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Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Immunology

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 2416

Special Issue Editors

Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation, National Research Council, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy
Interests: immune system; allergic diseases; extracellular vesicles; immunotherapy; nanoparticles
Dr. Valeria Longo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-CNR, Palermo, Italy
Interests: immune response; innate immunity; cell to cell communication; extracellular vesicles cargo; epigenetic modification; miRNA; environmental pollutants; immunotoxicity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cells can communicate in different ways by means of soluble factors or cell-to-cell contact; however, an increasing body of evidence has recently demonstrated that cells can communicate through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. EVs are particles composed of an outer lipid bilayer of variable size that, during the immune response, are selectively loaded with immune regulatory proteins, such as cytokines, which makes them important messengers delivering targeted biological signals. The vesicular signalling now emerges as a critical component of innate immunity that orchestrates actions of multiple immune system cells in infectious and inflammatory diseases. It is interesting to note that EVs are highly heterogeneous concerning their composition, location, and function as indicated by their parental cells. The cargo transfer regulates various cellular activities ranging from gene expression to metabolism. Of note, the number of EVs produced and the cargos loaded into these extracellular vesicles depends on the state (physiological or pathological) and microenvironment of the donor cells also opening the way to the relevance of EVs and their cargo content for human toxicology studies. Indeed, EVs isolated from patient body fluids have been studied in research concerning disease biomarkers and early diagnosis possibilities in inflammatory diseases as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

In this Special Issue, we welcome manuscripts addressing original research and review papers as well as short communications highlighting the characteristics of EVs. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Immunological response (innate and adaptive immunity, including inflammation, antigen presentation, and the development and activation of B cells and T cells);
  • Characterization of EVs’ cargo content (microRNAs, lipids, mRNAs, etc);
  • Next-generation drug delivery platforms;
  • Relevance of EVs in human toxicology studies.

Dr. Paolo Colombo
Dr. Valeria Longo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

20 pages, 753 KiB  
Review
Extracellular Vesicles and Immunity: At the Crossroads of Cell Communication
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25021205 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), comprising exosomes and microvesicles, are small membranous structures secreted by nearly all cell types. They have emerged as crucial mediators in intercellular communication, playing pivotal roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes, notably within the realm of immunity. These roles [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), comprising exosomes and microvesicles, are small membranous structures secreted by nearly all cell types. They have emerged as crucial mediators in intercellular communication, playing pivotal roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes, notably within the realm of immunity. These roles go beyond mere cellular interactions, as extracellular vesicles stand as versatile and dynamic components of immune regulation, impacting both innate and adaptive immunity. Their multifaceted involvement includes immune cell activation, antigen presentation, and immunomodulation, emphasising their significance in maintaining immune homeostasis and contributing to the pathogenesis of immune-related disorders. Extracellular vesicles participate in immunomodulation by delivering a wide array of bioactive molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, thereby influencing gene expression in target cells. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review that encompasses in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms through which EVs modulate human immunity. Understanding the intricate interplay between extracellular vesicles and immunity is imperative for unveiling novel therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools applicable to various immunological disorders, including autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancer. Furthermore, recognising the potential of EVs as versatile drug delivery vehicles holds significant promise for the future of immunotherapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Immunology)
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0 pages, 911 KiB  
Review
Lipid Metabolism Modulation during SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Spotlight on Extracellular Vesicles and Therapeutic Prospects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010640 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a significant impact on the pathophysiological processes associated with various diseases such as tumors, inflammation, and infection. They exhibit molecular, biochemical, and entry control characteristics similar to viral infections. Viruses, on the other hand, depend on host metabolic machineries [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a significant impact on the pathophysiological processes associated with various diseases such as tumors, inflammation, and infection. They exhibit molecular, biochemical, and entry control characteristics similar to viral infections. Viruses, on the other hand, depend on host metabolic machineries to fulfill their biosynthetic requirements. Due to potential advantages such as biocompatibility, biodegradation, and efficient immune activation, EVs have emerged as potential therapeutic targets against the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Studies on COVID-19 patients have shown that they frequently have dysregulated lipid profiles, which are associated with an increased risk of severe repercussions. Lipid droplets (LDs) serve as organelles with significant roles in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis as well as having a wide range of functions in infections. The down-modulation of lipids, such as sphingolipid ceramide and eicosanoids, or of the transcriptional factors involved in lipogenesis seem to inhibit the viral multiplication, suggesting their involvement in the virus replication and pathogenesis as well as highlighting their potential as targets for drug development. Hence, this review focuses on the role of modulation of lipid metabolism and EVs in the mechanism of immune system evasion during SARS-CoV-2 infection and explores the therapeutic potential of EVs as well as application for delivering therapeutic substances to mitigate viral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Immunology)
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