Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811). This special issue belongs to the section "Infrastructures Materials and Constructions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 26352

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Director & Associate Professor, Southern Colorado Institute of Transportation Technology & School of Engineering, Colorado State University Pueblo, Pueblo, CO 81001, USA
Interests: transportation geotechniques (soil, aggregates, erosion controls, asphalt); pavement analysis; pavement design; non-destructive testing of pavement; instrumentation; pavement distresses; recycling of asphalt; energy savings in pavement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jackson State University, 1400 J.R. Lynch Street, JSU BOX 17068, Jackson, MS 39217-0168, USA
Interests: transportation geotechnics; climate adaptive infrastructures; sustainable and green techniques; effect of climate change on the geo-infrastructure
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Utica, NY 13502, USA
Interests: geotechnical instrumentation and performance monitoring; sustainable infrastructure; transportation geotechnics; retaining structures; numerical modeling; geophysical testing; unsaturated soil mechanics; climate and seasonal effect on infrastructures; geotechnics of landfill
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce this Special Issue for the journal Infrastructures. This Special Issue focuses on the properties, behavior and performance of geomaterials used in all types of transportation infrastructure from an interdisciplinary perspective. The objective of this issue is to provide cutting-edge knowledge and future prospective of the material aspects of transportation infrastructures.

Topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to, properties of both saturated and unsaturated geomaterials such as soils, aggregates, soil and rock mixtures, asphalt, concrete, geosynthetics, and recycled and alternative materials for innovative and sustainable design and construction of transportation infrastructures. The behavior of stabilized geomaterials such as mixtures of soils with cement, lime, fly ash, polymers, geosynthetics and reinforcement of constructed layers and interlayers, climatic effects are also welcomed. Case studies that describe original/innovative work applicable to construction, maintenance and the repair of transportation infrastructure are also strongly encouraged.

Dr. Md Rashadul Islam
Dr. Sadik Khan
Dr. Asif Ahmed
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • soils
  • aggregates
  • soil and rock mixtures
  • geosynthetics
  • recycled and alternative materials

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 159 KiB  
Editorial
Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures
by Md Rashadul Islam, Mohammad Sadik Khan and Asif Ahmed
Infrastructures 2021, 6(7), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6070103 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2457
Abstract
The American Society of Civil Engineers’ (ASCE) quadrennial report card exhibited the grim picture of nation’s transportation infrastructure [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)

Research

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19 pages, 2380 KiB  
Article
Experimental Insight into the Containment of Plastic Waste in Cement-Stabilised Soil as a Road Pavement Layer Material
by Isaac Akinwumi, Oluwatomisin Soladoye, Victor Ajayi and Promise Epelle
Infrastructures 2022, 7(12), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7120172 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
Plastic waste (PW) constitutes a nuisance to our environment despite several efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle it. This study experimentally explores the possibility of storing plastic waste within a cement-stabilised soil that can be used as a road pavement layer material without [...] Read more.
Plastic waste (PW) constitutes a nuisance to our environment despite several efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle it. This study experimentally explores the possibility of storing plastic waste within a cement-stabilised soil that can be used as a road pavement layer material without adversely affecting the geotechnical characteristics of the stabilised soil. The soil is an A-2-6 soil, according to classification by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Compaction characteristics, the California bearing ratio (CBR) and the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of soil with 10% cement were determined for the 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15% addition of PW. The cementing of soil particles, which played a vital role in enhancing its strength on the addition of cement, may have been activated by the pozzolanic reaction between cement and soil particles. However, the addition of PW to this cement-stabilised mix led to a decrease in strength parameters at all variations. The soil with 10% cement and 2% PW yielded higher strength when compared to other mix ratios with PW and is suitable for use as a layer material in road pavement construction. As a sustainable strategy for PW management in developing nations, the usage of PW in cement-stabilised soil layer is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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13 pages, 1774 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Slope Stabilization Using Recycled Plastic Pins in Yazoo Clay
by Mohammad Sadik Khan, Masoud Nobahar and John Ivoke
Infrastructures 2021, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6030047 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Geographically, at the center of Mississippi is a concentration of High Plastic Yazoo Clay Soil (HPYCS). Shallow landslides frequently occur in embankments constructed with HPYCS caused by rainfall-induced saturation of the embankment slope. The traditional methods are becoming expensive to repair the shallow [...] Read more.
Geographically, at the center of Mississippi is a concentration of High Plastic Yazoo Clay Soil (HPYCS). Shallow landslides frequently occur in embankments constructed with HPYCS caused by rainfall-induced saturation of the embankment slope. The traditional methods are becoming expensive to repair the shallow slope failure. The use of Recycled Plastic Pins (RPPs) to stabilize shallow slope failures offers a significant cost and construction benefit and can be a useful remedial measure for these types of failures. The current study investigates the effectiveness of RPP in slopes constructed with HPYCS, using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The FEM analysis was conducted with the PLAXIS 2D software package. Three uniform and varied RPP spacings were investigated to reinforce 2–4H:1V slopes. Reinforced slope stability analyses were performed to investigate the applicability of RPP in HPYCS. The FEM analysis results indicated that RPP provides shear resistance for the sloping embankment constructed of HPYCS. Uniform spacing of RPP provides sufficient resistance that increases the Factor of Safety (FS) to 1.68 in 2H:1V slopes with deformation of RPP less than 15 mm. The uniform spacing and varied spacing combination of RPP increase the FS to 2.0 with the deformation of RPP less 7 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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19 pages, 8496 KiB  
Article
Effect of Elapsed Time after Mixing on the Strength Properties of Lime–Iron Ore Tailings Treated Black Cotton Soil as a Road Construction Material
by Annafi Qaudri Babatunde, Eberemu Adrian Oshioname, Yohanna Paul and Osinubi Kolawole Junwolo
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5110089 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2345
Abstract
The study evaluated the effect of elapsed time after mixing on the strength properties of lime and iron ore tailings (IOT) treated black cotton soil (BCS) (an expansive tropical black clay) as road construction material. BCS was treated with 0, 2, 4, 6, [...] Read more.
The study evaluated the effect of elapsed time after mixing on the strength properties of lime and iron ore tailings (IOT) treated black cotton soil (BCS) (an expansive tropical black clay) as road construction material. BCS was treated with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% lime and 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% IOT content by dry weight of soil. Tests carried out include Atterberg limits, compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), California bearing ratio (CBR) (unsoaked condition), and microstructure of specimens. Statistical analysis was done using MINI-TAB software. Results show that the liquid limit (LL) of BCS–lime–IOT mixtures decreased with increase in lime and IOT content. The LL values of all the treated BCS increased between 0 and 1 h elapsed time after mixing. On the other hand, the plastic limit (PL) of BCS decreased with increase in lime and IOT content while the plasticity index (PI) decreased from 27.7 to 22.9% for 0% lime/0% IOT content and from 30.6 to 26.6% for 0% lime/10% IOT content. Maximum dry density (MDD) of BCS increased while optimum moisture content (OMC) decreased with higher IOT content. The natural BCS recorded OMC value of 25.6% decreased to 15.2% for 8% lime/10% IOT treatment. The strength (i.e., UCS and CBR values) increased with increase in lime/IOT contents between 0 and 2 h elapsed time after mixing. Peak values were recorded for 8% lime/8% IOT treatment for all lime content considered. Regression analysis shows a strong relationship between the strength properties and the soil parameters. An optimal 8% lime/8% IOT treatment of BCS for elapsed time after mixing not exceeding 2 h was established and is recommended as sub-base material for low-trafficked roads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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14 pages, 21641 KiB  
Article
Microstructure Analysis and Strength Characterization of Recycled Base and Sub-Base Materials Using Scanning Electron Microscope
by Tanvir Imtiaz, Asif Ahmed, MD Sahadat Hossain and Mohammad Faysal
Infrastructures 2020, 5(9), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5090070 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4644
Abstract
The reuse of recycled crushed concrete aggregate (RCCA) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) can provide a sustainable solution for the disposal of C&D waste materials instead of sending them to landfills. More importantly, it will conserve energy and reduce environmental concerns. Several states [...] Read more.
The reuse of recycled crushed concrete aggregate (RCCA) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) can provide a sustainable solution for the disposal of C&D waste materials instead of sending them to landfills. More importantly, it will conserve energy and reduce environmental concerns. Several states in the USA have been using RCCA and RAP as base materials for years, focusing on the quality of the recycled materials. The structure of Recycled Aggregate (RA) is more complex than that of Natural Aggregate (NA). RAs have old mortar adhered on them that forms a porous surface at the interfacial transition Zone (ITZ) and prevents new cement mix from bonding strongly with the aggregates. The objective of this study was to correlate microstructural properties such as microporosity, inter and intra aggregate pores with the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of RAP and RCCA molds, mixed at different proportions. In this paper, the quantity of micropores and their effect on the strength of mixed materials is used as the basis of microstructural analysis of recycled concrete and reclaimed asphalt. Microstructural properties obtained from analyzing scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were correlated with unconfined compressive strength. Intra-aggregate and interaggregate pores were studied for different ratios of cement treated mixture of RAP and RCCA. The results show that addition of RAP considerably increases the number of pores in the mixture, which eventually causes reduction in unconfined compressive strength. In addition, significant morphological and textural changes of recycled aggregates were observed by SEM image analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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12 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Stiffness and Strength Improvement of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Pavement Foundation Using Large-Scale Wheel Test
by Jason Wright, S. Sonny Kim and Bumjoo Kim
Infrastructures 2020, 5(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5040033 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3813
Abstract
Laboratory cyclic plate load tests are commonly used in the assessment of geosynthetic performance in pavement applications due to the repeatability of testing results and the smaller required testing areas than traditional Accelerated Pavement Testing facilities. While the objective of traditional plate load [...] Read more.
Laboratory cyclic plate load tests are commonly used in the assessment of geosynthetic performance in pavement applications due to the repeatability of testing results and the smaller required testing areas than traditional Accelerated Pavement Testing facilities. While the objective of traditional plate load testing procedure is to closely replicate traffic conditions, the reality is that rolling wheel loads produce different stresses in pavement layers than traditional cyclic plate load tests. This two-fold study investigates the differences between the stress response of subgrade soil from a rolling wheel load (replicating rolling traffic conditions) and a unidirectional dynamic load (replicating traditional plate load test procedures) in order to obtain a more realistic stress response of pavement layers from rolling wheel traffic. Ultimately, results show that the testing specimens that experienced rolling wheel loading had an average of 17% higher pressure measurements in the top of the subgrade than vertically loaded (unidirectional dynamic load) specimens. The second segment of this study is used in conjunction with the first to analyze aggregate base material behavior when using a geosynthetic for reinforcement. The study aimed to determine the difference in the post-trafficked strength and stiffness of pavement foundation. A Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and Light Weight Deflectometer were utilized to determine material changes from this trafficking and revealed that all specimens that included a geosynthetic had a higher base stiffness and strength while the specimen with geotextile and geogrid in combination created the highest stiffness and strength after large-scale rolling wheel trafficking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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Review

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24 pages, 2537 KiB  
Review
Review: Shear Properties and Various Mechanical Tests in the Interface Zone of Asphalt Layers
by Hatim M. Akraym, Ratnasamy Muniandy, Fauzan Mohd Jakarni and Salihudin Hassim
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030048 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Over four decades, researchers have extensively focused on bonding flexible pavement layers. Scholars have concentrated on the partial or complete lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers, which is the primary cause of premature pavement failures, such as cracking, rutting, slippage of wearing [...] Read more.
Over four decades, researchers have extensively focused on bonding flexible pavement layers. Scholars have concentrated on the partial or complete lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers, which is the primary cause of premature pavement failures, such as cracking, rutting, slippage of wearing courses, and decline in pavement life. These defects are observed within the high horizontal force areas owing to increased speed, braking, and sharp angles when entering or exiting highways and the variations in paving materials, traffic load, and climatic factors. Various studies have investigated the debonding of flexible pavements, and test methods have been developed to find effective solutions. This review is aimed at summarising and discussing certain factors influencing shear strength performance, such as tack coat material, surface characteristics of multi-layer construction of flexible pavements, and different mechanical shear tests. First, bonding in the interface zone area and its Effect on the shear strength performance is reviewed. Subsequently, the types of materials and construction methods and their effects on the bonding quality of the interface zone area are clarified. Finally, the linear relationships between certain effects and the Ability of nanofibers to improve the emulsion properties are discussed. However, no agreement on the optimum tack coat could be obtained owing to the variety of surfaces. Hence, a milling surface is recommended for higher shear strength. The shear test is the most used method for verifying the interlayer bonding strengths, and continuous research endeavours are recommended to analyse debonding in multi-layer asphalt pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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14 pages, 3011 KiB  
Review
Review of Enzyme-Induced Calcite Precipitation as a Ground-Improvement Technique
by Heriansyah Putra, Hideaki Yasuhara, Erizal, Sutoyo and Muhammad Fauzan
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080066 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4756
Abstract
Calcite-induced precipitation methods (CIPMs) have recently become potential techniques in geotechnical engineering for improving the shear strength of sandy soil. One of the most promising methods among them is enzyme-induced calcite precipitation (EICP). In this technique, a mixed solution composed of reagents and [...] Read more.
Calcite-induced precipitation methods (CIPMs) have recently become potential techniques in geotechnical engineering for improving the shear strength of sandy soil. One of the most promising methods among them is enzyme-induced calcite precipitation (EICP). In this technique, a mixed solution composed of reagents and the urease enzyme, which produces calcite, is utilized as the grouting material. The precipitated calcite in granular soil provides ties among the grains of soil and limits their mobility, thus promoting an improvement in strength and stiffness and also a reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil. This paper discusses the potential increase in the strength and stiffness of the soil, the additional materials for grouting, the effect of these materials on the treatment process, and the engineering properties of the soil. The possible sources of the urease enzyme and the applicability of the EICP method to other soil types are also discussed in this paper. The environmental and economic impacts of the application of EICP are also presented. The envisioned plans for application, potential advantages, and limitations of EICP for soil stabilization are discussed. Finally, the primary challenges and opportunities for development in future research are briefly addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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