. For the second segmentation network, which divides the lower part of skull into 5 parts, they were 0.9949, 0.9900, 0.9949, respectively. The mean absolute error of transverse, anterior–posterior, and vertical distance of part 2 (maxilla) are 0.765 mm, 1.455 mm, and 1.392 mm, respectively. For part 3 (mandible), they were 1.069 mm, 1.831 mm, and 1.375 mm, respectively, and for part 4 (chin), they were 1.913 mm, 2.340 mm, and 1.257 mm, respectively. From this study, postoperative results can now be easily predicted by simply entering the point cloud data of computed tomography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
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Review

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21 pages, 809 KiB  
Review
Guided Endodontics: Static vs. Dynamic Computer-Aided Techniques—A Literature Review
by Diana Ribeiro, Eva Reis, Joana A. Marques, Rui I. Falacho and Paulo J. Palma
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(9), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12091516 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3212
Abstract
(1) Background: access cavity preparation is the first stage of non-surgical endodontic treatment. The inaccuracy of this step may lead to numerous intraoperative complications, which impair the root canal treatment’s prognosis and therefore the tooth’s survival. Guided endodontics, meaning computer-aided static (SN) and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: access cavity preparation is the first stage of non-surgical endodontic treatment. The inaccuracy of this step may lead to numerous intraoperative complications, which impair the root canal treatment’s prognosis and therefore the tooth’s survival. Guided endodontics, meaning computer-aided static (SN) and dynamic navigation (DN) techniques, has recently emerged as a new approach for root canal location in complex cases. This review aims to compare SN and DN guided endodontics’ techniques in non-surgical endodontic treatment. (2) Methods: an electronic search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases until October 2021. Studies were restricted by language (English, Spanish and Portuguese) and year of publication (from 2011 to 2021). (3) Results: a total of 449, 168 and 32 articles were identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, respectively, after the initial search. Of the 649 articles, 134 duplicates were discarded. In this case, 67 articles were selected after title and abstract screening, of which 60 were assessed for eligibility through full-text analysis, with one article being excluded. Four cross-references were added. Thus, 63 studies were included. (4) Conclusions: guided endodontics procedures present minimally invasive and accurate techniques which allow for highly predictable root canal location, greater tooth structure preservation and lower risk of iatrogenic damage, mainly when performed by less experienced operators. Both SN and DN approaches exhibit different advantages and disadvantages that make them useful in distinct clinical scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
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Other

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9 pages, 1733 KiB  
Brief Report
Smile Design and Treatment Planning—Conventional versus Digital—A Pilot Study
by Andrea Maria Chisnoiu, Andreea Cristina Staicu, Andreea Kui, Radu Marcel Chisnoiu, Simona Iacob, Mirela Fluerașu and Smaranda Buduru
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(7), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13071028 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Introduction: Several methods are currently available for providing a preview of the prosthodontic treatment, including computer simulations, 3D models, wax-ups, and mock-ups. The aim of this study is to compare the aesthetic aspects and assessment of conventional versus digital prefigurative methods. Methods: The [...] Read more.
Introduction: Several methods are currently available for providing a preview of the prosthodontic treatment, including computer simulations, 3D models, wax-ups, and mock-ups. The aim of this study is to compare the aesthetic aspects and assessment of conventional versus digital prefigurative methods. Methods: The study included 5 patients and 3 observers, for each of whom a wax-up was made in both the conventional and digital techniques. The analog method, which implied a mock-up molding with a silicone matrix of the wax-up, was compared to a digital workflow, which consisted of a mock-up milling from a digital design. The patient’s clinical mock-ups were recorded with digital photographs and assessed for nine different criteria by three observers. Results: The analysis has shown a balanced assessment of the aesthetic criteria without any significant difference between the analog and digital prefigurative methods. Conclusions: Between the two wax-ups (conventional and digital), there were some variations in smile and dental criteria; however, the obtained data were very similar. When it comes to the smile criteria, the general average grades of the mock-ups conducted using the conventional method are slightly higher than the ones using the digital technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
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10 pages, 1068 KiB  
Systematic Review
Short Implants versus Standard Implants and Sinus Floor Elevation in Atrophic Posterior Maxilla: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials with ≥5 Years’ Follow-Up
by Alexandru Mester, Florin Onisor, Dario Di Stasio, Andra Piciu, Adriana-Maria Cosma and Simion Bran
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020169 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
Background and objectives: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to assess the performance of short implants in comparison with standard implants and sinus floor elevation in atrophic posterior maxilla. Materials and methods: The protocol of the study was [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to assess the performance of short implants in comparison with standard implants and sinus floor elevation in atrophic posterior maxilla. Materials and methods: The protocol of the study was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42022375320). An electronic search on three databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) was performed to find randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with ≥5 years’ follow-up, published until December 2022. Risk of bias (ROB) was calculated using Cochrane ROB. A meta-analysis was performed for primary (implant survival rate, ISR) and secondary outcomes (marginal bone loss, MBL; biological and prosthetic complications). Results: Of 1619 articles, 5 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The ISR showed a risk ratio (RR) of 0.97 [0.94, 1.00] (CI 95%), p = 0.07. The MBL indicated a WMD of −0.29 [−0.49, −0.09] (CI 95%), p = 0.005. Biological complications showed a RR of 0.46 [0.23, 0.91] (CI 95%), p = 0.03. Prosthetic complications showed a RR of 1.51 [0.64, 3.55] (CI 95%), p = 0.34. Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that short implants might be used as an alternative to standard implants and sinus floor elevation. After 5 years, in terms of ISR, standard implants and sinus floor elevation showed a higher survival rate comparted to short implants, although statistical significance was not achieved. Future RCTs with long-term follow-up are needed to draw a clear conclusion on the advantages of one method over another. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Personalized Treatment in Dental Health)
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