Dual-Energy and Spectral CT in Clinical Practice

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Nuclear Medicine & Radiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 2018

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Radiology, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37042 Verona, Italy
Interests: MSK imaging; CT; DECT; MRI; shoulder; hip; adrenal; liver; pancreas; lung; infectious diseases; endometriosis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) currently represents a powerful imaging tool in clinical practice. Thanks to its intrinsic high spatial and contrast resolution, DECT can been used in clinical practice to diagnose brain, body and skeletal disorders in both acute and elective settings. In particular, DECT has been widely used to improve the identification of substances from different spectral information by using dedicated algorithms. In musculo-skeletal radiology, DECT has been proposed as an alternative to MRI for the identification of bone marrow edema. Additionally, monoenergetic reconstruction can be employed for the reduction of metal-induced artifacts, or to increase the conspicuity of contrast material within the arterial and venous vessels or to increase the contrast in the abdominal parenchyma. Finally, DECT has been suggested for the quantitative assessment of bone, fat, and muscle composition.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dual-energy and spectral CT applications in clinical practice. Therefore, researchers in the field of DECT are encouraged to submit their findings as original research articles or reviews to this Special Issue.

Dr. Giovanni Foti
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • dual-energy CT
  • spectral CT
  • bone marrow edema
  • prosthesis
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • lung
  • kidney
  • adrenal
  • brain
  • abdomen
  • cardiac
  • coronary arteries
  • arthritis
  • myeloma

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2804 KiB  
Article
The Clinical Utility of Lower Extremity Dual-Energy CT Angiography in the Detection of Bone Marrow Edema in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease
by Chiara Floridi, Laura Maria Cacioppa, Tommaso Valeri, Nicolo Rossini, Marzia Rosati, Vincenzo Vento, Alessandro Felicioli, Marco Macchini, Roberto Candelari, Marina Carotti and Andrea Giovagnoni
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061536 - 7 Mar 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: Type 2 diabetes is a major cause of incidences and the progression of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Bone marrow edema (BME) is an important finding suggestive of underlying bone inflammation in non-traumatic diabetic patients with PAD. Our aim was to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Type 2 diabetes is a major cause of incidences and the progression of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Bone marrow edema (BME) is an important finding suggestive of underlying bone inflammation in non-traumatic diabetic patients with PAD. Our aim was to evaluate the presence, severity, and clinical implications of BME detected by virtual non-calcium application (VNCa) of dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA). (2) Methods: A consecutive series of 76 diabetic patients (55 men; mean age 71.6 ± 11.2 yrs) submitted to lower limb DE-CTA for PAD evaluation and revascularization planning, which were retrospectively analyzed. VNCa images were independently and blindly revised for the presence, location, and severity of BME by two radiologists with 10 years of experience. BME and non-BME groups were evaluated in terms of PAD clinical severity and 6-month secondary major amputation rate. (3) Results: BME was present in 17 (22%) cases, while 59 (78%) patients were non-BME. The BME group showed a significantly higher incidence of major amputation (p < 0.001) and a significantly higher number of patients with advanced clinical stages of PAD compared to the non-BME group (p = 0.024). (4) Conclusions: Lower limb DE-CTA with VNCa application is a useful tool in the detection of BME in diabetic patients with PAD, simultaneously enabling the evaluation of the severity and location of the arterial disease for revascularization planning. BME presence could be a marker of clinically severe PAD and a possible risk factor for revascularization failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dual-Energy and Spectral CT in Clinical Practice)
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Review

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22 pages, 2403 KiB  
Review
Spectral Photon-Counting Computed Tomography: Technical Principles and Applications in the Assessment of Cardiovascular Diseases
by Antonella Meloni, Erica Maffei, Alberto Clemente, Carmelo De Gori, Mariaelena Occhipinti, Vicenzo Positano, Sergio Berti, Ludovico La Grutta, Luca Saba, Riccardo Cau, Eduardo Bossone, Cesare Mantini, Carlo Cavaliere, Bruna Punzo, Simona Celi and Filippo Cademartiri
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(8), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13082359 - 18 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Spectral Photon-Counting Computed Tomography (SPCCT) represents a groundbreaking advancement in X-ray imaging technology. The core innovation of SPCCT lies in its photon-counting detectors, which can count the exact number of incoming x-ray photons and individually measure their energy. The first part of this [...] Read more.
Spectral Photon-Counting Computed Tomography (SPCCT) represents a groundbreaking advancement in X-ray imaging technology. The core innovation of SPCCT lies in its photon-counting detectors, which can count the exact number of incoming x-ray photons and individually measure their energy. The first part of this review summarizes the key elements of SPCCT technology, such as energy binning, energy weighting, and material decomposition. Its energy-discriminating ability represents the key to the increase in the contrast between different tissues, the elimination of the electronic noise, and the correction of beam-hardening artifacts. Material decomposition provides valuable insights into specific elements’ composition, concentration, and distribution. The capability of SPCCT to operate in three or more energy regimes allows for the differentiation of several contrast agents, facilitating quantitative assessments of elements with specific energy thresholds within the diagnostic energy range. The second part of this review provides a brief overview of the applications of SPCCT in the assessment of various cardiovascular disease processes. SPCCT can support the study of myocardial blood perfusion and enable enhanced tissue characterization and the identification of contrast agents, in a manner that was previously unattainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dual-Energy and Spectral CT in Clinical Practice)
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