ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 30500

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sport and Physical Activity Research Center, University of Coimbra, 3040-248 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: sport and exercise psychology; physical activity, fitness and health in special populations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, European Member States public authorities have made progressive efforts to promote health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) (WHO, 2018); however, physical inactivity rates remain unacceptably high in the European Union (EU Council, 2013). The majority of European citizens do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA), with 60% “never or seldom playing sport or exercising” (Eurobarometer, 2018). In the USA, a recent report by the CDC (2020) revealed that more than 15% of adults in states and territories were physically inactive, and this estimate ranged from 17.3 to 47.7%. Participation in sport, exercise, and PA is vital to maintain physical fitness (PF), health, and well-being (WHO, 2018), providing a strong relationship between higher PF and reduced levels of morbidity and mortality in the general population (ACSM, 2017) and in people with disabilities (ACSM, 2016). PF is seen as the characteristic enabling people to perform PA and includes health-related aspects such as cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and body composition (Tveter et al., 2014). These are the keystones that determine health-related PF and are perceived as important health markers.

In order to promote higher levels of adherence to regular PA and exercise to improve the general population’s health and well-being, a comprehensive and socially relevant research approach is needed to establish a stronger link between people´s needs, policymakers, and exercise and health professionals. The use of advanced research methods such as intervention studies, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and other innovative technologies to assess the effects of PA and exercise as an intervention tool for both primary and secondary health prevention are welcome. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining high academic standards with relevant community exercise intervention proposals.

Dr. José Pedro Leitão Ferreira
Dr. Hugo Miguel Borges Sarmento
Guest Editors 

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • inactivity
  • physical activity
  • physical exercise programs
  • chronic disease
  • non-communicable diseases
  • physical fitness
  • sedentary behavior, health, and well-being
  • quality of life
  • health status
  • lifestyle
  • public health
  • recommendations

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

18 pages, 1882 KiB  
Article
Older Adults Who Maintained a Regular Physical Exercise Routine before the Pandemic Show Better Immune Response to Vaccination for COVID-19
by Brenda Rodrigues Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues Monteiro, Kizzy Cezário, Jônatas Bussador do Amaral, Vitória Paixão, Ewin Barbosa Almeida, Carlos André Freitas dos Santos, Gislene Rocha Amirato, Danielle Bruna Leal Oliveira, Edison Luiz Durigon, Andressa Simões Aguiar, Rodolfo P. Vieira, Juliana de Melo Batista dos Santos, Guilherme Eustáquio Furtado, Carolina Nunes França, Marina Tiemi Shio and André Luis Lacerda Bachi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031939 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Background: In this study, we aimed to investigate the specific-antibody response to the COVID-19 vaccination and the immunophenotyping of T cells in older adults who were engaged or not in an exercise training program before the pandemic. Methods: Ninety-three aged individuals (aged between [...] Read more.
Background: In this study, we aimed to investigate the specific-antibody response to the COVID-19 vaccination and the immunophenotyping of T cells in older adults who were engaged or not in an exercise training program before the pandemic. Methods: Ninety-three aged individuals (aged between 60 and 85 years) were separated into 3 groups: practitioners of physical exercise vaccinated with CoronaVac (PE-Co, n = 46), or vaccinated with ChadOx-1 (PE-Ch, n = 23), and non-practitioners vaccinated with ChadOx-1 (NPE-Ch, n = 24). Blood samples were collected before (pre) and 30 days after vaccination with the second vaccine dose. Results. Higher IgG levels and immunogenicity were found in the PE-Ch and NPE-Ch groups, whereas increased IgA levels were found only in the PE-Ch group post-vaccination. The PE-Co group showed a positive correlation between the IgA and IgG values, and lower IgG levels post-vaccination were associated with age. Significant alterations in the percentage of naive (CD28+CD57-), double-positive (CD28+CD57+), and senescent (CD28-CD57+) CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells were found post-vaccination, particularly in the PE-Ch group. Conclusions: The volunteers vaccinated with the ChadOx-1 presented not only a better antibody response but also a significant modulation in the percentage of T cell profiles, mainly in the previously exercised group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 620 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity Levels in Brazilian Adolescents: A Secular Trend Study (2007–2017/18)
by André Araújo Pinto, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Kelly Samara da Silva, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Thais Silva Beltrame, Fernando Luiz Cardoso and Andreia Pelegrini
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416901 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Only a small proportion of Brazilian adolescents practice sufficient physical activity (PA). However, it is not clear whether this proportion has been decreasing over time. This study aimed to examine the 10-year trends of sufficient PA in adolescents and to investigate differences by [...] Read more.
Only a small proportion of Brazilian adolescents practice sufficient physical activity (PA). However, it is not clear whether this proportion has been decreasing over time. This study aimed to examine the 10-year trends of sufficient PA in adolescents and to investigate differences by sex and age. Using a standard protocol, we compared two cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents aged 15 to 18 years, recruited in 2007 (n = 1040) and in 2017/18 (n = 978). Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the adolescents reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) performed in the last seven days. Sufficient PA was defined as engaging in at least 60 min/day of MVPA. In the subgroups, investigated by sex or age, there was an increase in the prevalence of sufficient PA. Overall, sufficient PA declined by 28.1% from 2007 to 2017/18. Boys in 2007 were more active than their 2017/18 peers, and this was equally observed in girls in 2007 compared to those in 2017/18. The findings show decreasing secular trends in sufficient PA in the investigated adolescents. Not only are public health authorities in Brazil witnessing an escalation of insufficient PA, but they are also losing ground with the most active adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 390 KiB  
Article
Tensions and Paradoxes of Scaling Up: A Critical Reflection on Physical Activity Promotion
by Harriet Koorts, Adrian Bauman, Nancy Edwards, William Bellew, Wendy J. Brown, Mitch J. Duncan, David R. Lubans, Andrew J. Milat, Philip J. Morgan, Nicole Nathan, Andrew Searles, Karen Lee and Ronald C. Plotnikoff
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114284 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Background: Achieving system-level, sustainable ‘scale-up’ of interventions is the epitome of successful translation of evidence-based approaches in population health. In physical activity promotion, few evidence-based interventions reach implementation at scale or become embedded within systems for sustainable health impact. This is despite the [...] Read more.
Background: Achieving system-level, sustainable ‘scale-up’ of interventions is the epitome of successful translation of evidence-based approaches in population health. In physical activity promotion, few evidence-based interventions reach implementation at scale or become embedded within systems for sustainable health impact. This is despite the vast published literature describing efficacy studies of small-scale physical activity interventions. Research into physical activity scale-up (through case-study analysis; evaluations of scale-up processes in implementation trials; and mapping the processes, strategies, and principles for scale-up) has identified barriers and facilitators to intervention expansion. Many interventions are implemented at scale by governments but have not been evaluated or have unpublished evaluation information. Further, few public health interventions have evaluations that reveal the costs and benefits of scaled-up implementation. This lack of economic information introduces an additional element of risk for decision makers when deciding which physical activity interventions should be supported with scarce funding resources. Decision-makers face many other challenges when scaling interventions which do not relate to formal research trials of scale-up; Methods: To explore these issues, a multidisciplinary two-day workshop involving experts in physical activity scale-up was convened by the University of Newcastle, Australia, and the University of Ottawa, Canada (February 2019); Results: In this paper we discuss some of the scale-up tensions (challenges and conflicts) and paradoxes (things that are contrary to expectations) that emerged from this workshop in the context of the current literature and our own experiences in this field. We frame scale-up tensions according to epistemology, methodology, time, and partnerships; and paradoxes as ‘reach without scale’, ‘planned serendipity’ and ‘simple complexity’. We reflect on the implications of these scale-up tensions and paradoxes, providing considerations for future scale-up research and practice moving forward; Conclusions: In this paper, we delve deeper into stakeholders’ assumptions, processes and expectations of scaling up, and challenge in what ways as stakeholders, we all contribute to desired or undesired outcomes. Through a lens of ‘tensions’ and ‘paradoxes’, we make an original contribution to the scale-up literature that might influence current perspectives of scaling-up, provide future approaches for physical activity promotion, and contribute to understanding of dynamic of research-practice partnerships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
17 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Aquatic Exercise Programs on the Intima-Media thickness of the Carotid Arteries, Hemodynamic Parameters, Lipid Profile and Chemokines of Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Carlos Farinha, Hélder Santos, João Serrano, Bárbara Oliveiros, Fernanda M. Silva, Márcio Cascante-Rusenhack, Ana Maria Teixeira and José Pedro Ferreira
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063377 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
Scientific evidence has shown that physical exercise is an effective way of improving several cardiovascular disease markers. However, few studies have tested its effectiveness when performed in aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of different aquatic exercise [...] Read more.
Scientific evidence has shown that physical exercise is an effective way of improving several cardiovascular disease markers. However, few studies have tested its effectiveness when performed in aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of different aquatic exercise programs on the intima-media thickness of carotid arteries (IMT) and hemodynamic and biochemical markers of cardiovascular diseases in community-dwelling older persons. A total of 102 participants were randomly allocated into four groups: an aerobic exercise group (AerG) (n = 25, 71.44 ± 4.84 years); an aerobic interval group (IntG) (n = 28, 72.64 ± 5.22 years); a combined group (ComG) (n = 29, 71.90 ± 5.67 years); and a control group (CG) (n = 20, 73.60 ± 5.25 years). The AerG, IntG, and ComG participants took part in three different aquatic exercise programs for 28 weeks. The CG participants maintained their usual routines. All participants were evaluated for IMT, blood pressure, lipid profile, and MCP-1 and MIP-1α chemokines, pre- and post-intervention. Significant differences were found in the AerG for diastolic diameter (DD), in the IntG for peak systolic velocity (PSV), and in the ComG for DD and end-diastolic velocity (EDV). Regarding blood pressure, significant differences were found in AerG for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP); in IntG for DBP; and in ComG for SBP, DBP, and heart rate (HR). Significant differences were found in the AerG and IntG for glucose (GLU). Lower plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α) were found in the AerG and in the ComG for MCP-1 after the intervention. Aquatic physical exercise appears to improve cardiovascular health, regardless of the type of the program adopted. Aerobic programs (combined and continuous aerobic exercises) seemed to have a more beneficial effect in reducing important cardiovascular risk markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

20 pages, 659 KiB  
Review
Influence of Sports Activities on Prosocial Behavior of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review
by Jiayu Li and Weide Shao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116484 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4712
Abstract
Prosocial behavior plays a key role in interpersonal relationships during the growth of children and adolescents. Good prosocial behavior is the foundation for the healthy development of children and adolescents. In recent years, the role played by some sports activities in children and [...] Read more.
Prosocial behavior plays a key role in interpersonal relationships during the growth of children and adolescents. Good prosocial behavior is the foundation for the healthy development of children and adolescents. In recent years, the role played by some sports activities in children and adolescents’ prosocial behaviors has attracted much attention. However, the effects of physical activity on prosocial behavior have not been summarized. Objective: We aimed to clarify the role of sports activities in children and adolescents’ prosocial behaviors. Methods: We searched databases for 27 interventional studies on the influence of sports activities on children and adolescents’ prosocial behaviors published in peer-reviewed English journals. Subsequently, inductive, summary, analytical, and evaluation methods were used to systematically analyze and evaluate the literature. Results: Sports activities can improve children and adolescents’ prosocial behaviors. Different sports activities also influence children and adolescents’ prosocial behaviors differently. Moreover, sports activities can improve the prosocial behaviors of children and adolescents with special educational needs. Conclusion: This review demonstrates that sports activities improve the prosocial behavior of children and adolescents. At the same time, we find that children and adolescents with special educational needs should be allowed to participate in more sports activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

23 pages, 522 KiB  
Systematic Review
Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Instruments and Mobility: A Systematic Review
by Natalia Hernández-Segura, Alba Marcos-Delgado, Arrate Pinto-Carral, Tania Fernández-Villa and Antonio J. Molina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416493 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Physical function is one of the most important constructs assessed in health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and it could be very useful to assess movement ability from the perspective of the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the content of [...] Read more.
Physical function is one of the most important constructs assessed in health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and it could be very useful to assess movement ability from the perspective of the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the content of the domains related to mobility covered by the HRQOL questionnaires based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and to evaluate their quality according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidance. For this, a systematic review was carried out in the databases Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct. The inclusion criteria were development and/or validation studies about generic HRQOL measures, and the instruments had to include items related to mobility and studies written in English or Spanish. The comparison of content was performed using the ICF coding system. A total of 3614 articles were found, 20 generic HRQOL instruments were identified and 120 (22.4%) mobility-related items were found. Walking was the most represented category. Low-quality evidence on some measurement properties of the generic HRQOL instruments was revealed. The CAT-Health is a useful questionnaire to be used in rehabilitation due to its psychometric properties and its content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1430 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Use of Virtual and Computational Technologies in the Psychomotor and Cognitive Development of Children with Down Syndrome: A Systematic Literature Review
by Elvio Boato, Geiziane Melo, Mário Filho, Eduardo Moresi, Carla Lourenço and Rosana Tristão
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052955 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3220
Abstract
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have numerous comorbidities due to trisomy 21. However, virtual reality-based therapy (VRT) has been used nowadays as a learning and visual motor tool in order to facilitate the development and learning process of this group. The aim of [...] Read more.
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have numerous comorbidities due to trisomy 21. However, virtual reality-based therapy (VRT) has been used nowadays as a learning and visual motor tool in order to facilitate the development and learning process of this group. The aim of this article was to carry out an integrative review of the literature on the use of virtual and computational technologies in the stimulation of children with DS. A search was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) through single key words or their combinations using AND or OR operators: “Down syndrome” AND (“development” OR “cognition” OR “visomotor” OR “digital game” OR “virtual reality”). Eventually, 18 articles were included in our review. The games used in the research were able to stimulate, through the visual field, global motor skills, balance, body scheme and spatial organization, in addition to the learning of mathematical concepts, in order to directly influence the autonomous life activities, language skills, social skills and educational aspects of people with DS. Electronic games contribute to the teaching-learning relationship and stimulate neuropsychomotor and cognitive functions and development in children with DS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 670 KiB  
Systematic Review
Physical Activity and Physical Fitness among University Students—A Systematic Review
by Vidran Kljajević, Mima Stanković, Dušan Đorđević, Drena Trkulja-Petković, Rade Jovanović, Kristian Plazibat, Mario Oršolić, Mijo Čurić and Goran Sporiš
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010158 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 11370
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to examine the scientific evidence regarding physical activity and physical fitness among university students. The search and analysis of the studies were done in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. An electronic databases search (Google Scholar, PubMed, [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to examine the scientific evidence regarding physical activity and physical fitness among university students. The search and analysis of the studies were done in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. An electronic databases search (Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus) yielded 11,839 studies. Subsequently, the identified studies had to be published in English between 2011 and 2021, the experimental study had to have included males and females attending a faculty, and the participants had to have been evaluated for physical activity and fitness. A total of 21 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis, with a total of 7306 participants, both male and female. After analyzing the obtained results, it could be concluded that university students show a satisfactory level of physical activity and physical fitness. However, the results vary due to different factors involved, mostly related to the cultural differences and educational systems in different countries. As this study observes mediocre results of physical activity and physical fitness among university students, it is crucial to get their attention and awareness, to at least maintain a satisfactory level of physical activity and physical fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop