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Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 29455

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Extremadura, Badajoz 06006, Spain
Interests: psychology; self-determination; team sports; performance analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, School of Sport and Leisure, 4960-320 Melgaço, Portugal
Interests: football; soccer; match analysis; performance analysis; network analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A Topical Collection on Football Science and Physical Health, in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, is being organized.

Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, contributing to 6% of deaths worldwide. In this context, the urgent need to create and develop intervention programs that are effective in promoting active lifestyles has been emphasized by different entities (e.g., WHO and UNESCO).

Since football is the most popular sport in the world, and taking into account that its variants (futsal, beach soccer) are growing exponentially in terms of the number of practitioners, we can emphasize the importance of this sport in promoting healthier lifestyles.

In this sense, researchers are invited to submit investigations that focus their analysis on the effects that regular practice of the sport may have on the health of its practitioners at different competitive levels (recreational, amateur, professional), and also on the analysis of current trends in the collective behaviors of these forms of the game (soccer, futsal and beach soccer).

The keywords listed below provide an outline of some of the possible areas of interest. 

Dr. Hugo Miguel Borges Sarmento
Dr. Tomás Garcia-Calvo
Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
Dr. Adilson Marques
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • football
  • futsal
  • beach soccer
  • health care setting
  • prevention
  • treatment
  • disease
  • non-communicable disease
  • recreational sport
  • professional sport
  • load monitoring
  • performance analysis
  • match analysis
  • game analysis
  • collective behavior

Published Papers (10 papers)

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8 pages, 1132 KiB  
Article
Plantar Fasciitis in Soccer Players—A Systemic Review
by David C. Noriega, Ángel Cristo, Alejandro León, Belén García-Medrano, Alberto Caballero-García and Alfredo Córdova-Martinez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114426 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5589
Abstract
Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. Players often suffer a variety of injuries, the most common being injuries to muscles and tendons. It is striking that with soccer, being the most practiced sport, and considering that most injuries [...] Read more.
Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. Players often suffer a variety of injuries, the most common being injuries to muscles and tendons. It is striking that with soccer, being the most practiced sport, and considering that most injuries occur in the lower extremities, plantar fasciitis (PF) is not one of the most frequent injuries (at least in terms of clinical data collected). The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive update of the topic “plantar fasciitis” focusing on soccer players. The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reportiog ltems for Systmiatic reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus were researched. PICO (Patient, Population or Problem; Intervention; Comparison; and Outcome) components were identified. The keywords used were “plantar fasciitis”, “plantar fasciitis and sport”, “plantar fasciitis risk factors”, “plantar fasciitis soccer” and “plantar fasciitis football players”. With respect to the objective proposed for the research, we found eight specific articles focused on soccer. Of these, five were general reviews discussing the different methods of treatment of this pathology, and we have only found three studies that focused on PF in soccer, with two of them referring to a clinical case whereby the report and discussion only dealt with the specific treatment followed by the soccer player. After reviewing the manuscripts included in this work, we were surprised that there is no data in which the Silfverskiöld test was performed, as this test explores the passive mobility of the ankle and the degree of dorsiflexion in the supine position. We concluded that soccer players suffer pain in the sole of the foot compatible with plantar fasciitis; however, as indicated by Suzue et al., it is often not diagnosed because the athlete does not consider performing the clinical examinations necessary for its diagnosis. The shortage of reported publications in soccer may mask other PF-associated injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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11 pages, 536 KiB  
Article
Physical Impact of a Typical Training Session with Different Volumes on the Day Preceding a Match in Academy Soccer Players
by Tom Douchet, Christos Paizis and Nicolas Babault
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113828 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
French academies almost all implement reactivity drills and small-sided games (SSG) the day preceding a match (MD-1). The present study aimed to determine the physical impact of different training durations on MD-1 on the subsequent matchday performance (MD). Eleven elite U19 academy soccer [...] Read more.
French academies almost all implement reactivity drills and small-sided games (SSG) the day preceding a match (MD-1). The present study aimed to determine the physical impact of different training durations on MD-1 on the subsequent matchday performance (MD). Eleven elite U19 academy soccer players conducted three typical training sessions lasting 45 min (TS45), 60 min (TS60) and 75 min (TS75) on MD-1. During TS60, warm-up, reactivity and SSG were 10, 15 and 24 min, respectively, plus coaches’ feedback or water breaks. Durations of all training components decreased by 25% for TS45 and increased by 25% for TS75. Tests were conducted on MD-4 (CONTROL) and MD before the match (TEST). Tests consisted of a counter movement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, Illinois agility test (IAT) and Hooper questionnaire. CONTROL values were similar over the three experimental conditions. TEST on MD revealed greater CMJ for TS45 (42.7 ± 5.1 cm) compared to TS60 (40.5 ± 5.5 cm, p = 0.032) and TS75 (40.9 ± 5.7 cm, p = 0.037). 20 m time was lower for TS45 (3.07 ± 0.10 s, p < 0.001) and TS60 (3.13 ± 0.10 s, p = 0.017) compared to TS75 (3.20 ± 0.10 s). IAT time was lower on TS45 (14.82 ± 0.49 s) compared to TS60 (15.43 ± 0.29 s, p < 0.001) and TS75 (15.24 ± 0.33 s, p = 0.006). Furthermore, the Hooper index was lower at TEST for TS45 (7.64 ± 1.50) compared to TS60 (11.00 ± 3.49, p = 0.016) and TS75 (9.73 ± 2.41, p = 0.016), indicating a better readiness level. We concluded that, as training session duration increases, performance decreases on MD. A 45 min training session including reactivity and SSG exercises is therefore recommended on MD-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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9 pages, 525 KiB  
Article
The Effect of FIFA 11+ on the Isometric Strength and Running Ability of Young Soccer Players
by Xin Zhou, Anmin Luo, Yifei Wang, Qingqing Zhang, Yu Zha, Sicheng Wang, Caroline Ashton, John Ethan Andamasaris, Henry Wang and Qirong Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013186 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Soccer is the world’s game, and keeping athletes healthy while playing the game has often been a focus of study. There is a high occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries reported in soccer. FIFA 11+ was developed as an intervention to help prevent such injuries. [...] Read more.
Soccer is the world’s game, and keeping athletes healthy while playing the game has often been a focus of study. There is a high occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries reported in soccer. FIFA 11+ was developed as an intervention to help prevent such injuries. FIFA 11+ has previously been studied for its efficacy as an injury prevention program, but not for its effect on sports performance in an adolescent population. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of implementing the FIFA 11+ intervention on strength, speed, and agility. Twenty youth soccer players were randomly divided into an intervention group (INT) and a control group (CON). The intervention lasted for eight weeks and performance assessments were completed pre- and post-intervention. Post-test INT knee flexor strength was significantly higher than pre-test scores (p < 0.05). INT also demonstrated significantly higher hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q) after the intervention (p < 0.05), while the CON H/Q did not change significantly. 30-m sprint performance of both groups improved from pre- to post-test (p < 0.05). Shuttle run performance was significantly improved in post-test scores for INT players (p < 0.05), but did not change significantly for the CON players. It is suggested that implementing FIFA 11+ before training in young soccer players can lead to performance benefits as well as injury prevention benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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7 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Video Assistant Referee System Implementation on Match Physical Demands in the Spanish LaLiga
by José C. Ponce-Bordón, David Lobo-Triviño, Ana Rubio-Morales, Roberto López del Campo, Ricardo Resta and Miguel A. López-Gajardo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095125 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
The present study aimed to analyze the influence of the Video Assistant Referee (VAR) on match physical demands in the top Spanish professional football league. Match physical demand data from all the matches for two seasons (2017/2018 and 2018/2019) in the First Spanish [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to analyze the influence of the Video Assistant Referee (VAR) on match physical demands in the top Spanish professional football league. Match physical demand data from all the matches for two seasons (2017/2018 and 2018/2019) in the First Spanish Division (n = 1454) were recorded using an optical tracking system (ChyronHego®). Total distance, relative total distance covered per minute, distance covered between 14–21 km·h−1, distance covered between 21–24 km·h−1, and distance covered at more than 24 km·h−1 were analyzed; also, the number of sprints between 21–24 km·h−1 and more than 24 km·h−1 were taken into consideration. The times the VAR intervened in matches were also taken into account. Results showed that total distance and relative total distance significantly decreased in seasons with VAR compared to seasons without VAR. Finally, distance covered between 21–24 km·h−1, distance covered at more than 24 km·h−1, and the number of high-intensity efforts between 21–24 km·h−1 and more than 24 km·h−1 increased in seasons with VAR compared to seasons without VAR, but the differences were nonsignificant. Thus, these findings help practitioners to better understand the effects of the VAR system on professional football physical performance and to identify strategies to reproduce competition demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
10 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Relationship between Sport Courage and Female Soccer Performance Variables
by Erkut Konter, Adam Gledhill, Yee Cheng Kueh and Garry Kuan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084654 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between female soccer players’ courage and key performance variables (level of participation, injury past, being selected or non-selected by a national team, being starter or substitute). Methods: The Sport Courage Scale-31, by Konter [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between female soccer players’ courage and key performance variables (level of participation, injury past, being selected or non-selected by a national team, being starter or substitute). Methods: The Sport Courage Scale-31, by Konter and Ng (2012) and key performance variables were collected from 210 female soccer players aged 12 to 27 (M = 17.97 ± 3.34 years old). Spearman correlations and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to analyse the collected data. Results: The correlations between mastery (r = 0.196), determination (p = 0.239), assertiveness (r = 0.325), sacrifice behaviour (r = 0.182), total sport courage (r = 0.265) and age of female soccer players were found to be significant (p < 0.05). Female soccer players who have sustained an injury in the past scored significantly higher on the venturesome scale (p = 0.006) than those who have not sustained an injury in the past. In comparison, female soccer players who have not sustained an injury in the past or who have not been substituted had significantly more mastery than female soccer players who have sustained an injury in the past or who have been substituted (p = 0.017, p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicates that sport courage is related to key performance variables among female soccer players. Mastery and age seem to be related to courageous behaviour, whereas increasing venturesomeness might cause injuries in female soccer. Some relevant implications for practitioners can be drawn from the present findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
14 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
Fitness, Fatness, and Academic Attainment in Male Schoolchildren from a Soccer Academy
by Souhail Hermassi, Thomas Bartels, Lawrence D. Hayes and René Schwesig
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053106 - 06 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
This investigation explored the association between anthropometric measures, fitness, and academic attainment (mathematics and science grade point average [GPA]) in male schoolchildren from a soccer academy. Thirty-one males (age: 10.3 ± 1.19 years; body mass: 41.7 ± 6.5 kg; height: 1.43 ± 0.07 [...] Read more.
This investigation explored the association between anthropometric measures, fitness, and academic attainment (mathematics and science grade point average [GPA]) in male schoolchildren from a soccer academy. Thirty-one males (age: 10.3 ± 1.19 years; body mass: 41.7 ± 6.5 kg; height: 1.43 ± 0.07 m; body mass index (BMI): 20.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2) participated. Body mass, body fat percentage (%BF), and BMI were used as measures of anthropometry. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (level 1), squat and counter-movement jumps (SJ and CMJ), static balance, 10 and 15 m sprint, and a T-half test for change-of-direction (CoD) performance were used to measure fitness parameters. The GPA of mathematics and science determined academic attainment. All physical performance tests showed excellent relative reliability. ICC was between 0.87 (10 m sprint) and 1.00 (15 m sprint, CMJ). Regarding correlations between fatness and academic attainment, we found three correlations of practical value (r > 0.5), but only for mathematics (BMI: r = 0.540, subscapular skinfold: r = 0.589, body fat: r = 0.560). Mathematics was relevantly correlated with 15 m sprint (r = 0.574) and Yo-Yo IR1 test (r = 0.770). Only static balance (r = 0.428) did not reach the relevance criteria (r > 0.5). Science only showed large correlations with static balance (r = 0.620) and Yo-Yo IR1 test (r = 0.730). In conclusion, fatness and fitness are related to academic attainment in schoolchildren. In addition, except for static balance, all physical performance parameters were relevantly (r > 0.5) correlated with mathematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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11 pages, 1231 KiB  
Article
LaLiga Lockdown: Conditioning Strategy and Adaptation to In-Game Regulations during COVID-19 Pandemic Prevented an Increase in Injury Incidence
by Víctor Moreno-Pérez, Jon Patricios, Narciso Amigo de Bonet, Miguel Ángel Buil, Josu Díaz de Alda, Andrés Fernández-Posada, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Sergio Jiménez-Rubio, Alberto Lam, Josean Lekue, Roberto López-Del Campo, Alejandro López-Valenciano, Gil Rodas, José Romero-Sangüesa, Xabier Valencia-Murua, Xavier Yanguas-Leyes, José Conde and Juan Del Coso
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052920 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
The first division of Spanish professional football (LaLiga) was suspended for 12 weeks as part of the policies enforced by health authorities during the first wave of COVID-19. During this period, players were confined to home for 8 weeks, followed by [...] Read more.
The first division of Spanish professional football (LaLiga) was suspended for 12 weeks as part of the policies enforced by health authorities during the first wave of COVID-19. During this period, players were confined to home for 8 weeks, followed by a club-based retraining period of 4 weeks. Afterwards, LaLiga’s teams completed 11 matches, with approximately 3 days of recovery between matches, to finish the competition. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether there is a difference in mean injury incidence in LaLiga players between the pre-lockdown period and post-lockdown period. A total of 277 players belonging to 11 teams competing in LaLiga were monitored during the 2019–2020 season. Injury incidence in the 27 matchdays completed before the lockdown was compared to the last 11 matchdays completed after the resumption of the competition. In comparison to the period before the suspension, the resumption of the championship did not significantly affect the injury incidence (4.2 vs. 5.4 injuries per 1000 h of exposure, p = 0.338). Injury incidence before suspension and after resumption of the competition was similar for muscle (2.6 vs. 3.4 injuries per 1000 h of exposure, p = 0.152) and ligament injuries (0.8 vs. 0.4 injuries per 1000 h of exposure, p = 0.062). The resumption of the competition also did not modify the distribution of injury according to body location (p = 0.948), injury type (p = 0.766), mode of onset (p = 0.614), severity (p = 0.065), or player position (p = 0.295). In summary, mean injury incidence in LaLiga players was similar before and after the lockdown. It is probable that the conditioning strategy adopted by clubs before the resumption of LaLiga and the adaptation of some in-game regulations helped to avoid an increased injury rate after the lockdown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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12 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Effects of Football Training and Match-Play on Hamstring Muscle Strength and Passive Hip and Ankle Range of Motion during the Competitive Season
by Víctor Moreno-Pérez, Gil Rodas, Marcelo Peñaranda-Moraga, Álvaro López-Samanes, Daniel Romero-Rodríguez, Per Aagaard and Juan Del Coso
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052897 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3503
Abstract
Deficits in hamstring muscle strength and in hip range of motion (ROM) have been considered risk factors for hamstring muscle injuries. However, there is a lack of information on how chronic exposure to regular football training affects hamstring muscle strength and hip ROM. [...] Read more.
Deficits in hamstring muscle strength and in hip range of motion (ROM) have been considered risk factors for hamstring muscle injuries. However, there is a lack of information on how chronic exposure to regular football training affects hamstring muscle strength and hip ROM. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effect of football training and competition during a complete season on hamstring muscle strength and hip ROM in football players. A total of 26 semi-professional football players underwent measurements of isometric hamstring muscle strength and passive hip flexion/extension, and internal/external hip rotation (IR/ER) ROM during the football season (pre-season, mid-season, end-season). Compared to pre-season, hamstring muscle strength increased in the dominant (+11.1%, p = 0.002) and non-dominant (+10.5%, p = 0.014) limbs in the mid-season. Compared to mid-season, hamstring strength decreased in the dominant (−9.3%, p = 0.034) limb at end-season. Compared to the pre-season, hip extension ROM decreased in mid-season in the dominant (−31.7%, p = 0.007) and non-dominant (−44.1%, p = 0.004) limbs, and further decreased at end-season (−49.0%, p = 0.006 and −68.0%, p < 0.001) for the dominant and non-dominant limbs. Interlimb asymmetry for hip IR ROM increased by 57.8% (p < 0.002) from pre-season to mid-season. In summary, while hamstring muscle strength increased during the first half of the football season in football players, a progressive reduction in hip extension ROM was observed throughout the season. The reduced hip extension ROM suggests a reduced mobility of the hip flexors, e.g., iliopsoas, produced by the continuous practice of football. Consequently, hip-specific stretching and conditioning exercises programs should be implemented during the football season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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19 pages, 891 KiB  
Systematic Review
Talent Identification and Development in Male Futsal: A Systematic Review
by Diogo Mendes, Bruno Travassos, José M. Carmo, Felippe Cardoso, Israel Costa and Hugo Sarmento
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710648 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3481
Abstract
This review aimed to identify and synthesize the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in futsal. A systematic review of Web of Science™ (all databases), Scopus, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases was performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews [...] Read more.
This review aimed to identify and synthesize the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in futsal. A systematic review of Web of Science™ (all databases), Scopus, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases was performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. This study included original articles in English, Spanish or Portuguese containing relevant data on talent development/identification of male futsal players. The search yielded 238 articles. After screening, a total of 32 manuscripts were fully reviewed. The quality of the data reviewed was generally good. Results indicate that the most successful players exhibit technical, tactical, anthropometric, physiological and psychological advantages and are distinguished from lower-level players based on their earlier dedication to training. This review highlights the need for those involved in the process of identifying and developing talented futsal players to consider the technical and tactical skills of futsal players, along with their anthropometric and physiological characteristics, scaled to age. Finally, special attention should be paid to the supportive psychosocial environments created in sports academies for developing futsal players. Overall, talent identification and development programmes in futsal need to be dynamic and offer the possibility of changing assessment parameters in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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9 pages, 621 KiB  
Brief Report
The Effect of the COVID-19 Lockdown on the Position-Specific Match Running Performance of Professional Football Players; Preliminary Observational Study
by Damir Sekulic, Sime Versic, Andrew Decelis, Jose Castro-Piñero, Dejan Javorac, Goran Dimitric, Kemal Idrizovic, Igor Jukic and Toni Modric
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212221 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted professional football in the 2019/2020 season, and football experts anticipate that the consequences of lockdown measures will negatively affect the physical performance of players once competition restarts. This study aimed to evaluate position-specific match running performance (MRP) to determine [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted professional football in the 2019/2020 season, and football experts anticipate that the consequences of lockdown measures will negatively affect the physical performance of players once competition restarts. This study aimed to evaluate position-specific match running performance (MRP) to determine the effect of COVID-19 lockdowns on the physical performance of professional football players. Players’ MRPs (n = 124) were observed in matches before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in the 2019/2020 season of the highest level of national competition in Croatia and were classified according to player position: central defenders (CD; n = 42), fullbacks (FB; n = 20), midfielders (MF; n = 46), and forwards (FW; n = 16). The MRPs were measured using Global Positioning System, and included the total distance covered, low-intensity running (≤14.3 km/h), running (14.4–19.7 km/h), high-intensity running (≥19.8 km/h), total accelerations (>0.5 m/s2), high-intensity accelerations (>3 m/s2), total decelerations (less than –0.5 m/s2), and high-intensity decelerations (less than –3 m/s2). The results indicated that, in matches after the COVID-19 lockdown, (i) CDs and FBs featured lower running and high-intensity running (t-value: from 2.05 to 3.51; all p < 0.05; moderate to large effect sizes), (ii) MFs covered a greater distance in low-intensity running and achieved a lower number of total accelerations, and total and high-intensity decelerations (t-value: from –3.54 to 2.46; all p < 0.05, moderate to large effect sizes), and (iii) FWs featured lower high-intensity running (t-value = 2.66, p = 0.02, large effect size). These findings demonstrate that the physical performances of football players from the Croatian first division significantly decreased in matches after the COVID-19 lockdown. A combination of inadequate adaptation to football-specific match demands and a crowded schedule after the competition was restarted most likely resulted in such an effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Football Science—from Health to Sports Performance)
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