Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Clinical Advances and Challenges

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 963

Special Issue Editors

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical School, University of Pecs, 7624 Pecs, Hungary
Interests: intensive care; subarachnoid hemorrhage; delayed cerebral ischemia; traumatic brain injury
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pecs, 7624 Pécs, Hungary
Interests: ischemic stroke; subarachnoid hemorrhage; vasospasm; thrombectomy; post-COVID; long COVID
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), primarily caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysms, is a serious condition that causes severe disability primarily in young, productive adults. For decades, it has been treated with surgical arterial clipping or, more commonly, endovascular treatment. Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is the most common complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and it is also an important cause of death and disability in SAH. Active prevention and treatment of CVS is the key to improving the prognosis of SAH.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide an up-to-date overview of the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and management of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We seek original, high-quality research papers, as well as review articles, that address major research challenges and achievements on the topic.

Prof. Dr. Tihamér Molnár
Dr. Péter Csécsei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • epidural and subdural hematomas
  • intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage
  • hemorrhagic stroke
  • cerebral infarction
  • hypertension
  • early brain damage
  • delayed cerebral vasospasm
  • neurobehavioral aspects
  • ruptured intracranial aneurysm
  • neuroinflammation
  • epidemiological studies
  • neuroimaging
  • clinical guidelines
  • neurocritical care management
  • surgery
  • new drug therapies
  • diagnosis
  • treatment
  • management
  • risk factors
  • prognosis
  • clinical outcome

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
External Ventricular Drain Placement, Critical Care Utilization, Complications, and Clinical Outcomes after Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(4), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13041032 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Background: To examine the association between external ventricular drain (EVD) placement, critical care utilization, complications, and clinical outcomes in hospitalized adults with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: A single-center retrospective study included SAH patients 18 years and older, admitted between 1 January 2014 [...] Read more.
Background: To examine the association between external ventricular drain (EVD) placement, critical care utilization, complications, and clinical outcomes in hospitalized adults with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: A single-center retrospective study included SAH patients 18 years and older, admitted between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2022. The exposure variable was EVD. The primary outcomes of interest were (1) early mortality (<72 h), (2) overall mortality, (3) improvement in modified-World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (m-WFNSs) grade between admission and discharge, and (4) discharge to home at the end of the hospital stay. We adjusted for admission m-WFNS grade, age, sex, race/ethnicity, intraventricular hemorrhage, aneurysmal cause of SAH, mechanical ventilation, critical care utilization, and complications within a multivariable analysis. We reported adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The study sample included 1346 patients: 18% (n = 243) were between the ages of 18 and 44 years, 48% (n = 645) were between the age of 45–64 years, and 34% (n = 458) were 65 years and older, with other statistics of females (56%, n = 756), m-WFNS I–III (57%, n = 762), m-WFNS IV–V (43%, n = 584), 51% mechanically ventilated, 76% White (n = 680), and 86% English-speaking (n = 1158). Early mortality occurred in 11% (n = 142). Overall mortality was 21% (n = 278), 53% (n = 707) were discharged to their home, and 25% (n = 331) improved their m-WFNS between admission and discharge. Altogether, 54% (n = 731) received EVD placement. After adjusting for covariates, the results of the multivariable analysis demonstrated that EVD placement was associated with reduced early mortality (aOR 0.21 [0.14, 0.33]), an improvement in m-WFNS grade (aOR 2.06 [1.42, 2.99]) but not associated with overall mortality (aOR 0.69 [0.47, 1.00]) or being discharged home at the end of the hospital stay (aOR 1.00 [0.74, 1.36]). EVD was associated with a higher rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (aOR 2.32 [1.03, 5.23]), delirium (aOR 1.56 [1.05, 2.32]), and a longer ICU (aOR 1.33 [1.29;1.36]) and hospital length of stay (aOR 1.09 [1.07;1.10]). Critical care utilization was also higher in patients with EVD compared to those without. Conclusions: The study suggests that EVD placement in hospitalized adults with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with reduced early mortality and improved neurological recovery, albeit with higher critical care utilization and complications. These findings emphasize the potential clinical benefits of EVD placement in managing SAH. However, further research and prospective studies may be necessary to validate these results and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing clinical outcomes in SAH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Clinical Advances and Challenges)
16 pages, 855 KiB  
Article
CLR (C-Reactive Protein to Lymphocyte Ratio) Served as a Promising Predictive Biomarker for Cerebral Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (aSAH): A Retrospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(4), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13040940 - 06 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a devastating disease. Even after state-of-the-art treatment patients suffer from complications, including cerebral vasospasm (CVS), delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and chronic hydrocephalus (CH) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The aim of our study is to identify the predictive [...] Read more.
Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a devastating disease. Even after state-of-the-art treatment patients suffer from complications, including cerebral vasospasm (CVS), delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and chronic hydrocephalus (CH) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The aim of our study is to identify the predictive value of the C-reactive protein to lymphocyte ratio (CLR) for neurological functional outcome and complications after aSAH. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a total of 166 aSAH patients who met the inclusion criteria enrolled in our study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent risk factors. The predictive value of different models was compared by calculating the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: On-admission levels of CLR in patients with poor outcomes (6 months mRS 3–6), CVS, DCI, and CH were significantly higher than those in patients with good outcomes (6 months mRS 0–2), non-CVS, non-DCI, and non-CH. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that admission CLR was independently associated with CVS (OR [95% CI] 2.116 [1.507–2.971]; p < 0.001), and DCI (OR [95% CI] 1.594 [1.220–2.084]; p = 0.001). In ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of CLR for poor outcomes (6 months mRS 3–6), CVS, DCI, and CH prediction were (AUC [95% CI] 0.639 [0.555–0.724]; p = 0.002), (AUC [95% CI] 0.834 [0.767–0.901]; p < 0.001), (AUC [95% CI] 0.679 [0.581–0.777]; p < 0.001), and (AUC [95% CI] 0.628 [0.543–0.713]; p = 0.005) revealing that admission CLR had a favorable predictive value for CVS after aSAH. The sensitivity and specificity of admission CLR for CVS prediction were 77.1% and 75.4%. On-admission CLR of 0.757 mg × 10−6 was identified as the best cutoff threshold to discriminate between CVS and non-CVS (CVS: CLR < 0.757 mg × 10−6 11/100 [11.0%] vs. CLR ≥ 0.757 mg × 10−6 37/66 [56.1%]; p < 0.001). Conclusions: High levels of on-admission CLR serve as an independent risk factor for CVS and DCI after aSAH. Admission CLR is an easy-to-quantify laboratory parameter that efficiently predicts the CVS after aSAH, which can provide some guidance for clinicians to evaluate for possible progression and treatment strategies in patients with aSAH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Clinical Advances and Challenges)
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