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Microbial Biofilms and Antibiofilm Agents 3.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 14640

Special Issue Editors

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Interests: biofilm; biofilm-associated infections; antimicrobial peptides; new antimicrobial agents; host–pathogen interactions; virulence factors; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56123 Pisa, Italy
Interests: macrophage; bacteria; flow cytometry; immunology of infectious diseases; innate immunity; cell culture; immunity; antimicrobials; cytokines; infection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56123 Pisa, Italy
Interests: antimicrobial peptides; bacterial cells; antimicrobials; antibacterial activity; antibiotics; antibacterials; biofilm formation; bacterial antibiotic resistance; quorum sensing; bacteriocins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although the intense basic research on biofilms that has been carried out in recent decades has improved our capacity to design original and efficient therapeutic approaches to specifically target biofilm-related infections, most of these approaches are still at a developmental stage, and treatment of biofilm infections currently represents a challenging task for microbiologists and clinicians. Several mechanisms are responsible for the recalcitrance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. These include, among others, reduced diffusion or sequestration of antibiotics through biofilm layers, generation of subsets of persistent bacteria, elevated rate of exchange of mobile genetic elements carrying resistance determinants, and establishment of environmental niches unfavorable to antibiotic action. To increase the translational potential of novel antibiofilm approaches, much work still needs to be done. For instance, even if in vitro biofilm susceptibility testing is a mandatory first step in evaluating new antibiofilm agents, molecules identified in vitro should be validated in models mimicking, as much as possible, in vivo physiological conditions and tested also for pharmacokinetics and absence of toxicity. Moreover, the increasing awareness of the polymicrobial nature of biofilms should lead to the development of dedicated approaches to study bacteria–bacteria or bacteria–fungi interactions and their consequences on biofilm pathogenesis or tolerance towards antibiotics.

This Special issue aims to gather a collection of papers focused on biofilm infections and new strategies to target them, with special interest at the molecular mechanisms involved in antibiofilm action. We hope that this Special issue may contribute to disclose new promising approaches that could improve our ability to prevent or eradicate bacterial biofilms in medical settings.

Prof. Dr. Giovanna Batoni
Dr. Semih Esin
Dr. Giuseppantonio Maisetta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biofilm
  • antibiofilm agents
  • antibiofilm strategies
  • antiadhesive materials
  • biofilm-related infections
  • quorum sensing
  • persisters
  • ex vivo models
  • in vivo models
  • wound infections
  • lung infections

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1937 KiB  
Article
Phage-Based Control of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Galleria mellonella Model of Implant-Associated Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314514 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus implant-associated infections are difficult to treat because of the ability of bacteria to form biofilm on medical devices. Here, the efficacy of Sb-1 to control or prevent S. aureus colonization on medical foreign bodies was investigated in a Galleria mellonella larval [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus implant-associated infections are difficult to treat because of the ability of bacteria to form biofilm on medical devices. Here, the efficacy of Sb-1 to control or prevent S. aureus colonization on medical foreign bodies was investigated in a Galleria mellonella larval infection model. For colonization control assays, sterile K-wires were implanted into larva prolegs. After 2 days, larvae were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and incubated at 37 °C for a further 2 days, when treatments with either daptomycin (4 mg/kg), Sb-1 (107 PFUs) or a combination of them (3 x/day) were started. For biofilm prevention assays, larvae were pre-treated with either vancomycin (10 mg/kg) or Sb-1 (107 PFUs) before the S. aureus infection. In both experimental settings, K-wires were explanted for colony counting two days after treatment. In comparison to the untreated control, more than a 4 log10 CFU and 1 log10 CFU reduction was observed on K-wires recovered from larvae treated with the Sb-1/daptomycin combination and with their singular administration, respectively. Moreover, pre-infection treatment with Sb-1 was found to prevent K-wire colonization, similarly to vancomycin. Taken together, the obtained results demonstrated the strong potential of the Sb-1 antibiotic combinatory administration or the Sb-1 pretreatment to control or prevent S. aureus-associated implant infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms and Antibiofilm Agents 3.0)
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16 pages, 6172 KiB  
Article
Human Osteoblast-Conditioned Media Can Influence Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214393 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Osteoblasts are bone-forming and highly active cells participating in bone homeostasis. In the case of osteomyelitis and more specifically prosthetic joint infections (PJI) for which Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is mainly involved, the interaction between osteoblasts and S. aureus results in [...] Read more.
Osteoblasts are bone-forming and highly active cells participating in bone homeostasis. In the case of osteomyelitis and more specifically prosthetic joint infections (PJI) for which Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is mainly involved, the interaction between osteoblasts and S. aureus results in impaired bone homeostasis. If, so far, most of the studies of osteoblasts and S. aureus interactions were focused on osteoblast response following direct interactions with co-culture and/or internalization models, less is known about the effect of osteoblast factors on S. aureus biofilm formation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of human osteoblast culture supernatant on methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) SH1000 and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300. Firstly, Saos-2 cell line was incubated with either medium containing TNF-α to mimic the inflammatory periprosthetic environment or with regular medium. Biofilm biomass was slightly increased for both strains in the presence of culture supernatant collected from Saos-2 cells, stimulated or not with TNF-α. In such conditions, SH1000 was able to develop microcolonies, suggesting a rearrangement in biofilm organization. However, the biofilm matrix and regulation of genes dedicated to biofilm formation were not substantially changed. Secondly, culture supernatant obtained from primary osteoblast culture induced varied response from SH1000 strain depending on the different donors tested, whereas USA300 was only slightly affected. This suggested that the sensitivity to bone cell secretions is strain dependent. Our results have shown the impact of osteoblast secretions on bacteria and further identification of involved factors will help to manage PJI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms and Antibiofilm Agents 3.0)
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22 pages, 5680 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Anti-Biofilm and Anti-Quorum Sensing Activities of the β-Adrenoreceptor Antagonist Atenolol against Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113088 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is an increasing public health issue that worsens with the formation of biofilms. Quorum sensing (QS) orchestrates the bacterial virulence and controls the formation of biofilm. Targeting bacterial virulence is promising approach to overcome the resistance [...] Read more.
The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is an increasing public health issue that worsens with the formation of biofilms. Quorum sensing (QS) orchestrates the bacterial virulence and controls the formation of biofilm. Targeting bacterial virulence is promising approach to overcome the resistance increment to antibiotics. In a previous detailed in silico study, the anti-QS activities of twenty-two β-adrenoreceptor blockers were screened supposing atenolol as a promising candidate. The current study aims to evaluate the anti-QS, anti-biofilm and anti-virulence activities of the β-adrenoreceptor blocker atenolol against Gram-negative bacteria Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis. An in silico study was conducted to evaluate the binding affinity of atenolol to S. marcescens SmaR QS receptor, P. aeruginosa QscR QS receptor, and P. mirabilis MrpH adhesin. The atenolol anti-virulence activity was evaluated against the tested strains in vitro and in vivo. The present finding shows considerable ability of atenolol to compete with QS proteins and significantly downregulated the expression of QS- and virulence-encoding genes. Atenolol showed significant reduction in the tested bacterial biofilm formation, virulence enzyme production, and motility. Furthermore, atenolol significantly diminished the bacterial capacity for killing and protected mice. In conclusion, atenolol has potential anti-QS and anti-virulence activities against S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis and can be used as an adjuvant in treatment of aggressive bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms and Antibiofilm Agents 3.0)
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13 pages, 990 KiB  
Article
Antibiofilm Properties of Antiseptic Agents Used on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911270 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
In diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), biofilm formation is a major challenge that promotes wound chronicity and delays healing. Antiseptics have been proposed to combat biofilms in the management of DFUs. However, there is limited evidence on the activity of these agents against biofilms, [...] Read more.
In diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), biofilm formation is a major challenge that promotes wound chronicity and delays healing. Antiseptics have been proposed to combat biofilms in the management of DFUs. However, there is limited evidence on the activity of these agents against biofilms, and there are questions as to which agents have the best efficiency. Here, we evaluated the antibiofilm activity of sodium hypochlorite, polyvinylpyrrolidoneIodine (PVPI), polyhexamethylenebiguanide (PHMB) and octenidine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains using static and dynamic systems in a chronic-wound-like medium (CWM) that mimics the chronic wound environment. Using Antibiofilmogram®, a technology assessing the ability of antiseptics to reduce the initial phase of biofilm formation, we observed the significant activity of antiseptics against biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa (at 1:40 to 1:8 dilutions). Moreover, 1:100 to 1:3 dilutions of the different antiseptics reduced mature biofilms formed after 72 h by 10-log, although higher concentrations were needed in CWM (1:40 to 1:2). Finally, in the BioFlux200TM model, after biofilm debridement, sodium hypochlorite and PHMB were the most effective antiseptics. In conclusion, our study showed that among the four antiseptics tested, sodium hypochlorite demonstrated the best antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms and represents an alternative in the management of DFUs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms and Antibiofilm Agents 3.0)
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Review

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17 pages, 9012 KiB  
Review
Biofilms in Chronic Wound Infections: Innovative Antimicrobial Approaches Using the In Vitro Lubbock Chronic Wound Biofilm Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021004 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
Chronic wounds have harmful effects on both patients and healthcare systems. Wound chronicity is attributed to an impaired healing process due to several host and local factors that affect healing pathways. The resulting ulcers contain a wide variety of microorganisms that are mostly [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds have harmful effects on both patients and healthcare systems. Wound chronicity is attributed to an impaired healing process due to several host and local factors that affect healing pathways. The resulting ulcers contain a wide variety of microorganisms that are mostly resistant to antimicrobials and possess the ability to form mono/poly-microbial biofilms. The search for new, effective and safe compounds to handle chronic wounds has come a long way throughout the history of medicine, which has included several studies and trials of conventional treatments. Treatments focus on fighting the microbial colonization that develops in the wound by multidrug resistant pathogens. The development of molecular medicine, especially in antibacterial agents, needs an in vitro model similar to the in vivo chronic wound environment to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. The Lubbock chronic wound biofilm (LCWB) model is an in vitro model developed to mimic the pathogen colonization and the biofilm formation of a real chronic wound, and it is suitable to screen the antibacterial activity of innovative compounds. In this review, we focused on the characteristics of chronic wound biofilms and the contribution of the LCWB model both to the study of wound poly-microbial biofilms and as a model for novel treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms and Antibiofilm Agents 3.0)
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26 pages, 19602 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Function of Quorum Sensing Regulated Biofilms in Biological Wastewater Treatment: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 9751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23179751 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4451
Abstract
Quorum sensing (QS), a type of bacterial cell–cell communication, produces autoinducers which help in biofilm formation in response to cell population density. In this review, biofilm formation, the role of QS in biofilm formation and development with reference to biological wastewater treatment are [...] Read more.
Quorum sensing (QS), a type of bacterial cell–cell communication, produces autoinducers which help in biofilm formation in response to cell population density. In this review, biofilm formation, the role of QS in biofilm formation and development with reference to biological wastewater treatment are discussed. Autoinducers, for example, acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), auto-inducing oligo-peptides (AIPs) and autoinducer 2, present in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, with their mechanism, are also explained. Over the years, wastewater treatment (WWT) by QS-regulated biofilms and their optimization for WWT have gained much attention. This article gives a comprehensive review of QS regulation methods, QS enrichment methods and QS inhibition methods in biological waste treatment systems. Typical QS enrichment methods comprise adding QS molecules, adding QS accelerants and cultivating QS bacteria, while typical QS inhibition methods consist of additions of quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria, QS-degrading enzymes, QS-degrading oxidants, and QS inhibitors. Potential applications of QS regulated biofilms for WWT have also been summarized. At last, the knowledge gaps present in current researches are analyzed, and future study requirements are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms and Antibiofilm Agents 3.0)
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