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Animal and Plant Cell–Tissue, Organ Specialization and Function: Investigational, Experimental and Medical Aspects 2.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 28097

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The cell, subcellular and extracellular component organization at structural, molecular and biophysical levels including the grouping and interrelations of cells in tissues and organs in health and desease still needs investigations. In this special issue, article on various aspects of cell biology e.g. cell compartments, organella and membrane biogenesis and dynamics, macromolecules and their intracellular transport, whole-cell locomotion, cytoskeleton organization, signaling and regulatory cascades, the cell-cycle and cell-to-cell communication are especially welcome. Novel insights into structure, specialization, function and physiology of cells, tissues and organs together with medical aspects of cell biology are invited. Environmental and toxicologic effects on tissue and organ function will be of special interest. Integrative actions of gene and their products, regulatory mechnisms as well as their impact on the development, regeneration of tissue structural and functional status including the use of newly described and advanced methods/techniques will be especially accepted.

Therefore, in this Special Issue of IJMS, we invite you to submit both review and original papers on the topic of widely understood cell biology.

Prof. Dr. Bartosz Jan Płachno
Prof. Dr. Małgorzata Kotula-Balak
Prof. Dr. Petr Babula
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plant and animal cell
  • Ultrastructure
  • Cell biology
  • Cell development
  • Cell regeneration
  • Cell signaling
  • Tissue histology
  • Tissue physiology and pathology
  • Environemtal effects
  • Toxicology

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

27 pages, 4557 KiB  
Article
Cellular and Gene Expression Response to the Combination of Genistein and Kaempferol in the Treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031058 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Flavonoids are investigated as therapeutics for mucopolysaccharidosis, a metabolic disorder with impaired glycosaminoglycan degradation. Here we determined the effects of genistein and kaempferol, used alone or in combination, on cellular response and gene expression in a mucopolysaccharidosis type I model. We assessed the [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are investigated as therapeutics for mucopolysaccharidosis, a metabolic disorder with impaired glycosaminoglycan degradation. Here we determined the effects of genistein and kaempferol, used alone or in combination, on cellular response and gene expression in a mucopolysaccharidosis type I model. We assessed the cell cycle, viability, proliferation, subcellular localization of the translocation factor EB (TFEB), number and distribution of lysosomes, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis after exposure to flavonoids. Global gene expression was analysed using DNA microarray and quantitative PCR. The type and degree of flavonoid interaction were determined based on the combination and dose reduction indexes. The combination of both flavonoids synergistically inhibits glycosaminoglycan synthesis, modulates TFEB localization, lysosomal number, and distribution. Genistein and kaempferol in a 1:1 ratio regulate the expression of 52% of glycosaminoglycan metabolism genes. Flavonoids show synergy, additivity, or slight antagonism in all analysed parameters, and the type of interaction depends on the concentration and component ratios. With the simultaneous use of genistein and kaempferol in a ratio of 4:1, even a 10-fold reduction in the concentration of kaempferol is possible. Flavonoid mixtures, used as the treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis, are effective in reducing glycosaminoglycan production and storage and show a slight cytotoxic effect compared to single-flavonoid usage. Full article
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15 pages, 2844 KiB  
Article
Different Patterns of mRNA Nuclear Retention during Meiotic Prophase in Larch Microsporocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168501 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Recent studies show a crucial role of post-transcriptional processes in the regulation of gene expression. Our research has shown that mRNA retention in the nucleus plays a significant role in such regulation. We studied larch microsporocytes during meiotic prophase, characterized by pulsatile transcriptional [...] Read more.
Recent studies show a crucial role of post-transcriptional processes in the regulation of gene expression. Our research has shown that mRNA retention in the nucleus plays a significant role in such regulation. We studied larch microsporocytes during meiotic prophase, characterized by pulsatile transcriptional activity. After each pulse, the transcriptional activity is silenced, but the transcripts synthesized at this time are not exported immediately to the cytoplasm but are retained in the cell nucleus and especially in Cajal bodies, where non-fully-spliced transcripts with retained introns are accumulated. Analysis of the transcriptome of these cells and detailed analysis of the nuclear retention and transport dynamics of several mRNAs revealed two main patterns of nuclear accumulation and transport. The majority of studied transcripts followed the first one, consisting of a more extended retention period and slow release to the cytoplasm. We have shown this in detail for the pre-mRNA and mRNA encoding RNA pol II subunit 10. In this pre-mRNA, a second (retained) intron is posttranscriptionally spliced at a precisely defined time. Fully mature mRNA is then released into the cytoplasm, where the RNA pol II complexes are produced. These proteins are necessary for transcription in the next pulse to occur.mRNAs encoding translation factors and SERRATE followed the second pattern, in which the retention period was shorter and transcripts were rapidly transferred to the cytoplasm. The presence of such a mechanism in various cell types from a diverse range of organisms suggests that it is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of gene regulation. Full article
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14 pages, 4034 KiB  
Article
The G-Protein-Coupled Membrane Estrogen Receptor Is Present in Horse Cryptorchid Testes and Mediates Downstream Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 7131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137131 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
Cryptorchidism in horses is a commonly occurring malformation. The molecular basis of this pathology is not fully known. In addition, the origins of high intratesticular estrogen levels in horses remain obscure. In order to investigate the role of the G-protein-coupled membrane estrogen receptor [...] Read more.
Cryptorchidism in horses is a commonly occurring malformation. The molecular basis of this pathology is not fully known. In addition, the origins of high intratesticular estrogen levels in horses remain obscure. In order to investigate the role of the G-protein-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (GPER) and establish histological and biochemical cryptorchid testis status, healthy and cryptorchid horse testes were subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis, histochemical staining for total protein (with naphthol blue black; NBB), acid content (with toluidine blue O; TBO), and polysaccharide content (with periodic acid–Schiff; PAS). The expression of GPER was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. GPER-mediated intracellular cAMP and calcium (Ca2+) signaling were measured immunoenzymatically or colorimetrically. Our data revealed changes in the distribution of polysaccharide content but not the protein and acid content in the cryptorchid testis. Polysaccharides seemed to be partially translocated from the interstitial compartment to the seminiferous tubule compartment. Moreover, the markedly decreased expression of GPER and GPER downstream molecules, cAMP and Ca2+, suggests their potential role in testis pathology. Increased estrogen levels in cryptorchid conditions may be linked to disturbed GPER signaling. We postulate that GPER is a prominent key player in testis development and function and may be used as a new biomarker of horse testis in health and disease. Full article
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16 pages, 4996 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Cell Wall Components in the Placentas, Ovules and Female Gametophytes of Utricularia during Pollination
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115622 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
In most angiosperms, the female gametophyte is hidden in the mother tissues and the pollen tube enters the ovule via a micropylar canal. The mother tissues play an essential role in the pollen tube guidance. However, in Utricularia, the female gametophyte surpasses [...] Read more.
In most angiosperms, the female gametophyte is hidden in the mother tissues and the pollen tube enters the ovule via a micropylar canal. The mother tissues play an essential role in the pollen tube guidance. However, in Utricularia, the female gametophyte surpasses the entire micropylar canal and extends beyond the limit of the integument. The female gametophyte then invades the placenta and a part of the central cell has direct contact with the ovary chamber. To date, information about the role of the placenta and integument in pollen tube guidance in Utricularia, which have extra-ovular female gametophytes, has been lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the placenta, central cell and integument in pollen tube pollen tube guidance in Utricularia nelumbifolia Gardner and Utricularia humboldtii R.H. Schomb. by studying the production of arabinogalactan proteins. It was also determined whether the production of the arabinogalactan proteins is dependent on pollination in Utricularia. In both of the examined species, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) were observed in the placenta (epidermis and nutritive tissue), ovule (integument, chalaza), and female gametophyte of both pollinated and unpollinated flowers, which means that the production of AGPs is independent of pollination; however, the production of some AGPs was lower after fertilization. There were some differences in the production of AGPs between the examined species. The occurrence of AGPs in the placental epidermis and nutritive tissue suggests that they function as an obturator. The production of some AGPs in the ovular tissues (nucellus, integument) was independent of the presence of a mature embryo sac. Full article
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13 pages, 1831 KiB  
Article
High Temperature Alters Secondary Metabolites and Photosynthetic Efficiency in Heracleum sosnowskyi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094756 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Due to global warming, invasive species have spread across the world. We therefore studied the impact of short-term (1 day or 2 days) and longer (7 days) heat stress on photosynthesis and secondary metabolites in Heracleum sosnowskyi, one of the important invasive [...] Read more.
Due to global warming, invasive species have spread across the world. We therefore studied the impact of short-term (1 day or 2 days) and longer (7 days) heat stress on photosynthesis and secondary metabolites in Heracleum sosnowskyi, one of the important invasive species in the European Union. H. sosnowskyi leaves exposed to short-term heat stress (35 °C/1 d) showed a decrease in chlorophyll and maximum potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) compared to control, 35 °C/2 d, or 30 °C/7 d treatments. In turn, the high level of lipid peroxidation and increased H2O2 accumulation indicated that the 30 °C/7 d stress induced oxidative damage. The contents of xanthotoxin and bergapten were elevated in the 2 d and 7 d treatments, while isopimpinellin was detected only in the heat-stressed plants. Additionally, the levels of free proline and anthocyanins significantly increased in response to high temperature, with a substantially higher increase in the 7 d (30 °C) treatment. The results indicate that the accumulation of proline, anthocyanins, and furanocoumarins, but not of phenolic acids or flavonols, contributes to protection of H. sosnowskyi plants against heat stress. Further studies could focus on the suppression of these metabolites to suppress the spread of this invasive species. Full article
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28 pages, 4078 KiB  
Article
Identification of Transcriptomic Differences between Lower Extremities Arterial Disease, Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Chronic Venous Disease in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Specimens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063200 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
Several human tissues are investigated in studies of molecular biomarkers associated with diseases development. Special attention is focused on the blood and its components due to combining abundant information about systemic responses to pathological processes as well as high accessibility. In the current [...] Read more.
Several human tissues are investigated in studies of molecular biomarkers associated with diseases development. Special attention is focused on the blood and its components due to combining abundant information about systemic responses to pathological processes as well as high accessibility. In the current study, transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to compare differentially expressed genes between patients with lower extremities arterial disease (LEAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and chronic venous disease (CVD). Gene expression patterns were generated using the Ion S5XL next-generation sequencing platform and were analyzed using DESeq2 and UVE-PLS methods implemented in R programming software. In direct pairwise analysis, 21, 58 and 10 differentially expressed genes were selected from the comparison of LEAD vs. AAA, LEAD vs. CVD and AAA vs. CVD patient groups, respectively. Relationships between expression of dysregulated genes and age, body mass index, creatinine levels, hypertension and medication were identified using Spearman rank correlation test and two-sided Mann–Whitney U test. The functional analysis, performed using DAVID website tool, provides potential implications of selected genes in pathological processes underlying diseases studied. Presented research provides new insight into differences of pathogenesis in LEAD, AAA and CVD, and selected genes could be considered as potential candidates for biomarkers useful in diagnosis and differentiation of studied diseases. Full article
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27 pages, 17607 KiB  
Communication
Comprehensive Analysis of Correlations in the Expression of miRNA Genes and Immune Checkpoint Genes in Bladder Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052553 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Personalised medicine is the future and hope for many patients, including those with cancers. Early detection, as well as rapid, well-selected treatment, are key factors leading to a good prognosis. MicroRNA mediated gene regulation is a promising area of development for new diagnostic [...] Read more.
Personalised medicine is the future and hope for many patients, including those with cancers. Early detection, as well as rapid, well-selected treatment, are key factors leading to a good prognosis. MicroRNA mediated gene regulation is a promising area of development for new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, crucial for better prospects for patients. Bladder cancer is a frequent neoplasm, with high lethality and lacking modern, advanced therapeutic modalities, such as immunotherapy. MicroRNAs are involved in bladder cancer pathogenesis, proliferation, control and response to treatment, which we summarise in this perspective in response to lack of recent review publications in this field. We further performed a correlation-based analysis of microRNA and gene expression data in bladder cancer (BLCA) TCGA dataset. We identified 27 microRNAs hits with opposite expression profiles to genes involved in immune response in bladder cancer, and 24 microRNAs hits with similar expression profiles. We discuss previous studies linking the functions of these microRNAs to bladder cancer and assess if they are good candidates for personalised medicine therapeutics and diagnostics. The discussed functions include regulation of gene expression, interplay with transcription factors, response to treatment, apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, initiation and development of cancer, genome instability and tumour-associated inflammatory reaction. Full article
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Review

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0 pages, 929 KiB  
Review
An Overview on Single-Cell Technology for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031402 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4298
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary liver cancer caused by the accumulation of genetic mutation patterns associated with epidemiological conditions. This lethal malignancy exhibits tumor heterogeneity, which is considered as one of the main reasons for drug resistance development and failure of clinical trials. [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary liver cancer caused by the accumulation of genetic mutation patterns associated with epidemiological conditions. This lethal malignancy exhibits tumor heterogeneity, which is considered as one of the main reasons for drug resistance development and failure of clinical trials. Recently, single-cell technology (SCT), a new advanced sequencing technique that analyzes every single cell in a tumor tissue specimen, aids complete insight into the genetic heterogeneity of cancer. This helps in identifying and assessing rare cell populations by analyzing the difference in gene expression pattern between individual cells of single biopsy tissue which normally cannot be identified from pooled cell gene expression pattern (traditional sequencing technique). Thus, SCT improves the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma as the limitations of other techniques impede this cancer research progression. Application of SCT at the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic levels to promote individualized hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and therapy. The current review has been divided into ten sections. Herein we deliberated on the SCT, hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis, tumor microenvironment analysis, single-cell genomic sequencing, single-cell transcriptomics, single-cell omics sequencing for biomarker development, identification of hepatocellular carcinoma origination and evolution, limitations, challenges, conclusions, and future perspectives. Full article
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14 pages, 8302 KiB  
Review
Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Inhibitors of MMPs in the Avian Reproductive System: An Overview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158056 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3256
Abstract
Many matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are produced in the mammalian reproductive system and participate in the regulation of its functions. In birds, the limited information available thus far indicates that MMPs are significant regulators of avian ovarian and oviductal functions, too. Some MMPs and [...] Read more.
Many matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are produced in the mammalian reproductive system and participate in the regulation of its functions. In birds, the limited information available thus far indicates that MMPs are significant regulators of avian ovarian and oviductal functions, too. Some MMPs and inhibitors of MMPs are present in the hen reproductive tissues and their abundances and/or activities change according to the physiological state. The intraovarian role of MMPs likely includes the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during folliculogenesis, follicle atresia, and postovulatory regression. In the oviduct, MMPs are also involved in ECM turnover during oviduct development and regression. This study provides a review of the current knowledge on the presence, activity, and regulation of MMPs in the female reproductive system of birds. Full article
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27 pages, 17760 KiB  
Review
Secondary Metabolites of Plants as Modulators of Endothelium Functions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052533 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2820
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. They may be caused by various factors or combinations of factors. Frequently, endothelial dysfunction is involved in either development of the disorder or results from it. On the [...] Read more.
According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. They may be caused by various factors or combinations of factors. Frequently, endothelial dysfunction is involved in either development of the disorder or results from it. On the other hand, the endothelium may be disordered for other reasons, e.g., due to infection, such as COVID-19. The understanding of the role and significance of the endothelium in the body has changed significantly over time—from a simple physical barrier to a complex system encompassing local and systemic regulation of numerous processes in the body. Endothelium disorders may arise from impairment of one or more signaling pathways affecting dilator or constrictor activity, including nitric oxide–cyclic guanosine monophosphate activation, prostacyclin–cyclic adenosine monophosphate activation, phosphodiesterase inhibition, and potassium channel activation or intracellular calcium level inhibition. In this review, plants are summarized as sources of biologically active substances affecting the endothelium. This paper compares individual substances and mechanisms that are known to affect the endothelium, and which subsequently may cause the development of cardiovascular disorders. Full article
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