Nanomaterials in Oral Science

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2022) | Viewed by 25127

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobial nanoformulation; antimicrobial peptides; antimicrobial resistance
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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
2. Center for Innovation and Research in Oral Sciences (CIROS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: biomaterials; endodontics filers; endodontics; regenerative tissue; apexification; apical papilla; stem cells; calcium-silicate-based cements; cyclic fatigue resistance; dental materials; modified adhesives; bioactive materials; dental composites; mineral trioxide aggregate; nanotechnology; regenerative endodontics procedures; revascularization/revitalization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials with exciting functional properties are increasingly being used for oral applications. This emerging technology has gained a vast expansion of knowledge in the last few years, especially in terms of the future clinical translation of scientific attainments, driven by new insights in developmental biology, cell and molecular biology of native tissues and oral tissues, and new nanomaterials with biological activities.

Oral research studies have shown that the properties which make nanomaterials useful for prevention, diagnosis, and therapeutic applications may also give rise to potential hazardous outcomes. This recent technology has generated a wave of new developments in the field of dental materials. Nanomaterial-based designs are able to mimic some of the mechanical and structural properties of native tissue and can promote better biointegration. Moreover, nanomaterials may be effective to control oral biofilm formation due to their biocidal, anti-adhesive, and drug delivery capabilities in an attempt to reduce microbial adhesion to oral devices.

Various compositions of nanomaterials have been employed as restorative materials. They have been employed to develop a new generation of restorative composites for treatment but also to prevent new caries, in a minimally invasive way, in the remineralization process.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the current knowledge in contemporary basic and clinical research on applications of nanomaterials in oral science.

These papers especially focus on new nanomaterial approaches in oral sciences, including the synthesis and incorporation of nanomaterials for oral tissue repair, biocompatibility, dental infection, early diagnosis, prevention, and the regeneration of oral tissue, pulp, and periodontal tissue. Other topics include nanobiomaterials as natural bioactive molecules, in vitro and in vivo applications, and the side effects of nanomaterial-coated implants.

On behalf of Nanomaterials, you are cordially invited to contribute an article to the Special Issue “Nanomaterials in Oral Science”. Research articles, reviews, and mini reviews are welcome.


Dr. Akhilesh Rai
Prof. Dr. Paulo J. Palma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanotechnology on oral science
  • Molecular nanosystems
  • Nanomaterials for dental tissue regeneration
  • Nanoparticles for restauration materials
  • Nanomaterials and nanoparticles
  • Nanodentistry
  • Nanostructures (first to fourth generation) applied to oral science
  • Remineralization of hard tissue with nanoparticles
  • Nanotechnology for oral science
  • Nano-endodontics
  • Nano-impression materials
  • Bone substitutes
  • Nanoparticles as tumor biomarkers
  • Nano-diagnostic (photosensitizers and carriers)
  • Nanotherapeutics/drug delivery (size-related) application in oral sciences:
    ○ Endodontics
    ○ Periodontology

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

14 pages, 3389 KiB  
Article
Influence of Clinical Decontamination Techniques on the Surface Characteristics of SLA Titanium Implant
by Meltem Bayrak, Necla Asli Kocak-Oztug, Karan Gulati, Serdar Cintan and Emine Cifcibasi
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(24), 4481; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12244481 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
The study aims: 1. To perform diode laser, titanium (Ti) brush, and Ti curette treatment on sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) Ti surfaces, with/without H2O2 and CHX, 2. To investigate the influence of decontamination techniques on implant surface topography and hydrophilicity. [...] Read more.
The study aims: 1. To perform diode laser, titanium (Ti) brush, and Ti curette treatment on sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) Ti surfaces, with/without H2O2 and CHX, 2. To investigate the influence of decontamination techniques on implant surface topography and hydrophilicity. Diode laser, Ti brush, and Ti curette treatments were performed on the Grade 4 Ti discs, with/without treatment with 3% H2O2 solution or 0.2% CHX. Surface characteristics were investigated via SEM, optical profilometry, and water contact angle meter. SEM findings revealed flat and scratched areas when treated with Ti curette and Ti brush. For diode laser, SEM showed melting in specific areas. Ra and Rt values were lower in all test groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). The adjunctive chemical treatment showed negligible effects in SEM images and surface roughness measurements compared to laser and mechanical treatment-only groups. H2O2 treatment resulted in enhanced hydrophilicity in either treatment modalities with a significant difference compared to the negative control group (p < 0.05). In all test groups, the hydrophilicity was enhanced compared to the negative control group (p < 0.05). Diode laser treatment had the least disruptive effect on the Ti surface characteristics. The use of other mechanical methods caused significant alterations in the surface roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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14 pages, 1981 KiB  
Article
Superhydrophilic Nanotextured Surfaces for Dental Implants: Influence of Early Saliva Contamination and Wet Storage
by Marcel F. Kunrath, André Correia, Eduardo R. Teixeira, Roberto Hubler and Christer Dahlin
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(15), 2603; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152603 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Hydrophilic and nanotextured surfaces for dental implants have been reported as relevant properties for early osseointegration. However, these surface characteristics are quite sensitive to oral interactions. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to investigate the superficial alterations caused on hydrophilic nanotubular surfaces after early [...] Read more.
Hydrophilic and nanotextured surfaces for dental implants have been reported as relevant properties for early osseointegration. However, these surface characteristics are quite sensitive to oral interactions. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to investigate the superficial alterations caused on hydrophilic nanotubular surfaces after early human saliva interaction. Titanium disks were treated using an anodization protocol followed by reactive plasma application in order to achieve nanotopography and hydrophilicity, additionally; surfaces were stored in normal atmospheric oxygen or wet conditioning. Following, samples were interacted with saliva for 10 min and analyzed regarding physical–chemical properties and cellular viability. Saliva interaction did not show any significant influence on morphological characteristics, roughness measurements and chemical composition; however, hydrophilicity was statistically altered compromising this feature when the samples were stored in common air. Cellular viability tested with pre-osteoblasts cell line (MC3T3-E1) reduced significantly at 48 h on the samples without wet storage after saliva contamination. The applied wet-storage methodology appears to be effective in maintaining properties such as hydrophilicity during saliva interaction. In conclusion, saliva contamination might impair important properties of hydrophilic nanotubular surfaces when not stored in wet conditions, suggesting the need of saliva-controlled sites for oral application of hydrophilic surfaces and/or the use of modified-package methods associated with their wet storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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15 pages, 1753 KiB  
Article
Activity of Fusarium oxysporum-Based Silver Nanoparticles on Candida spp. Oral Isolates
by Maísa Santos Fonseca, Daniela Méria Rodrigues, Ana Rita Sokolonski, Danijela Stanisic, Luiz Marcelo Tomé, Aristóteles Góes-Neto, Vasco Azevedo, Roberto Meyer, Danilo Barral Araújo, Ljubica Tasic and Ricardo Dias Portela
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030501 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
Candida spp. resistant to commercially available antifungals are often isolated from patients with oral candidiasis, a situation that points to the need for the development of new therapies. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Fusarium oxysporum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Candida spp. [...] Read more.
Candida spp. resistant to commercially available antifungals are often isolated from patients with oral candidiasis, a situation that points to the need for the development of new therapies. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Fusarium oxysporum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Candida spp. isolated from denture stomatitis lesions. Candida isolates were molecularly identified and submitted to susceptibility assays using AgNPs and commercial fungicides. The interference on biofilm formation and the mechanisms of action of AgNPs on Candida spp. were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphology of AgNP-treated Candida. Candida albicans was the most frequent species isolated from denture stomatitis cases. All Candida spp. were susceptible to AgNPs at low concentrations, except Candida parapsilosis. AgNPs caused surface damage, cell disruption, and biofilm formation inhibition. The ergosterol supplementation protected C. albicans against the AgNP action. AgNPs are effective against Candida spp. and can be faced as a promising new therapeutic agent against oral candidiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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11 pages, 18589 KiB  
Article
Effect of Remineralized Collagen on Dentin Bond Strength through Calcium Phosphate Ion Clusters or Metastable Calcium Phosphate Solution
by Hyeryeong Kim, Aerin Choi, Mi-Kyung Gong, Hae Ryoun Park and Yong-Il Kim
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112203 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate whether dentin remineralization and micro-tensile bond strength increase when using calcium phosphate ion clusters (CPICs) or metastable Ca-P. After being etched, each dentin specimen was designated into four groups and treated with the appropriate solution for 1 min: [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate whether dentin remineralization and micro-tensile bond strength increase when using calcium phosphate ion clusters (CPICs) or metastable Ca-P. After being etched, each dentin specimen was designated into four groups and treated with the appropriate solution for 1 min: 100% ethanol, 2 and 1 mg/mL of CPICs, and metastable Ca-P. The specimens were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscropy (TEM) imaging, a matrix metalloproteinases inhibition assay, and the micro-tensile bond strength test. To compare among the groups, one-way analysis of variance was performed. In the SEM imaging, with a rising concentration of CPICs, the degree of remineralization of dentin increased significantly. The metastable Ca-P treated specimens showed a similar level of remineralization as the 1 mg/mL CPICs treated specimens. The TEM imaging also revealed that dentin remineralization occurs in a CPICs concentration-dependent manner between the demineralized dentin and the resin layer. Furthermore, the results of micro-tensile bond strength showed the same trend as the results confirmed by SEM and TEM. We demonstrated that a 1 min pretreatment of CPICs or metastable Ca-P in etched dentin collagen fibril can achieve biomimetic remineralization and increase micro-tensile bond strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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13 pages, 2021 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cleansers on the Colour Stability of Zirconia Impregnated PMMA Bio-Nanocomposite
by Saleh Zidan, Nikolaos Silikas, Julfikar Haider and Julian Yates
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091757 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Exposure of denture base acrylic resins to the oral environment and storage media for extended periods of time results in colour change due to changes in the properties of the material. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the colour [...] Read more.
Exposure of denture base acrylic resins to the oral environment and storage media for extended periods of time results in colour change due to changes in the properties of the material. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the colour stability of high-impact heat-polymerized denture base acrylic resin (HI PMMA) impregnated with zirconia nanoparticles after storage in distilled water (DW) and denture cleaners such as Steradent (STD) and Milton (MIL) for 180 days. Ninety specimens of PMMA + Zirconia nanocomposite with varying nanoparticle concentrations (1.5 wt.%, 3.0 wt.%, 5.0 wt.%, 7.0 wt.% and 10 wt.%) were prepared with a diameter and thickness of 25 ± 1.0 mm × 2 ± 0.1 mm and divided into six groups, while each group was further divided into three subgroups: storage in DW (control), STD and MIL. Colour changes were measured with a Minolta Chroma Meter (Minolta, Osaka, Japan), and assessed using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Data were statistically analysed for colour change with Friedman’s Two-way and Kruskal-Wallis tests at a pre-set alpha value level of 0.05. The colour change (ΔΕ) exhibiting significant differences were found among all groups immersed in denture cleaners, and all values increased with time. According to the National Bureau of Standards, the control group displayed the lowest colour change value (ΔΕ = 1.22), and the highest value was for 10 wt.% ZrO2 while stored in MIL (ΔΕ = 6.07). The values of colour change for storage in water ranged from 0.49 (control) to 1.82 (10 wt.% ZrO2). The colour change value for the composite group containing 3 wt.% zirconia was clinically acceptable. However, high concentrations of denture cleaners should be avoided, and the shortest cleaning time is recommended to improve the clinical life of the nanocomposite denture base. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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17 pages, 3087 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fiber Posts on Stress Distribution of Endodontically Treated Upper Premolars: Finite Element Analysis
by Maciej Zarow, Mirco Vadini, Agnieszka Chojnacka-Brozek, Katarzyna Szczeklik, Grzegorz Milewski, Virginia Biferi, Camillo D’Arcangelo and Francesco De Angelis
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091708 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
By means of a finite element method (FEM), the present study evaluated the effect of fiber post (FP) placement on the stress distribution occurring in endodontically treated upper first premolars (UFPs) with mesial–occlusal–distal (MOD) nanohybrid composite restorations under subcritical static load. FEM models [...] Read more.
By means of a finite element method (FEM), the present study evaluated the effect of fiber post (FP) placement on the stress distribution occurring in endodontically treated upper first premolars (UFPs) with mesial–occlusal–distal (MOD) nanohybrid composite restorations under subcritical static load. FEM models were created to simulate four different clinical situations involving endodontically treated UFPs with MOD cavities restored with one of the following: composite resin; composite and one FP in the palatal root; composite and one FP in the buccal root; or composite and two FPs. As control, the model of an intact UFP was included. A simulated load of 150 N was applied. Stress distribution was observed on each model surface, on the mid buccal–palatal plane, and on two horizontal planes (at cervical and root-furcation levels); the maximum Von Mises stress values were calculated. All analyses were replicated three times, using the mechanical parameters from three different nanohybrid resin composite restorative materials. In the presence of FPs, the maximum stress values recorded on dentin (in cervical and root-furcation areas) appeared slightly reduced, compared to the endodontically treated tooth restored with no post; in the same areas, the overall Von Mises maps revealed more favorable stress distributions. FPs in maxillary premolars with MOD cavities can lead to a positive redistribution of potentially dangerous stress concentrations away from the cervical and the root-furcation dentin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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Review

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11 pages, 947 KiB  
Review
On the Application of Calcium Phosphate Micro- and Nanoparticles as Food Additive
by Joachim Enax, Frederic Meyer, Erik Schulze zur Wiesche and Matthias Epple
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(22), 4075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12224075 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4963
Abstract
The human body needs calcium and phosphate as essential nutrients to grow bones and teeth, but they are also necessary for many other biochemical purposes (e.g., the biosynthesis of phospholipids, adenosine triphosphate, ATP, or DNA). The use of solid calcium phosphate in particle [...] Read more.
The human body needs calcium and phosphate as essential nutrients to grow bones and teeth, but they are also necessary for many other biochemical purposes (e.g., the biosynthesis of phospholipids, adenosine triphosphate, ATP, or DNA). The use of solid calcium phosphate in particle form as a food additive is reviewed and discussed in terms of bioavailability and its safety after ingestion. The fact that all calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, are soluble in the acidic environment of the stomach, regardless of the particle size or phase, means that they are present as dissolved ions after passing through the stomach. These dissolved ions cannot be distinguished from a mixture of calcium and phosphate ions that were ingested separately, e.g., from cheese or milk together with soft drinks or meat. Milk, including human breast milk, is a natural source of calcium and phosphate in which calcium phosphate is present as nanoscopic clusters (nanoparticles) inside casein (protein) micelles. It is concluded that calcium phosphates are generally safe as food additives, also in baby formula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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41 pages, 8042 KiB  
Review
Medical and Dental Applications of Titania Nanoparticles: An Overview
by Afsheen Mansoor, Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad Talal Khan, Emaan Mansoor, Faaz Ahmad Butt, Asif Jamal and Paulo J. Palma
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(20), 3670; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12203670 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3862
Abstract
Currently, titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are successfully employed in human food, drugs, cosmetics, advanced medicine, and dentistry because of their non-cytotoxic, non-allergic, and bio-compatible nature when used in direct close contact with the human body. These NPs are the most versatile [...] Read more.
Currently, titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are successfully employed in human food, drugs, cosmetics, advanced medicine, and dentistry because of their non-cytotoxic, non-allergic, and bio-compatible nature when used in direct close contact with the human body. These NPs are the most versatile oxides as a result of their acceptable chemical stability, lower cost, strong oxidation properties, high refractive index, and enhanced aesthetics. These NPs are fabricated by conventional (physical and chemical) methods and the latest biological methods (biological, green, and biological derivatives), with their advantages and disadvantages in this epoch. The significance of TiO2 NPs as a medical material includes drug delivery release, cancer therapy, orthopedic implants, biosensors, instruments, and devices, whereas their significance as a dental biomaterial involves dentifrices, oral antibacterial disinfectants, whitening agents, and adhesives. In addition, TiO2 NPs play an important role in orthodontics (wires and brackets), endodontics (sealers and obturating materials), maxillofacial surgeries (implants and bone plates), prosthodontics (veneers, crowns, bridges, and acrylic resin dentures), and restorative dentistry (GIC and composites). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Oral Science)
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