Adult Lung Disease: Clinical Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pulmonology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 3094

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Complex Structure of Internal Medicine, University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità", Novara, Italy
2. Department of Translational Medicine, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy
3. IRCAD-Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases, Novara, Italy
Interests: lung diseases; respiratory insufficiency; lung lesions; lung masses; vaccines; antibiotic therapy; respiratory physiotherapy; spirometry
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, some common and rare lung diseases are well-defined, and others are almost unknown. The scientific community updates the guidelines, such as GINA or GOLD guidelines, almost every year to help clinicians in everyday practice. New evidence is emerging about the effectiveness of innovative treatments involving combinations of traditional drugs or small molecules, monoclonal antibodies, and bronchial electrotherapies; even nutraceuticals are used for long-term care. With this Special Issue, we aim to collect information to help clinicians care for their patients. Reviews and articles are welcome. We will collect crucial clinical observations on a single patient or small or large population data. We wish to collate scientific research on adult lung diseases regarding symptoms, objective manifestations, haematochemical and instrumental data, follow-ups, common and rare lung disease therapies, and possibly descriptions of new diseases or unusual signs/symptoms.

Dr. Daniele Sola
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cough
  • dyspnea
  • tachypnea-bradypnea
  • bronchospasm
  • hemophthous
  • respiratory insufficiency
  • pulmonary fibrosis
  • hypoxia-hypercapnia
  • biological therapy
  • non-invasive ventilation
  • bronchoscopy-broncholavage

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 744 KiB  
Article
Clinical Features and Outcomes of Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myositis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in Rural Appalachia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Vishal Deepak, Bhanusowmya Buragamadagu, Fnu Rida Ul Jannat, Rachel Salyer, Ty Landis, Sayanika Kaur and Bathmapriya Balakrishnan
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051294 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Background: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a group of autoimmune disorders often complicated by interstitial lung disease (ILD). The clinical characteristics and outcomes of IIM-associated ILD have been reported variably, but the literature on rural populations is scarce. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Background: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a group of autoimmune disorders often complicated by interstitial lung disease (ILD). The clinical characteristics and outcomes of IIM-associated ILD have been reported variably, but the literature on rural populations is scarce. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a rural tertiary academic medical center. Twenty-nine patients met the final inclusion criteria. The primary outcome was to assess the disease state and immunological and radiographic features of IIM-associated ILD. Secondary outcomes included disease progression, ILD exacerbation, mortality rate, and factors associated with poor outcome. Results: Dermatomyositis (n = 15, 51.72%) followed by polymyositis (n = 8, 27.58%) were predominant myopathies. The most common autoantibodies were anti-Jo1 antibodies (n = 11, 37.93%). Indeterminate usual interstitial pneumonitis (41.30%, n = 12) was the most common radiographic pattern followed by non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 5, 17.24%). ILD exacerbation (n = 14, 66.66%) and mortality rate (n = 6, 20.69%) were high. Albumin levels were significantly lower in patients who died. Conclusions: The clinical characteristics of patients with IIM-associated ILD in rural Appalachia exhibit notable distinctions, and outcomes are worse compared to other populations. Larger studies are needed to investigate other prognostics factors and longitudinal trends of clinical characteristics and outcomes of IIM-associated ILD in rural populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Lung Disease: Clinical Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment)
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14 pages, 1330 KiB  
Article
The National Early Warning Score 2 with Age and Body Mass Index (NEWS2 Plus) to Determine Patients with Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia
by Konlawij Trongtrakul, Pattraporn Tajarernmuang, Atikun Limsukon, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Nutchanok Niyatiwatchanchai, Karjbundid Surasit, Pimpimok Glunriangsang, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Chaicharn Pothirat, Juthamas Inchai, Warawut Chaiwong, Panida Chanayat and Athavudh Deesomchok
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010298 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
(1) Background: Early identification of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia at the initial phase of hospitalization is very crucial. To address this, we validated and updated the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) for this purpose. (2) Methods: We conducted a study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Early identification of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia at the initial phase of hospitalization is very crucial. To address this, we validated and updated the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) for this purpose. (2) Methods: We conducted a study on adult patients with COVID-19 infection in Chiang Mai, Thailand, between May 2021 and October 2021. (3) Results: From a total of 725 COVID-19 adult patients, 350 (48.3%) patients suffered severe COVID-19 pneumonia. In determining severe COVID-19 pneumonia, NEWS2 and NEWS2 + Age + BMI (NEWS2 Plus) showed the C-statistic values of 0.798 (95% CI, 0.767–0.830) and 0.821 (95% CI, 0.791–0.850), respectively. The C-statistic values of NEWS2 Plus were significantly improved compared to those of NEWS2 alone (p = 0.012). Utilizing a cut-off point of five, NEWS2 Plus exhibited better sensitivity and negative predictive value than the traditional NEWS2, with values of 99.7% vs. 83.7% and 98.9% vs. 80.7%, respectively. (4) Conclusions: The incorporation of age and BMI into the traditional NEWS2 score enhanced the efficacy of determining severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Physicians can rely on NEWS2 Plus (NEWS2 + Age + BMI) as a more effective decision-making tool for triaging COVID-19 patients during early hospitalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Lung Disease: Clinical Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment)
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15 pages, 7392 KiB  
Article
Mapping the Most Common Founder Variant in RSPH9 That Causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in Multiple Consanguineous Families of Bedouin Arabs
by Dalal A. Al-Mutairi, Basel H. Alsabah, Petra Pennekamp and Heymut Omran
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(20), 6505; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12206505 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Introduction: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a congenital thoracic disorder caused by dysfunction of motile cilia, resulting in insufficient mucociliary clearance of the lungs. The overall aim of this study is to identify causative defective genes in PCD-affected individuals in the Kuwaiti population. [...] Read more.
Introduction: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a congenital thoracic disorder caused by dysfunction of motile cilia, resulting in insufficient mucociliary clearance of the lungs. The overall aim of this study is to identify causative defective genes in PCD-affected individuals in the Kuwaiti population. Methods: A cohort of multiple consanguineous PCD families was identified from Kuwaiti patients and genomic DNA from the family members was isolated using standard procedures. The DNA samples from all affected individuals were analyzed by whole exome sequencing (WES). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescent analysis (IF) were performed on samples obtained by nasal brushings to identify specific structural abnormalities within ciliated cells. Results: Here, we present six multiplex families with 11 patients who all presented with typical PCD symptoms. Ten out of eleven patients inherited a 3 bp homozygous deletion of GAA in RSPH9, whereas the eleventh patients inherited this variant in trans with a frameshift deletion in RSPH9. Genetic results were confirmed by segregation analysis. The in-frame deletion of GAA in RSPH9 has previously been published as pathogenic in both annotated RSPH9 transcript variants (1 and 2). In contrast, the previously unpublished RSPH9 frameshift deletion identified in KU-15.IV2 impacts only RSPH9 transcript variant two. Regarding all 11 PCD individuals analyzed, IF results demonstrated absence of RSPH9 protein and TEM analysis showed the typical findings in RSPH9 mutant individuals. Conclusions: We present the largest cohort of PCD individuals affected by the founder in-frame deletion GAA in RSPH9. This founder variant is the most common PCD-causing variant in Bedouin Arabs in Kuwait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Lung Disease: Clinical Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment)
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