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Antiviral Activities of Plant Extracts

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 4839

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Dean of Faculty of Biology, Head of Laboratory of Virology, University of Sofia "St. Kl. Ohridski", 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: natural and synthesized antiviral products; mechanisms of antiviral activity; medicinal plants; phytomedicines; metabolomics; human herpes viruses; TTV; coronaviruses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Viruses cause socially significant and life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Modern therapy for such infections mainly involves the use of synthetic drugs. Despite their effectiveness, they have a limited range of action and exhibit negative side effects. The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-19 has shown the ineffectiveness of available chemotherapeutics. Prolonged or incorrect treatment leads to the emergence and selection of drug-resistant viral strains. On the other hand, the number of effective vaccines developed is limited compared to the number of viruses that cause dangerous effects. The above necessitates the development of new strategies for the search and application of new and effective antiviral preparations. One of the main sources of biologically active molecules with therapeutic properties in viral infections are medicinal plants. They are a source of a wide range of bioactive ingredients—alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, etc. With the help of modern methods and technologies, which accurately detect, isolate and structurally characterize biologically active secondary metabolites, the interest in them and the natural products obtained from them is increasing. Total plant extracts are a multicomponent mixture of biologically active compounds. Many of them exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect and limit the development of resistant strains. This ability is the result of the synergistic interaction of the various substances in their composition, as well as their multi-stage mechanism of action. In addition, biologically active compounds are usually small molecules with drug-like properties, which allows them to be more easily absorbed and metabolized by the body. This Special Issue will provide information on the antiviral effects of newly investigated plant materials, and their mechanisms of inhibition of viral replication or inactivation of extracellular viruses. Emphasis will be placed on the discovery of active metabolites from plants for use in human and veterinary medicine in the fight against viral infections.

This Special Issue is supervised by Prof. Dr. Stoyan Shishkov and assisted by our Topical Advisory Panel Member Prof. Dr. Kalina Shishkova (Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski). We encourage authors to submit manuscripts with single pure component studies. If the plant extracts are mixtures, please note that the component composition analysis data should be included in the paper.

Prof. Dr. Stoyan Shishkov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • secondary metabolites
  • metabolomics
  • antiviral activity
  • human viruses
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • animal viruses
  • phytochemical composition
  • medicinal substances

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 5050 KiB  
Communication
Unveiling the Antiviral Properties of Panduratin A through SARS-CoV-2 Infection Modeling in Cardiomyocytes
by Aung Khine Linn, Suwimon Manopwisedjaroen, Phongthon Kanjanasirirat, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Suradej Hongeng, Phetcharat Phanthong and Arunee Thitithanyanont
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031427 - 24 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Establishing a drug-screening platform is critical for the discovery of potential antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we developed a platform based on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) to investigate SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, with the aim of evaluating potential antiviral agents [...] Read more.
Establishing a drug-screening platform is critical for the discovery of potential antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we developed a platform based on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) to investigate SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, with the aim of evaluating potential antiviral agents for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and cardiotoxicity. Cultured myocytes of iPSC-CMs and immortalized human cardiomyocyte cell line (AC-16) were primarily characterized for the expression of cardiac markers and host receptors of SARS-CoV-2. An infectivity model for the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain was then established. Infection modeling involved inoculating cells with SARS-CoV-2 at varying multiplicities of infection (MOIs) and then quantifying infection using immunofluorescence and plaque assays. Only iPSC-CMs, not AC16 cells, expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), and quantitative assays confirmed the dose-dependent infection of iPSC-CMs by SARS-CoV-2, unlike the uninfectable AC16 cells lacking the expression of ACE2. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assays across a concentration range. An assessment of the plant-derived compound panduratin A (panA) showed cytotoxicity at higher doses (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) 10.09 μM) but promising antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (50% inhibition concentration (IC50) 0.8–1.6 μM), suppressing infection at concentrations 10 times lower than its CC50. Plaque assays also showed decreased viral production following panA treatment. Overall, by modeling cardiac-specific infectivity, this iPSC-cardiomyocyte platform enables the reliable quantitative screening of compound cytotoxicity alongside antiviral efficacy. By combining disease pathogenesis and pharmacology, this system can facilitate the evaluation of potential novel therapeutics, such as panA, for drug discovery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Activities of Plant Extracts)
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10 pages, 3175 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Total Extract and Saponins from Astragalus glycyphyllos L. on Human Coronavirus Replication In Vitro
by Anton Hinkov, Venelin Tsvetkov, Aleksandar Shkondrov, Ilina Krasteva, Stoyan Shishkov and Kalina Shishkova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216525 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Members of the family Coronaviridae cause diseases in mammals, birds, and wildlife (bats), some of which may be transmissible to humans or specific to humans. In the human population, they can cause a wide range of diseases, mainly affecting the respiratory and digestive [...] Read more.
Members of the family Coronaviridae cause diseases in mammals, birds, and wildlife (bats), some of which may be transmissible to humans or specific to humans. In the human population, they can cause a wide range of diseases, mainly affecting the respiratory and digestive systems. In the scientific databases, there are huge numbers of research articles about the antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities of medicinal herbs and crops with different ethnobotanical backgrounds. The subject of our research is the antiviral effect of isolated saponins, a purified saponin mixture, and a methanol extract of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. In the studies conducted for the cytotoxic effect of the substances, CC50 (cytotoxic concentration 50) and MTC (maximum tolerable concentration) were determined by the colorimetric method (MTT assay). The virus was cultured in the MDBK cell line. As a result of the experiments carried out on the influence of substances on viral replication (using MTT-based colorimetric assay for detection of human Coronavirus replication inhibition), it was found that the extract and the purified saponin mixture inhibited 100% viral replication. The calculated selective indices are about 13 and 18, respectively. The obtained results make them promising for a preparation with anti-Coronavirus action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Activities of Plant Extracts)
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Review

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26 pages, 2091 KiB  
Review
Kaempferol: A Review of Current Evidence of Its Antiviral Potential
by Argyrios Periferakis, Aristodemos-Theodoros Periferakis, Lamprini Troumpata, Konstantinos Periferakis, Andreea-Elena Scheau, Ilinca Savulescu-Fiedler, Ana Caruntu, Ioana Anca Badarau, Constantin Caruntu and Cristian Scheau
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216299 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2397
Abstract
Kaempferol and its derivatives are flavonoids found in various plants, and a considerable number of these have been used in various medical applications worldwide. Kaempferol and its compounds have well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties among other health benefits. However, the antiviral properties [...] Read more.
Kaempferol and its derivatives are flavonoids found in various plants, and a considerable number of these have been used in various medical applications worldwide. Kaempferol and its compounds have well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties among other health benefits. However, the antiviral properties of kaempferol are notable, and there is a significant number of experimental studies on this topic. Kaempferol compounds were effective against DNA viruses such as hepatitis B virus, viruses of the alphaherpesvirinae family, African swine fever virus, and pseudorabies virus; they were also effective against RNA viruses, namely feline SARS coronavirus, dengue fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, influenza virus, enterovirus 71, poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus, calicivirus, and chikungunya virus. On the other hand, no effectiveness against murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus could be determined. The antiviral action mechanisms of kaempferol compounds are various, such as the inhibition of viral polymerases and of viral attachment and entry into host cells. Future research should be focused on further elucidating the antiviral properties of kaempferol compounds from different plants and assessing their potential use to complement the action of antiviral drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Activities of Plant Extracts)
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