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Redox Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress in Human Metabolism and Disease

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 2998

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medical Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 24 Karłowicza St., 85-092 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; antioxidants; lipid peroxidation; exercise biochemistry; cryostimulation; parasitology
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Guest Editor
Department of Medical Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 24 Karłowicza St., 85-092 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: reactive oxygen species; oxidative stress; antioxidants; oncology; metabolic diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The finely tuned equilibrium of redox reactions forms the bedrock of many cellular functions underlying key metabolic processes and influencing the health of tissues and organs. This balance, critical for cell functionality, is frequently compromised in a myriad of diseases, including metabolic disorders, degenerative conditions and various other pathophysiological states. Perturbations in redox homeostasis often result from an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant response mechanisms. At physiological levels, ROS serve as pivotal signaling molecules in a wide range of metabolic activities. However, excessive ROS accumulation can deleteriously perturb metabolic functions, instigating a diseased state and accelerating its progression. Furthermore, the intimate relationship between redox dynamics and human metabolism becomes even more complex when considering the influence of exogenous factors. These agents, in varied concentrations, can either maintain a redox equilibrium, thereby aiding metabolic function, or disrupt it, exacerbating oxidative stress. A deeper grasp of these multifaceted interactions is crucial not only for understanding disease etiology, but also devising innovative therapeutic interventions and preventive measures.

In this vein, this Special Issue invites submissions of original research articles that shed light on the intricate dance of redox signaling within metabolic contexts, both in health and disease. Articles highlighting the potential therapeutic strategies targeting redox imbalances in metabolic disorders are particularly encouraged. Additionally, comprehensive review articles that evaluate and dissect the current knowledge landscape pertaining to the theme are most welcome.

Prof. Dr. Alina Woźniak
Dr. Jaroslaw Nuszkiewicz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • biomarkers
  • cellular functions
  • disease etiology
  • disease progression
  • metabolic disorders
  • metabolic signaling
  • oxidative stress
  • pathophysiological states
  • reactive oxygen species
  • redox homeostasis
  • redox signaling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 1367 KiB  
Article
Plasma Redox Balance in Advanced-Maternal-Age Pregnant Women and Effects of Plasma on Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells
by Elena Grossini, Carmen Imma Aquino, Sakthipriyan Venkatesan, Libera Troìa, Eleonora Tizzoni, Federica Fumagalli, Daniela Ferrante, Rosanna Vaschetto, Valentino Remorgida and Daniela Surico
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(9), 4869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25094869 - 29 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Pregnancy at advanced maternal age (AMA) is a condition of potential risk for the development of maternal–fetal complications with possible repercussions even in the long term. Here, we analyzed the changes in plasma redox balance and the effects of plasma on human umbilical [...] Read more.
Pregnancy at advanced maternal age (AMA) is a condition of potential risk for the development of maternal–fetal complications with possible repercussions even in the long term. Here, we analyzed the changes in plasma redox balance and the effects of plasma on human umbilical cord mesenchymal cells (hUMSCs) in AMA pregnant women (patients) at various timings of pregnancy. One hundred patients and twenty pregnant women younger than 40 years (controls) were recruited and evaluated at various timings during pregnancy until after delivery. Plasma samples were used to measure the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, plasma was used to stimulate the hUMSCs, which were tested for cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO release. The obtained results showed that, throughout pregnancy until after delivery in patients, the levels of plasma glutathione and NO were lower than those of controls, while those of TBARS were higher. Moreover, plasma of patients reduced cell viability and NO release, and increased ROS release in hUMSCs. Our results highlighted alterations in the redox balance and the presence of potentially harmful circulating factors in plasma of patients. They could have clinical relevance for the prevention of complications related to AMA pregnancy. Full article
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13 pages, 2792 KiB  
Communication
Oxidative Stress Markers and Histopathological Changes in Selected Organs of Mice Infected with Murine Norovirus 1 (MNV-1)
by Paulina Janicka, Dominika Stygar, Elżbieta Chełmecka, Piotr Kuropka, Arkadiusz Miążek, Aleksandra Studzińska, Aleksandra Pogorzelska, Katarzyna Pala and Barbara Bażanów
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(7), 3614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25073614 - 23 Mar 2024
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Abstract
This paper describes the effects of murine norovirus (MNV) infection on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice. This study uses histopathological assays, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant markers, and total oxidative status and capacity (TOS, TAC). The results suggest that MNV infection can [...] Read more.
This paper describes the effects of murine norovirus (MNV) infection on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice. This study uses histopathological assays, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant markers, and total oxidative status and capacity (TOS, TAC). The results suggest that MNV infection can lead to significant changes with respect to the above-mentioned parameters in various organs. Specifically, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were observed in liver tissues, while higher MnSOD activity was observed in kidney tissues of MNV-infected mice when compared to the control. GR activity was lower in all tissues of MNV-infected mice tested, with the exception of lung tissue. This study also showed that norovirus infection led to increased TOS levels in the brain and liver and TAC levels in the brain, while TOS levels were significantly reduced in the kidneys. These changes may be due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by the viral infection. ROS can damage cells and contribute to oxidative stress. These studies help us to understand the pathogenesis of MNV infection and its potential effects on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice, and pave the way for further studies of the long-term effects of MNV infection. Full article
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16 pages, 986 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Report on the Influence of Acute Inflammation on Adiponectin Levels in Older Inpatients with Different Nutritional Status
by Jakub Husejko, Marcin Gackowski, Jakub Wojtasik, Dominika Strzała, Maciej Pesta, Katarzyna Mądra-Gackowska, Jarosław Nuszkiewicz, Alina Woźniak, Mariusz Kozakiewicz and Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042016 - 7 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Inflammation can be triggered by a variety of factors, including pathogens, damaged cells, and toxic compounds. It is a biological response of the immune system, which can be successfully assessed in clinical practice using some molecular substances. Because adiponectin, a hormone released by [...] Read more.
Inflammation can be triggered by a variety of factors, including pathogens, damaged cells, and toxic compounds. It is a biological response of the immune system, which can be successfully assessed in clinical practice using some molecular substances. Because adiponectin, a hormone released by adipose tissue, influences the development of inflammation, its evaluation as a potential measure of inflammation in clinical practice is justified. In the present contribution, statistical comparison of adiponectin concentration and selected molecular substances recognized in clinical practice as measures of inflammation were utilized to demonstrate whether adipose tissue hormones, as exemplified by adiponectin, have the potential to act as a measure of rapidly changing inflammation when monitoring older hospitalized patients in the course of bacterial infection. The study showed no statistically significant differences in adiponectin levels depending on the rapidly changing inflammatory response in its early stage. Interestingly, the concentration of adiponectin is statistically significantly higher in malnourished patients than in people with normal nutritional levels, assessed based on the MNA. According to the results obtained, adiponectin is not an effective measure of acute inflammation in clinical practice. However, it may serve as a biomarker of malnutrition in senile individuals. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 2981 KiB  
Review
The Role of Glutathione in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
by Sylwia Brodzka, Jędrzej Baszyński, Katarzyna Rektor, Karolina Hołderna-Bona, Emilia Stanek, Natalia Kurhaluk, Halina Tkaczenko, Grażyna Malukiewicz, Alina Woźniak and Piotr Kamiński
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(8), 4158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25084158 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic disease that usually develops in older people. Pathogenetic changes in this disease include anatomical and functional complexes. Harmful factors damage the retina and macula. These changes may lead to partial or total loss of vision. The [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic disease that usually develops in older people. Pathogenetic changes in this disease include anatomical and functional complexes. Harmful factors damage the retina and macula. These changes may lead to partial or total loss of vision. The disease can occur in two clinical forms: dry (the progression is slow and gentle) and exudative (wet—progression is acute and severe), which usually starts in the dry form; however, the coexistence of both forms is possible. The etiology of AMD is not fully understood, and the precise mechanisms of the development of this illness are still unknown. Extensive genetic studies have shown that AMD is a multi-factorial disease and that genetic determinants, along with external and internal environmental and metabolic-functional factors, are important risk factors. This article reviews the role of glutathione (GSH) enzymes engaged in maintaining the reduced form and polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1) in the development of AMD. We only chose papers that confirmed the influence of the parameters on the development of AMD. Because GSH is the most important antioxidant in the eye, it is important to know the influence of the enzymes and genetic background to ensure an optimal level of glutathione concentration. Numerous studies have been conducted on how the glutathione system works till today. This paper presents the current state of knowledge about the changes in GSH, GST, GR, and GPx in AMD. GST studies clearly show increased activity in ill people, but for GPx, the results relating to activity are not so clear. Depending on the research, the results also suggest higher and lower GPx activity in patients with AMD. The analysis of polymorphisms in GST genes confirmed that mutations lead to weaker antioxidant barriers and may contribute to the development of AMD; unfortunately, a meta-analysis and some research did not confirm that connection. Unspecific results of many of the parameters that make up the glutathione system show many unknowns. It is so important to conduct further research to understand the exact mechanism of defense functions of glutathione against oxidative stress in the human eye. Full article
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