Advances in Innovative Solutions for Ship Energy Efficiency

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 July 2024 | Viewed by 6566

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: naval engineering; ship performance assessment; data analysis; energy efficiency
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The shipping industry is continuously facing challenges in the improvement of ship energy efficiency. In addition, IMO’s framework for the reduction in GHG emissions encourages the adoption of innovative technologies to enhance energy efficiency, while operational measures can be also adopted as possible short-term solutions. On the other hand, there is an increasing trend in acquiring and analysing cost-effectively large amounts of operational data for the condition monitoring and real-time awareness of ship performance. Nevertheless, to truly explore and utilize the available data, advanced data analysis methods and tools are needed, specifically those related to predictive and prescriptive analytics based on data-driven knowledge of the underlying physical processes.

This Special Issue aims to collect studies related to innovative tools and methods for the assessment and improvement of ship energy efficiency. Researchers from both academia and the industry are invited to submit original papers that advance the state of the art of this field. The studies shall cover either design and/or operational aspects related to ship energy performance monitoring, assessment, and optimization.

Dr. Nikos Themelis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • retrofit design measures for energy-efficient ships
  • operational measures for improving energy efficiency (e.g., weather routing, speed, and trim optimization)
  • monitoring of ship performance (e.g., hull and propeller fouling, machinery degradation)
  • big data pre-processing and analysis
  • utilization of data-driven models
  • predictive maintenance
  • anomaly detection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 8459 KiB  
Article
Efficiency Enhancement of Marine Propellers via Reformation of Blade Tip-Rake Distribution
by Dimitra Anevlavi, Spiros Zafeiris, George Papadakis and Kostas Belibassakis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112179 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
This work addresses the effects of blade tip-rake reformation on the performance of marine propellers using a low-cost potential-based vortex-lattice method (VLM) and the high fidelity artificial compressibility CFD-RANS solver MaPFlow. The primary focus lies on determining whether the low-cost VLM, in conjunction [...] Read more.
This work addresses the effects of blade tip-rake reformation on the performance of marine propellers using a low-cost potential-based vortex-lattice method (VLM) and the high fidelity artificial compressibility CFD-RANS solver MaPFlow. The primary focus lies on determining whether the low-cost VLM, in conjunction with a multidimensional parametric model for the tip-rake and pitch/camber distributions, can produce a propeller geometry with improved efficiency. Due to the availability of experimental and numerical data, the NSRDC 4381-82 propellers were selected as reference geometries. Torque minimization serves as the objective function in the gradient-based optimization procedure under a thrust constraint, which translates into efficiency enhancement at the selected design advance ratio. The optimized 4381 propeller yields a +1.1% improvement in efficiency based on CFD-RANS, whereas for the modified skewed 4382 propeller, the efficiency gain is +0.5%. The performance enhancement is also evident at a region near the design advance ratio. The results suggest that the exploitation of low-cost VLM solvers can significantly reduce the CFD simulations required in the optimization process and thus can be effectively used for the design of propellers with tip-rake reformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Solutions for Ship Energy Efficiency)
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26 pages, 4653 KiB  
Article
Navigating Energy Efficiency: A Multifaceted Interpretability of Fuel Oil Consumption Prediction in Cargo Container Vessel Considering the Operational and Environmental Factors
by Melia Putri Handayani, Hyunju Kim, Sangbong Lee and Jihwan Lee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112165 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
In the maritime industry, optimizing vessel fuel oil consumption is crucial for improving energy efficiency and reducing shipping emissions. However, effectively utilizing operational data to advance performance monitoring and optimization remains a challenge. An XGBoost Regressor model was developed using a comprehensive dataset, [...] Read more.
In the maritime industry, optimizing vessel fuel oil consumption is crucial for improving energy efficiency and reducing shipping emissions. However, effectively utilizing operational data to advance performance monitoring and optimization remains a challenge. An XGBoost Regressor model was developed using a comprehensive dataset, delivering strong predictive performance (R2 = 0.95, MAE = 10.78 kg/h). This predictive model considers operational (controllable) and environmental (uncontrollable) variables, offering insights into complex FOC factors. To enhance interpretability, SHAP analysis is employed, revealing ‘Average Draught (Aft and Fore)’ as the key controllable factor and emphasizing ‘Relative Wind Speed’ as the dominant uncontrollable factor impacting vessel FOC. This research extends to further analysis of the extremely high FOC point, identifying patterns in the Strait of Malacca and the South China Sea. These findings provide region-specific insights, guiding energy efficiency improvement, operational strategy refinement, and sea resistance mitigation. In summary, our study introduces a groundbreaking framework leveraging machine learning and SHAP analysis to advance FOC understanding and enhance maritime decision making, contributing significantly to energy efficiency and operational strategies—a substantial contribution to a responsible shipping performance assessment under tightening regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Solutions for Ship Energy Efficiency)
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20 pages, 5318 KiB  
Article
Rule-Based Control Studies of LNG–Battery Hybrid Tugboat
by Sharul Baggio Roslan, Zhi Yung Tay, Dimitrios Konovessis, Joo Hock Ang and Nirmal Vineeth Menon
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071307 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
The use of hybrid energy systems in ships has increased in recent years due to environmental concerns and rising fuel prices. This paper focuses on the development and study of a hybrid energy system using liquefied natural gas (LNG) and batteries for a [...] Read more.
The use of hybrid energy systems in ships has increased in recent years due to environmental concerns and rising fuel prices. This paper focuses on the development and study of a hybrid energy system using liquefied natural gas (LNG) and batteries for a tugboat. The hybrid system model is created in MATLAB/Simulink® and uses fuel data obtained from an operational diesel-powered tugboat. The LNG–hybrid system is then subjected to testing in four distinct configurations: fixed speed, variable speed, and with and without a battery. The different configurations are compared by computing the daily fuel cost, CO2 emissions, energy efficiency operation indicator (EEOI) and carbon intensity indicator (CII) ratings in three distinct operation cases. The analysis reveals that the use of an LNG–battery hybrid tugboat results in an average reduction of 67.2% in CO2 emissions and an average decrease of 64.0% in daily fuel cost compared to a diesel system. An energy management system using rule-based (RB) control is incorporated to compare the daily cost and CO2 emissions for one of the case studies. The rule-based control that requires the battery to be used and the LNG engine to be switched off at the lowest allowable minimum power based on the specific gas consumption produces the most cost-effective control strategy out of all the different control strategies tested. The result demonstrates that an additional reduction of CO2 and daily fuel cost for LNG–battery hybrid tugboats by 23.8% and 22.3%, respectively, could be achieved with the implementation of the cost-effective strategy as compared to not having a control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Solutions for Ship Energy Efficiency)
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20 pages, 7874 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of Flow Control Fins for a Small Container Ship Based on Machine Learning
by Min-Kyung Lee and Inwon Lee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061149 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
In this study, the optimal design of flow control fins (FCFs) for a container ship was carried out via a machine learning approach. The conventional design practice for the FCF relied on simulation-based performance evaluation, which demands a large amount of analysis time. [...] Read more.
In this study, the optimal design of flow control fins (FCFs) for a container ship was carried out via a machine learning approach. The conventional design practice for the FCF relied on simulation-based performance evaluation, which demands a large amount of analysis time. Instead of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based prediction, artificial neural network (ANN)-based prediction was attempted. Prior to the machine learning process, the wake distribution data were collected systematically via CFD. Based on the collected data, the wake distributions and resistance performance dependent on varying the fin positions were learned using the ANN, and the optimal fin position was selected with relevant optimization techniques. When multi-objective optimization was employed, it was found that both wake distributions and resistance performance were improved in a practically applicable timeframe. The current process is superior to conventional simulation-based optimization in terms of speed. From the viewpoint of prediction accuracy, in this study, ANN-based prediction was found to be equally accurate as CFD-based prediction. Thus, the results can provide a novel and reliable design methodology for the optimal design of ship appendages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Solutions for Ship Energy Efficiency)
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18 pages, 6351 KiB  
Article
Optimized Route Planning under the Effect of Hull and Propeller Fouling and Considering Ocean Currents
by Ageliki Kytariolou and Nikos Themelis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040828 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Route planning procedures for ocean-going vessels depend significantly on prevailing weather conditions, the ship’s design characteristics and the current operational state of the vessel. The operational status considers hull and propeller fouling, which significantly affects fuel oil consumption coupled with route selection. The [...] Read more.
Route planning procedures for ocean-going vessels depend significantly on prevailing weather conditions, the ship’s design characteristics and the current operational state of the vessel. The operational status considers hull and propeller fouling, which significantly affects fuel oil consumption coupled with route selection. The current paper examines the effect of the fouling level on the selection of the optimized route compared with the clean hull/propeller as well as the orthodrome/loxodrome route. A developed weather routing tool is utilized, which is based on a physics-based model for the calculation of the main engine’s fuel oil consumption enriched to account for different fouling levels of the hull and the propeller. A genetic algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. A case regarding a containership in trans-Atlantic transit using forecasted weather data is presented. The effect of ocean currents is also examined as it was derived that they greatly affect route selection, revealing a strong dependence on the level of fouling. Ignoring the fouling impact can result in miscalculations regarding the estimated fuel oil consumption for a transit. Similarly, when ocean currents are ignored in the route planning process, the resulting optimal paths do not ensure energy saving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Solutions for Ship Energy Efficiency)
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