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Interactions of Training Load, Nutrition and Psychological Interventions with Growth and Maturation in Youth Sports

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2022) | Viewed by 10529

Special Issue Editors

Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, School of Sport and Leisure, 4960-320 Melgaço, Portugal
Interests: football; soccer; match analysis; performance analysis; network analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Children and youth with the same chronological age may be very different in terms of maturation status. In fact, growth and maturation is an individual process with huge variation in adolescence. Therefore, for the same chronological age, children and youth may be significantly different in terms of their maturation status. This leads to remarkable variation in adolescents’ physical fitness, psychological profile, or physiological responses to external stressors.

Therefore, biological age should be considered as a factor playing an important role in youth sports and exercise. Talent selection, the implementation of training interventions or adjustments to training stimulus should be managed based on maturation status, more than considering the chronological age.

The training load imposed to youth athletes can be a determinant factor to ensure an individualized and healthy process in the development of youth. Eventually, we hope that the specific concerns regarding the impact on training load will be specifically addressed in a Special Issue, namely the impact of load on the injuries, illness or fitness development of these athletes. Multidisciplinary approaches should be also conducted, namely considering nutrition factors (dietary and supplementation) and psychological interventions that may help youth establish a healthier relationship with exercise.

Despite a good body of knowledge about growth and maturation in sports, there are still some areas that deserve more original research and others that require systematic reviews. Therefore, this Special Issue “Interactions of Training Load, Nutrition and Psychological Interventions with Growth and Maturation in Youth Sports” looks forward to receiving original studies, systematic reviews or meta-analyses that focus on the area of growth and maturation in sports and exercise, nutrition and psychological interventions, particularly considering the following topics: (i) the implications of maturation status for physical, technical and tactical performance in sports; (ii) the implications of maturation for injury and illness in sports; (iii) the role of maturation status in training interventions; (iv) maturation and its relationship with talent selection; (v) maturation and its role in motor learning and motor control; (vi) dietary factors and implications for youth athletes; (vii) the impact of training load on youth; and (viii) psychological interventions in youth sports.

Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
Dr. Ana Filipa Silva
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • maturation
  • pediatric exercise
  • growth
  • youth sports
  • injuries and illness in sports
  • sports nutrition
  • psychological interventions

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1263 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a Coordinative Training in Young Swimmers’ Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127020 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of a coordinative in-water training. Total 26 young swimmers (16 boys) were divided in a training group (that performed two sets of 6 × 25-m front crawl, with manipulated speed and stroke frequency, two/week for eight weeks) and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of a coordinative in-water training. Total 26 young swimmers (16 boys) were divided in a training group (that performed two sets of 6 × 25-m front crawl, with manipulated speed and stroke frequency, two/week for eight weeks) and a control group. At the beginning and end of the training period, swimmers performed 50-m front crawl sprints recorded by seven land and six underwater Qualisys cameras. A linear mixed model regression was applied to investigate the training effects adjusted for sex. Differences between sex were registered in terms of speed, stroke length, and stroke index, highlighting that an adjustment for sex should be made in the subsequent analysis. Between moments, differences were noticed in coordinative variables (higher time spent in anti-phase and push, and lower out-of-phase and recovery for training group) and differences between sex were noticed in performance (stroke length and stroke index). Interactions (group * time) were found for the continuous relative phase, speed, stroke length, and stroke index. The sessions exerted a greater (indirect) influence on performance than on coordinative variables, thus, more sessions may be needed for a better understanding of coordinative changes since our swimmers, although not experts, are no longer in the early learning stages. Full article
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13 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
Youth Athletes’ Perception of Existence and Prevalence of Aggression and Interpersonal Violence and Their Forms in Serbia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031479 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Aggression and interpersonal violence (IV) against children and youth are issues in contemporary society. The current study reports on the youth athletes’ perception of the aggression and IV prevalence and its manifestation forms in a Serbian context. The sample included athletes (N [...] Read more.
Aggression and interpersonal violence (IV) against children and youth are issues in contemporary society. The current study reports on the youth athletes’ perception of the aggression and IV prevalence and its manifestation forms in a Serbian context. The sample included athletes (N = 2091) between the age of 11 and 18 years. Data were collected through an ad-hoc questionnaire created by the authors. Respondents’ answers to introductory questions about the frequency of IV indicated its absence (78.1%). However, the answers to the questions about specific forms of violent peer behavior indicated forms as well as the time and place where IV most often occurs. They underlined that IV takes place mainly after training or competition and during sports camps; and that the dressing room is the most favorable place for these behaviors. They also confirmed that the most prevalent subtypes of IV are psychological (roughly 40%) and physical (approximately 30%). The respondents’ opinions and experiences about IV (psychological, physical, sexual) revealed that factors such as gender, location, and parents’ education level may influence the IV manifestation. Highlighting the prevalence and the most frequently manifesting types of aggression and IV could help in awareness-raising of these social issues. Full article
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12 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Female Athlete Triad Risk Factors among Female International Volunteers and College Age-Matched Controls
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031223 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
This study retrospectively compared the prevalence of factors related to the female athlete triad (low energy availability, secondary amenorrhea (SA), low bone mineral density (BMD)), and post-study BMD of female college students and female international volunteer missionaries (volunteers). Female college students (21–26 years) [...] Read more.
This study retrospectively compared the prevalence of factors related to the female athlete triad (low energy availability, secondary amenorrhea (SA), low bone mineral density (BMD)), and post-study BMD of female college students and female international volunteer missionaries (volunteers). Female college students (21–26 years) completed a survey that retrospectively assessed an 18-month study period (volunteer service or first 18 months of college); Diet History Questionnaire III (DHQ III) and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan were optional. One-way ANOVAs and chi-squared distributions assessed group differences. Logistic regression assessed covariates of SA and BMD; corresponding odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.001. 3683 participants (58.8% volunteers, 31.5% non-volunteers, 9.8% others) provided complete survey data; 246 completed the DHQ III, and 640 had a post-study DXA scan. Volunteers had higher metabolic equivalent (MET) hours than non-volunteers and others (p < 0.001), and higher prevalence of food insecurity (p < 0.001) and SA (p < 0.001). Volunteers had higher odds of SA (OR = 2.17, CI = 1.75–2.62) than non-volunteers. Weight loss, body satisfaction, “other” weight loss methods, increased MET hours, and vomiting during the study period increased participants’ odds of SA. Participants’ average BMD Z-scores were within the expected range at all sites, with no significant group differences. Volunteers’ higher MET hours and higher prevalence of food insecurity and SA did not result in significantly lower post-study period BMD. Full article
14 pages, 1622 KiB  
Article
Association between Training Load and Well-Being Measures in Young Soccer Players during a Season
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094451 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the correlations among weekly (w) acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), training strain (wTS), sleep quality (wSleep), delayed onset muscle soreness (wDOMS), fatigue (wFatigue), stress (wStress), and Hooper index (wHI) in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the correlations among weekly (w) acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), training strain (wTS), sleep quality (wSleep), delayed onset muscle soreness (wDOMS), fatigue (wFatigue), stress (wStress), and Hooper index (wHI) in pre-, early, mid-, and end-of-season. Twenty-one elite soccer players (age: 16.1 ± 0.2 years) were monitored weekly on training load and well-being for 36 weeks. Higher variability in wAW (39.2%), wFatigue (84.4%), wStress (174.3%), and wHI (76.3%) at the end-of-season were reported. At mid-season, higher variations in wSleep (59.8%), TM (57.6%), and TS (111.1%) were observed. Moderate to very large correlations wAW with wDOMS (r = 0.617, p = 0.007), wFatigue, wStress, and wHI were presented. Similarly, wCW reported a meaningful large association with wDOMS (r = 0.526, p < 0.001); moderate to very large associations with wFatigue (r = 0.649, p = 0.005), wStress, and wHI. Moreover, wTM presented a large correlation with wSleep (r = 0.515, p < 0.001); and a negatively small association with wStress (r = −0.426, p = 0.003). wTS showed a small to large correlation with wSleep (r = 0.400, p = 0.005) and wHI; also, a large correlation with wDOMS (r = 0.556, p = 0.028) and a moderate correlation with wFatigue (r = 0.343, p = 0.017). Wellness status may be considered a useful tool to provide determinant elite players’ information to coaches and to identify important variations in training responses. Full article
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