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Therapeutic Potential of Antioxidants in the Prevention of Human Diseases

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 1844

Special Issue Editor

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine, Provo, UT 84606, USA
Interests: oxidative stress-induced signal transduction mechanisms; pathophysiology of secondary diabetic complications; carcinogenesis; inflammatory complications; therapeutic development of small molecular inhibitors and antioxidants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oxidative stress has been associated with a number of complications, including infectious diseases, inflammatory complications, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases, and various cancers. Natural plant-derived products have been used to treat these complications for thousands of years, without much understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) through which these compounds prevent or cure these human diseases. Furthermore, several antioxidants derived from various natural resources have been tested in the past, and it has been found that their effective antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties could benefit human health. Indeed, some currently available pharmaceutical drugs have been developed from compounds isolated from various plant species. Furthermore, multiple analogs of antioxidants are more potent than parent antioxidants. Although several preclinical studies indicate the beneficial effects of various antioxidants, some have never been tested in a clinical setting. Furthermore, novel functions of already-existing antioxidants and the identification of novel antioxidants with potential benefits to human health and disease still need to be explored. This Special Issue is dedicated to studies on various natural antioxidants and their possible analogs in preventing and treating various human diseases. We invite potential authors to contribute to this Special Issue on studies related to structural and computational studies, functional studies, preclinical and clinical research studies, and comprehensive reviews.

Dr. Kota V. Ramana
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • vitamins
  • inflammation
  • cancer
  • neurological complications
  • diabetes
  • flavonoids
  • natural compounds
  • cancer
  • infections
  • COVID-19

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1452 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a Ketogenic Diet versus Mediterranean Diet on Clinical and Biochemical Markers of Inflammation in Patients with Obesity and Psoriatic Arthritis: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052475 - 20 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The effect of different diet patterns on psoriasis (PSO) and psoriatic arthritis (PSA) is unknown. Τhe aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and Ketogenic diet (KD), in patients with PSO and PSA. Twenty-six patients were [...] Read more.
The effect of different diet patterns on psoriasis (PSO) and psoriatic arthritis (PSA) is unknown. Τhe aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and Ketogenic diet (KD), in patients with PSO and PSA. Twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to start either with MD or KD for a period of 8 weeks. After a 6-week washout interval, the two groups were crossed over to the other type of diet for 8 weeks. At the end of this study, MD and KD resulted in significant reduction in weight (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, respectively), in BMI (p = 0.006, p < 0.001, respectively), in waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively), in total fat mass (p = 0.007, p < 0.001, respectively), and in visceral fat (p = 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively), in comparison with baseline. After KD, patients displayed a significant reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) (p = 0.04), Disease Activity Index of Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) (p = 0.004), interleukin (IL)-6 (p = 0.047), IL-17 (p = 0.042), and IL-23 (p = 0.037), whereas no significant differences were observed in these markers after MD (p > 0.05), compared to baseline. The 22-week MD–KD diet program in patients with PSO and PSA led to beneficial results in markers of inflammation and disease activity, which were mainly attributed to KD. Full article
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13 pages, 4768 KiB  
Article
β-Carotene Supplementation Improves Pancreas Function during Moderate Ethanol Consumption: Initial Characterization from a Morphological Overview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25021219 - 19 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Alcohol is believed to harm acinar cells, pancreatic ductal epithelium, and pancreatic stellate cells. After giving ethanol and/or β-carotene to C57BL/6 mice, our goal was to evaluate their biochemistry, histology, and morpho-quantitative features. There were six groups of C57BL/6 mice: 1. Group C [...] Read more.
Alcohol is believed to harm acinar cells, pancreatic ductal epithelium, and pancreatic stellate cells. After giving ethanol and/or β-carotene to C57BL/6 mice, our goal was to evaluate their biochemistry, histology, and morpho-quantitative features. There were six groups of C57BL/6 mice: 1. Group C (control), 2. Group LA (low-dose alcohol), 3. Group MA (moderate-dose alcohol), 4. Group B (β-carotene), 5. Group LA + B (low-dose alcohol combined with β-carotene), and 6. Group MA + B (moderate-dose alcohol combined with β-carotene). After the animals were euthanized on day 28, each specimen’s pancreatic tissue was taken. Lipase, uric acid, and amylase were assessed using biochemical assessment. Furthermore, the examination of the pancreatic structure was conducted using Ammann’s fibrosis scoring system. Finally, the morpho-quantitative characteristics of the pancreatic islets and acinar cells were determined. In the serum of the MA + B group, there were higher amounts of total amylase (825.953 ± 193.412 U/L) and lower amounts of lipase (47.139 ± 6.099 U/L) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, Ammann’s fibrosis punctuation in the pancreas revealed significant variations between the groups (p < 0.001). Finally, the stereological analysis of pancreatic islets showed that the groups were different (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that antioxidant treatments might help decrease the negative effects of ethanol exposure in animal models. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 11699 KiB  
Review
The Bioactivity and Phytochemicals of Muscari comosum (Leopoldia comosa), a Plant of Multiple Pharmacological Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052592 - 23 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Leopoldia comosa (LC), popularly known as Muscari comosum, spontaneously grows in the Mediterranean region and its bulbs are used as a vegetable. Traditionally, they are also used to treat various diseases and conditions, which has inspired the study of the pharmacological activities [...] Read more.
Leopoldia comosa (LC), popularly known as Muscari comosum, spontaneously grows in the Mediterranean region and its bulbs are used as a vegetable. Traditionally, they are also used to treat various diseases and conditions, which has inspired the study of the pharmacological activities of different parts of LC. These studies revealed the numerous biological properties of LC including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, antibacterial, and immune stimulant. High antioxidant activity compared to other non-cultivated plants, and the potential role of antioxidant activity in other reported activities make LC an excellent candidate to be developed as an antioxidant plant against important associated diseases. The presence of a diverse class of phytochemicals (n = 85), especially flavonoids and homoisoflavones, in LC, also imparts significance to the nutraceutical candidature of the plant. However, limited animal studies and the lack of a directional approach have limited the further design of effective clinical studies for the development of LC. The current study is the first attempt to comprehensively compile information regarding the phytochemicals and pharmacological activities of LC, emphasize the targets/markers targeted by LC, important in other activities, and also highlight the current gaps and propose possible bridges for the development of LC as a therapeutic and/or supplement against important diseases. Full article
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