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Signaling Pathways in Acute and Chronic Inflammation

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 July 2024 | Viewed by 1773

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is a process by which the body's white blood cells and the substances they produce protect against infection from outside invaders, such as bacteria and viruses. However, in some diseases, the body's defense system—the immune system—triggers inflammation when there are no invaders to fight off. In these autoimmune diseases, the immune system acts as if regular tissues are infected or somehow unusual, causing damage. Inflammation can be either short-lived (acute) or long-lasting (chronic). Acute inflammation disappears within hours or days. Chronic inflammation can last months or years, even after the first trigger is gone.

A growing number of molecules have been suggested to contribute to the development of acute and chronic inflammation. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. More recently, molecular mechanisms that initiate the resolution of inflammation have opened a new avenue for pro-resolution strategies to treat complex acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, resolution pathways are heterogeneous and most likely tissue- and stimulus-specific.

For this Special Issue, we invite original research and reviews in the field of acute and chronic inflammation, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of inflammation persistence versus resolution.

Prof. Dr. Rosanna Di Paola
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pathways
  • biomarker
  • biochemistry
  • oxidative stress
  • tissue injury

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 6830 KiB  
Communication
Knockouts of TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B Genes in K562 Cell Line Lead to Diverse Long-Lasting Responses to TNF-α
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(24), 17169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242417169 - 06 Dec 2023
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Abstract
This research delves into the intricate landscape of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling, a multi-functional cytokine known for its diverse cellular effects. Specifically, we investigate the roles of two TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, in mediating TNF-α-induced transcriptional responses. Using human K562 cell [...] Read more.
This research delves into the intricate landscape of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling, a multi-functional cytokine known for its diverse cellular effects. Specifically, we investigate the roles of two TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, in mediating TNF-α-induced transcriptional responses. Using human K562 cell lines with TNFR1 and TNFR2 knockouts, we explore changes in gene expression patterns following TNF-α stimulation. Our findings reveal distinct transcriptional profiles in TNFR1 and TNFR2 knockout cells, shedding light on the unique contributions of these receptors to TNF-α signaling. Notably, several key pathways associated with inflammation, apoptosis, and cell proliferation exhibit altered regulation in the absence of TNFR1 or TNFR2. This study provides valuable insights into the intricate mechanisms governing TNF-α signaling and its diverse cellular effects, with potential implications for targeted therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathways in Acute and Chronic Inflammation)
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Review

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27 pages, 2289 KiB  
Review
Central Role of β-1,4-GalT-V in Cancer Signaling, Inflammation, and Other Disease-Centric Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010483 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 923
Abstract
UDP-Galactose: Glucosylceramide, β-1,4-Galactose transferase-V (β-1,4-GalT-V), is a member of a large glycosyltransferase family, primarily involved in the transfer of sugar residues from nucleotide sugars, such as galactose, glucose mannose, etc., to sugar constituents of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins. For example, UDP-Galactose: Glucosylceramide, β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (β-1,4-GalT-V), [...] Read more.
UDP-Galactose: Glucosylceramide, β-1,4-Galactose transferase-V (β-1,4-GalT-V), is a member of a large glycosyltransferase family, primarily involved in the transfer of sugar residues from nucleotide sugars, such as galactose, glucose mannose, etc., to sugar constituents of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins. For example, UDP-Galactose: Glucosylceramide, β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (β-1,4-GalT-V), transfers galactose to glucosylceramide to generate Lactosylceramide (LacCer), a bioactive “lipid second messenger” that can activate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH) oxidase (NOX-1) to produce superoxide’s (O2) to activate several signaling pathways critical in regulating multiple phenotypes implicated in health and diseases. LacCer can also activate cytosolic phospholipase A-2 to produce eicosanoids and prostaglandins to induce inflammatory pathways. However, the lack of regulation of β-1,4-GalT-V contributes to critical phenotypes central to cancer and cardiovascular diseases, e.g., cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, phagocytosis, and apoptosis. Additionally, inflammation that accompanies β-1,4-GalT-V dysregulation accelerates the initiation and progression of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, as well as inflammation-centric diseases, like lupus erythematosus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and inflammatory bowel diseases. An exciting development in this field of research arrived due to the recognition that the activation of β-1,4-GalT-V is a “pivotal” point of convergence for multiple signaling pathways initiated by physiologically relevant molecules, e.g., growth factors, oxidized-low density lipoprotein(ox- LDL), pro-inflammatory molecules, oxidative and sheer stress, diet, and cigarette smoking. Thus, dysregulation of these pathways may well contribute to cancer, heart disease, skin diseases, and several inflammation-centric diseases in experimental animal models of human diseases and in humans. These observations have been described under post-transcriptional modifications of β-1,4- GalT-V. On the other hand, we also point to the important role of β-1-4 GalT-V-mediated glycosylation in altering the formation of glycosylated precursor forms of proteins and their activation, e.g., β-1 integrin, wingless-related integration site (Wnt)/–β catenin, Frizzled-1, and Notch1. Such alterations in glycosylation may influence cell differentiation, angiogenesis, diminished basement membrane architecture, tissue remodeling, infiltrative growth, and metastasis in human colorectal cancers and breast cancer stem cells. We also discuss Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), which is a comprehensive database of human genes and genetic disorders used to provide information on the genetic basis of inherited diseases and traits and information about the molecular pathways and biological processes that underlie human physiology. We describe cancer genes interacting with the β-1,4-GalT-V gene and homologs generated by OMIM. In sum, we propose that β-1,4-GalT-V gene/protein serves as a “gateway” regulating several signal transduction pathways in oxidative stress and inflammation leading to cancer and other diseases, thus rationalizing further studies to better understand the genetic regulation and interaction of β-1,4-GalT-V with other genes. Novel therapies will hinge on biochemical analysis and characterization of β-1,4-GalT-V in patient-derived materials and animal models. And using β-1,4-GalT-V as a “bonafide drug target” to mitigate these diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathways in Acute and Chronic Inflammation)
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