Breast and Thyroid Surgery in 2021 and Beyond

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology & Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 8695

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University Hospital "G. Martino" of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: general surgery; breast and endocrine surgery; minimally invasive surgery; traumatology and innovative surgical techniques development
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The association between breast and thyroid neoplastic pathologies has been the subject of recent scientific publications. The underlying causes are both hormonal and related to radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Thyroid autoimmunity, following the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune system, could also influence the prognosis of breast cancer. Therefore, an integrated breast–thyroid follow-up is always recommended.

Furthermore, both breast and thyroid surgery have seen qualitative progress. For oncoplastic breast surgery, from 2000 to date, there has been a focus on minimizing the psychological impact on patients undergoing procedures for the removal of malignant neoplasms, preventing asymmetries with respect to the contralateral breast or poor aesthetic outcomes. More recently, thyroid surgery had seen the implementation of new scarless surgical procedures. Although the first studies concerned the application of these new techniques to benign pathologies, some authors have also applied these new methods in cancer patients, even children, with positive results.

Prof. Fausto Famà
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Breast and thyroid disease
  • Breast and thyroid integrated follow-up
  • Conservative breast surgery
  • Oncoplastic breast surgery
  • Endoscopic thyroid surgery
  • New techniques in breast and thyroid surgery

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 191 KiB  
Editorial
Breast and Thyroid Surgery in 2021 and Beyond
by Fausto Fama’
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(10), 2894; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11102894 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
Several studies in the literature report the association between breast and thyroid pathologies; however, the underlying causes (genetic, environmental, hormonal or immunological) have not yet been well explicated [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast and Thyroid Surgery in 2021 and Beyond)

Research

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12 pages, 733 KiB  
Article
Development of Histologically Verified Thyroid Diseases in Women Operated for Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature and a Case Series
by Fausto Fama’, Alessandro Sindoni, Hui Sun, Hoon Yub Kim, Girolamo Geraci, Michele Rosario Colonna, Carmelo Mazzeo, Gabriela Brenta, Mariarosaria Galeano, Salvatore Benvenga and Gianlorenzo Dionigi
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(11), 3154; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11113154 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Background: The possible relationships between breast and thyroid diseases have been reported in the literature. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of histologically verified thyroid pathologies in women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and, after mastectomy/quadrantectomy complemented by [...] Read more.
Background: The possible relationships between breast and thyroid diseases have been reported in the literature. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of histologically verified thyroid pathologies in women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and, after mastectomy/quadrantectomy complemented by oncological treatment, were thyroidectomized based on their periodic thyroid evaluation. Patients and Methods: Our series consist of 31 women with a mean age of 62.9 ± 10.9 years (range, 45–81) treated for breast cancer (18 right-sided, 11 left-sided, and 2 bilateral), of whom 29 were thyroidectomized, since two women who developed Graves’ disease refused thyroidectomy. These 31 women belong to a cohort of 889 women who referred to the Breast Surgery Unit of our university hospital during the period January 2010 through December 2020. Results: The mean time interval between breast cancer and thyroid pathologies was 48.1 ± 23.4 months (range, 12–95). The final diagnosis at histopathology was infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in 26 women (with 2/26 patients having bilateral carcinoma) and infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma in the other 5 women. Ten of the twenty-nine thyroidectomized women (34.5%) had a thyroid malignancy on histology: five papillary carcinomas, three papillary micro-carcinomas and two follicular carcinomas. Two of the five women with papillary carcinoma also had histological evidence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which was also detected in another five women with benign thyroid diseases. Conclusions: We suggest that breast cancer survivors should be made aware of the possible increased risk of thyroid pathologies (including thyroid malignancy) so that they can undergo screening and follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast and Thyroid Surgery in 2021 and Beyond)
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13 pages, 8002 KiB  
Article
Oncoplastic Surgery and the Clinical Features of Breast Cancer—Relevant Factors Associated with Reoperation in Breast Oncoplastic Surgery
by Alicja Forma, Robert Sitarz, Jacek Baj, Krzysztof Sołowiej, Sergiusz Łukasiewicz and Andrzej Stanisławek
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030817 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Oncoplastic breast surgery slowly becomes a part of routine breast cancer surgical management but evidence with regard to oncological safety remains limited. The aim of this study was to compare relevant factors associated with the particular type of breast carcinoma and the applied [...] Read more.
Oncoplastic breast surgery slowly becomes a part of routine breast cancer surgical management but evidence with regard to oncological safety remains limited. The aim of this study was to compare relevant factors associated with the particular type of breast carcinoma and the applied surgical techniques either with or without oncoplastic surgery. This retrospective study enrolled the breast cancer female patients who underwent breast-conserving therapy alone or with the oncoplastic surgery in the Department of Surgical Oncology at the Center of Oncology of the Lublin Region St. Jana from Dukli in the years 2008–2011. The study involves 679 breast cancer patients who underwent oncoplasty (n = 81) and the control group (n = 598). There is a significant relationship between the histological type of breast cancer (p = 0.00000) along with the expression of estrogen and/or progesterone receptors (p = 0.01285) and the usage of oncoplastic surgery in breast cancer patients. Interestingly, in the majority of cases, there was no need to conduct a reoperation. Oncoplastic surgery is an effective and safe strategy that might be favorable especially for those patients who are potential candidates for more invasive surgical methods. High-quality evidence to support the oncological safety and benefits of oncoplastic breast surgery is lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast and Thyroid Surgery in 2021 and Beyond)
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10 pages, 535 KiB  
Article
Preoperative Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Level Correlates with Surgical Difficulty and Outcome in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis
by Kian-Hwee Chong, Ming-Hsun Wu, Chuang-Wei Chen, Tsung-Han Hsieh and Chieh-Wen Lai
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4034; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184034 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Surgical treatment for autoimmune thyroid disease is theoretically risky due to its chronic inflammatory status. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between preoperative serum migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels and the difficulty of thyroidectomy in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Forty-four patients (average [...] Read more.
Surgical treatment for autoimmune thyroid disease is theoretically risky due to its chronic inflammatory status. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between preoperative serum migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels and the difficulty of thyroidectomy in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Forty-four patients (average age: 54 years) were prospectively recruited: 30 with autoimmune thyroiditis and 14 with nodular goiter. Preoperative serum samples were collected to measure MIF levels. The difficulty of thyroidectomy was evaluated using a 20-point thyroidectomy difficulty scale (TDS) scoring system. The potential correlations between MIF levels and clinicopathological features as well as postoperative complications were analyzed. Preoperative serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), TSH receptor antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels, TDS score, and serum MIF levels were significantly higher in the autoimmune thyroiditis group than those in the goiter group. MIF levels were significantly associated with postoperative transient recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism. MIF levels were positively correlated with TDS score, operation time, and blood loss in the autoimmune thyroiditis group. Increased preoperative serum MIF levels are associated with higher TDS scores, operation time, blood loss, and postoperative complications. Preoperative serum MIF level may be a useful predictor of difficult thyroidectomy and help surgeons provide better preoperative management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast and Thyroid Surgery in 2021 and Beyond)
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Review

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15 pages, 1821 KiB  
Review
Thyroid Metastasis from Primary Breast Cancer
by Armando Patrizio, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Giulio Stoppini, Elena Palmisano, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Eugenia Balestri, Valeria Mazzi, Chiara Botrini, Agnese Proietti, Fausto Famà, Salvatore Benvenga, Alessandro Antonelli and Poupak Fallahi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2709; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072709 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC), the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, frequently metastasizes to the bone, lungs, brain and liver at advanced stages, whereas the thyroid gland represents a rare target site for secondary disease. We examined the most recent literature about thyroid metastasis (TM) from [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC), the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, frequently metastasizes to the bone, lungs, brain and liver at advanced stages, whereas the thyroid gland represents a rare target site for secondary disease. We examined the most recent literature about thyroid metastasis (TM) from BC after we encountered a peculiar case of a 71-year-old woman who developed sudden dysphagia, severe hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism due to TM 18 years after the diagnosis of her primary cancer. Based on published data, the prevalence of TM in BC ranges from 3% to 34%, with a median onset time of 48.2 months, although longer time intervals are not infrequent. TM negatively impacts the prognosis of these patients, however thyroid surgery can limit the local disease burden. Therefore, we suggest that clinicians involved in the follow-up care of BC patients should consider a differential diagnosis of secondary thyroid malignancy when incidental lesions are diagnosed during radiological evaluations or local symptoms affect the cervical region, even many years after the diagnosis of the primary cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast and Thyroid Surgery in 2021 and Beyond)
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