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Molecular Research of Microbial Infection and Phage Therapy

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 4159

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Immunology and Genomics, Osaka Metropolitan University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
Interests: microbiome; metagenome analysis; phage therapy; mucosal immunology; autoimmune diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are currently facing an unprecedented pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. However, we must not forget that the threat of drug-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), drug-resistant Escherichia coli, and Clostridioides difficile, remains a significant problem. If this trend continues, it is predicted that infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria will be the leading cause of death by 2050. Phage therapy is considered an important development against drug-resistant bacteria, and expectations for phage therapy are growing worldwide.

Leading by Dr. Kosuke Fujimoto and assisting by our Topical Advisory Panel Member Dr. Jumpei Fujiki (Rakuno Gakuen University/University of California San Diego), in this Special Issue, we welcome your contributions in the form of original research articles and review articles on all aspects of “Molecular Research of Microbial Infection and Phage Therapy”.

Dr. Kosuke Fujimoto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • phage therapy

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • microbiome
  • infection
  • inflammation
  • bacteriophage
  • virome

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

19 pages, 2620 KiB  
Review
Immunostimulating Commensal Bacteria and Their Potential Use as Therapeutics
by Bonita McCuaig and Yoshiyuki Goto
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(21), 15644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242115644 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The gut microbiome is intimately intertwined with the host immune system, having effects on the systemic immune system. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has been linked not only to gastrointestinal disorders but also conditions of the skin, lungs, and brain. Commensal bacteria can [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome is intimately intertwined with the host immune system, having effects on the systemic immune system. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has been linked not only to gastrointestinal disorders but also conditions of the skin, lungs, and brain. Commensal bacteria can affect the immune status of the host through a stimulation of the innate immune system, training of the adaptive immune system, and competitive exclusion of pathogens. Commensal bacteria improve immune response through the production of immunomodulating compounds such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and secondary bile acids. The microbiome, especially when in dysbiosis, is plastic and can be manipulated through the introduction of beneficial bacteria or the adjustment of nutrients to stimulate the expansion of beneficial taxa. The complex nature of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) ecosystem complicates the use of these methods, as similar treatments have various results in individuals with different residential microbiomes and differential health statuses. A more complete understanding of the interaction between commensal species, host genetics, and the host immune system is needed for effective microbiome interventions to be developed and implemented in a clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Microbial Infection and Phage Therapy)
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24 pages, 2502 KiB  
Review
Fitness Trade-Offs between Phage and Antibiotic Sensitivity in Phage-Resistant Variants: Molecular Action and Insights into Clinical Applications for Phage Therapy
by Jumpei Fujiki, Keisuke Nakamura, Tomohiro Nakamura and Hidetomo Iwano
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(21), 15628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242115628 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2115
Abstract
In recent decades, phage therapy has been overshadowed by the widespread use of antibiotics in Western countries. However, it has been revitalized as a powerful approach due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Although bacterial resistance to phages has been reported in [...] Read more.
In recent decades, phage therapy has been overshadowed by the widespread use of antibiotics in Western countries. However, it has been revitalized as a powerful approach due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Although bacterial resistance to phages has been reported in clinical cases, recent studies on the fitness trade-offs between phage and antibiotic resistance have revealed new avenues in the field of phage therapy. This strategy aims to restore the antibiotic susceptibility of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, even if phage-resistant variants develop. Here, we summarize the basic virological properties of phages and their applications within the context of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, we review the occurrence of phage resistance in clinical cases, and examine fitness trade-offs between phage and antibiotic sensitivity, exploring the potential of an evolutionary fitness cost as a countermeasure against phage resistance in therapy. Finally, we discuss future strategies and directions for phage-based therapy from the aspect of fitness trade-offs. This approach is expected to provide robust options when combined with antibiotics in this era of phage ‘re’-discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Microbial Infection and Phage Therapy)
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