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Active Aging

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 68882

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Departamento de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Terapia Ocupacional, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha (UCLM), 45071 Toledo, Spain
Interests: ageing; older people; polypharmacy; preventive activities and public health; physical activity and health; nursing; violence; elder abuse
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Guest Editor
Facultad de Fisioterapia y Enfermería y Fisioterapia de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 45005 Toledo, Spain
Interests: preventive activities and public health; physical activity and health; nursing care; women and health; quality of life; sexuality; mood; chronic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Didactics of Musical, Plastic and Body Expression, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: body bomposition; physical activity; exercise science; physical activity assessment; physical fitness
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Didactics of Musical, Plastic and Body Expression, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: physical activity; sport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Social and Health Care Research Center, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
Interests: physical activity; body composition analysis; body composition; childhood obesity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world’s population is aging; it is estimated that between 2015 and 2030, the number of people aged 60 and over will grow by 56% worldwide. Age is associated with increases in chronic diseases, poor health, functional limitations, and morbidity, resulting in a greater use of health services and health cost. This is why in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in how to respond to the irreversible phenomenon of an aging population. To respond to this issue, the amount of scientific research and development of policies have grown, to increase the health level and participation of older people. For example, the European Union designated 2012 ast he European Year of Active Aging and intergenerational solidarity with the objective to find innovative solutions to the economic, social, and health problems of an aging population and to invite the elderly to continue playing an important role in society.     

This Special Issue seeks papers on new research on the phenomenon of aging, new therapies to improve the health status of older people, and epidemiological surveys concerning the problems older people face. We also welcome high-quality systematic reviews related to these matters. I would be delighted if this Special Issue serves as a trigger for elaborate policies and future programs of health to increase the health level and participation of older people and to find innovative solutions to the economic, social, and health problems of an aging population.

Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres
Prof. Dr. Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca
Dr. José Alberto Laredo Aguilera
Prof. Dr. Pedro Ángel Latorre Román
Prof. Juan Antonio Párraga Montilla
Prof. Dr. Diana P. Pozuelo-Carrascosa
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Aged
  • Active aging
  • Diet and oral health
  • Epidemiological survey for older people
  • Lifelong learning
  • Mental health
  • Old-age policy
  • Older people
  • Participation in society
  • Physical activity
  • Physical and mental health
  • Polypharmacy
  • Programming effects
  • Security
  • Social support

Published Papers (20 papers)

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17 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
Give Older Persons a Voice in the Society—By Using Information Compiled during Preventive Home Visits on a Societal Level
by Anna Nivestam, Maria Haak, Albert Westergren and Pia Petersson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147433 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Preventive home visits (PHVs) are offered to older persons with the purpose of promoting health and preventing risks on an individual level. However, aspects of health need to be considered on a societal level as well. This study aims to get a deeper [...] Read more.
Preventive home visits (PHVs) are offered to older persons with the purpose of promoting health and preventing risks on an individual level. However, aspects of health need to be considered on a societal level as well. This study aims to get a deeper understanding of perceptions of the usability of the information compiled during the PHVs to promote health, among older persons, on a societal level. Three online focus groups were conducted with heads of unit of PHVs, heads of department, and politicians responsible for health and welfare in seven municipalities in Sweden (n = 12). The findings were visualised in the core category Enable an inclusive society and the interrelated categories Monitoring determinants of health and Enabling exchange of information. The information from the PHVs could be used to monitor determinants of health by identifying assets, challenges, shifts, trends, and future needs in the society. Moreover, exchange of information from the PHVs could occur within and outside the health and welfare organisation. However, the potential use was affected by hindrances illustrated in the category Obstacles to interpreting and communicating the information. To conclude, using the information from the PHVs could possibly contribute to an inclusive society, where persons not usually represented in decision making are given a voice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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13 pages, 3350 KiB  
Article
A Novel Educational Smartphone Application for Cognitively Healthy Seniors: A Pilot Study
by Blanka Klimova and Lukas Sanda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126601 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
Modern technologies surround people every day, including seniors. The aim of this pilot study was to create a maximally user-friendly mobile application in order to meet older users’ individual needs. The research sample consisted of 13 older individuals at the age of 55+ [...] Read more.
Modern technologies surround people every day, including seniors. The aim of this pilot study was to create a maximally user-friendly mobile application in order to meet older users’ individual needs. The research sample consisted of 13 older individuals at the age of 55+ years with a mean age of 67 years, living in the Czech Republic. The key assessment tools of this pilot study were the developed application and usability testing. The findings confirmed that the newly developed mobile application for teaching English met the needs of cognitively healthy seniors, and was acceptable and feasible. In addition, it indicated what technical (e.g., visual interface or easy navigation) and pedagogical (e.g., an instructional manual or adjusting to seniors’ learning pace or clear instructions) aspects should be strictly followed when designing such an educational smartphone application. In addition, the authors of this pilot study provide several implications for pedagogical practice. Further research should include more empirical studies aimed at the exploration of educational mobile applications for older generation groups with respect to meeting their individual needs in order to enhance their overall well-being. However, such studies are, nowadays, very rare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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13 pages, 10814 KiB  
Article
A Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol to Test the Efficacy of a Dual-Task Multicomponent Exercise Program vs. a Simple Program on Cognitive and Fitness Performance in Elderly People
by Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla, Agustín Aibar-Almazán, José Carlos Cabrera-Linares, Emilio Lozano-Aguilera, Víctor Serrano Huete, María Dolores Escarabajal Arrieta and Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126507 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
Background: The necessity of improve the life quality in elderly people is well-known. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical and cognitive training programs, as well as their combination on the cognitive functions and physical capacities in women [...] Read more.
Background: The necessity of improve the life quality in elderly people is well-known. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical and cognitive training programs, as well as their combination on the cognitive functions and physical capacities in women over 80 years old. Methods: Forty-three women took part in this study (80.86 ± 5.03 years). They were divided into four groups (three experimental groups and one control group). Experimental group 1 performed cognitive training. Experimental group 2 did physical–cognitive training, and Experimental Group 3 accomplished physical training. All of training programs had duration of eight weeks (five sessions of 60 min per week). We measured cognitive variables with the Stroop test, D2 test, and Trail Making test. Physical variables were measured with handgrip strength, Minute Step Test, and visual–acoustic reaction time. Results. Control group reduces his physical and cognitive capacities, while the three experimental groups increase these capacities. We found a strong correlation between the increase of physical and cognitive capacities. Conclusion: Eight weeks of training physical, cognitive or mixed, increased physical and cognitive functions of elderly people which may reduce the negative effects of the aging process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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15 pages, 723 KiB  
Article
Childhood Circumstances and Mental Health in Old Age: A Life Course Survey in China
by Huoyun Zhu and Mengting Liao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126420 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
Current evidence and research of the life course approach on the association between life experiences and health in old age are fragmentary. This paper empirically examines the “long arm” effect of the childhood circumstances on mental health in later life using a large [...] Read more.
Current evidence and research of the life course approach on the association between life experiences and health in old age are fragmentary. This paper empirically examines the “long arm” effect of the childhood circumstances on mental health in later life using a large longitudinal dataset (CHARLS) conducted in 2014 and 2015. We operationalize the childhood circumstances as family economic conditions, community environment, and peer network to include the meaningful content and understand their interaction. The SEM results indicate that effects of those factors contributing to older people’s mental health are unequal and vary among age groups and genders. Of those, peer network in childhood determines to a large extent the mental health through the whole life course, while economic conditions and community environment are weakly associated with mental health. Furthermore, we find a distinct interaction mechanism linking those variables. The peer network completely mediates the effect of the community environment on the mental health of older adults and has a partial mediating effect on the economic conditions. Those findings suggest that social policies aimed at promoting older people’s mental health in the context of the active ageing and health ageing strategy should go beyond the old age stage and target social conditions early in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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12 pages, 1922 KiB  
Article
Physical, Cognitive and Social Rehabilitation in Relation to Sleep Quality and Cognitive Functions in the Elderly
by Karolina Filipczyk, Joanna Smolarczyk-Kosowska, Łukasz Kunert, Przemysław Filipczyk, Paweł Dębski, Magdalena Piegza and Robert Pudlo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105148 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess cognitive functions and sleep quality after a 3-month holistic intervention including physical, social and cognitive rehabilitation in patients 65+. Twenty-nine people participated in the study. The study was divided into two stages. In the first [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess cognitive functions and sleep quality after a 3-month holistic intervention including physical, social and cognitive rehabilitation in patients 65+. Twenty-nine people participated in the study. The study was divided into two stages. In the first stage, a self-administered questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic questions was used, and cognitive functions were assessed using the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination III (ACE III) test, Montreal Cognitive Function Assessment Scale (MoCA) and digit repetition test. All patients were also assessed for sleep quality using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). After three months, the patients were assessed for cognitive functions and sleep quality, which was the second stage of the study. Analysis of the results obtained by patients in the study showed a statistically significant improvement in sleep quality and cognitive function. Rehabilitation activities, including physical training, cognitive exercises and occupational therapy, reduce the severity of mild cognitive disorders and reduce insomnia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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13 pages, 1694 KiB  
Article
Inclusiveness of Urban Space and Tools for the Assessment of the Quality of Urban Life—A Critical Approach
by Agata Gawlak, Magda Matuszewska and Agnieszka Ptak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094519 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
This article aims to compare the international tools assessing the quality of life and to carry out their multifaceted qualitative analysis, emphasizing spatial aspects (architecture, urban planning) and demographic changes. Comparative analysis of three guidelines and 13 rankings includes a comparison of a [...] Read more.
This article aims to compare the international tools assessing the quality of life and to carry out their multifaceted qualitative analysis, emphasizing spatial aspects (architecture, urban planning) and demographic changes. Comparative analysis of three guidelines and 13 rankings includes a comparison of a wide range of domains (2–15), criteria (4–66), and indices (22–223). The already observed worldwide trends of aging societies and increasing urban populations have largely drawn the attention of researchers to the urban life quality. Since the early 1990s, many international tools have been developed for that purpose. Although urban practitioners progressively rely on instruments measuring urban quality of life, in the development of urban policy, there is still little research comparing the already available appraisal instruments in view of their measurement criteria. The results of the research on the global tools show that there are major differences between them, either in view of the purpose, the contracting authorities, research focus group, scale, or in view of the importance of spatial and demographic factors. Such findings can contribute to the development of local guidelines and recommendations for self-government authorities and communities, in this the seniors and future generations, in view of improving the urban life quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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13 pages, 1533 KiB  
Article
Gait Performance as an Indicator of Cognitive Deficit in Older People
by Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla, Diana Patricia Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera, Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca and Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073428 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze which gait variables are the best for detecting cognitive impairment and to determine if age and gender can influence gait variations in older people. Methods: 65 participants took part in this study (22 men [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze which gait variables are the best for detecting cognitive impairment and to determine if age and gender can influence gait variations in older people. Methods: 65 participants took part in this study (22 men and 43 women; age: 73.88 ± 9.56 years). We use the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to assess mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Gait speed (GS) and the complex gait test (CGT) were analyzed with photocells Witty (Microgate, Italia). The OptoGait system (Microgate, Italia) was used to analyze step length (SL) and step coefficient of variation (CV sl). Results: There was a significant association between MoCA and SL (r = 0.420; p = 0.002), CV sl (r = −0.591; p < 0.001), and CGT (r = −0.406; p = 0.001). Instrumental activities of daily living showed significant association with SL (r = 0.563; p < 0.001); CV sl (r = −0.762; p < 0.001), CGT (r = −0.622; p < 0.001), and GS (r = 0.418; p < 0.001). CV sl showed the best results with MoCA when linear regression analysis was applied (R2 = 0.560; p = 0.007; Y = 23.669 − 0.320x). Participants older than 79 years showed lower MoCA scores and poorer gait parameters than people younger than 79 years. Conclusions: CV sl, SL, CGT, and GS make it possible to detect MCI in older people, especially when these variables are evaluated as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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14 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Successful Aging Perception in Middle-Aged Korean Men: A Q Methodology Approach
by Mi Hyeon Seong, Eunyoung Shin and Sohyune Sok
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063095 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify the types of perception of successful aging in middle-aged men and to analyze and describe the characteristics of each type of successful aging perception of middle-aged men in South Korea. This study uses an exploratory [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to identify the types of perception of successful aging in middle-aged men and to analyze and describe the characteristics of each type of successful aging perception of middle-aged men in South Korea. This study uses an exploratory study design, applying the Q methodology, which is a subjective research method. The participants were 25 middle-aged men (40 to 60 years old) living in C, Y, and B cities, which were P-samples that were judged to best reveal the successful aging of middle-aged men. In this study, principal component analysis of the PQ method program was used. The five perception types of successful aging among middle-aged men are Type 1 for the “leisure type”, Type 2 for the “mature type”, Type 3 for the “health-oriented type”, Type 4 for the “patriarchal type”, and Type 5 for the “family-centered type”. The mature type had the highest variance among the five types, and the leisure type was the type that showed the second-highest variance. In nursing practice, nurses need to pay attention to the successful aging perceptions of middle-aged Korean men for their successful aging in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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9 pages, 630 KiB  
Article
Association of Health Literacy with the Implementation of Exercise during the Declaration of COVID-19 State of Emergency among Japanese Community-Dwelling Old-Old Adults
by Daijo Shiratsuchi, Hyuma Makizako, Yuki Nakai, Yoshiaki Taniguchi, Tomomi Akanuma, Kaori Yokoyama, Yuriko Matsuzaki-Kihara and Hiroto Yoshida
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042100 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3376
Abstract
Health literacy is important for promoting and maintaining good health in old-old adults. It may influence the implementation of exercise in the coronavirus disease epidemic. The present cross-sectional study investigated the association of each dimension of health literacy with the implementation of exercise [...] Read more.
Health literacy is important for promoting and maintaining good health in old-old adults. It may influence the implementation of exercise in the coronavirus disease epidemic. The present cross-sectional study investigated the association of each dimension of health literacy with the implementation of exercise during the declaration of a state of emergency due to coronavirus disease in community-dwelling old-old adults. We collected data from 483 community-dwelling old-old adults (52.8% women) aged between 77 and 99 years who participated in a mail survey. Participants were divided into exercise or nonexercise groups based on the implementation of exercise during the declaration of a state of emergency. Health literacy was assessed using a 14-item health literacy scale. There were 327 (67.7%) participants in the exercise group and 156 (32.3%) in the nonexercise group. A significantly higher score of health literacy was observed in the exercise group than in the nonexercise group (communicative health literacy score = 14.0 ± 3.6 vs. 12.7 ± 3.8, p = 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders, high communicative health literacy scores were significantly associated with the implementation of exercise during the declaration of a state of emergency (odds ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.20–2.93). Approximately two-thirds of community-dwelling old-old adults implement exercise during the declaration of a state of emergency. High communicative health literacy was associated with the implementation of exercise during this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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9 pages, 716 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Polypharmacy in Nursing Home Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Raquel Cadenas, María José Diez, Nélida Fernández, Juan José García, Ana M. Sahagún, Matilde Sierra, Cristina López, Julen Susperregui and Raquel Díez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042037 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2909
Abstract
In Spain, there has been a progressive increase in aging. Specifically, Leon has been one of the Spanish provinces with the highest aging index. Polypharmacy is highly prevalent among the elderly, with significant consequences for safety. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
In Spain, there has been a progressive increase in aging. Specifically, Leon has been one of the Spanish provinces with the highest aging index. Polypharmacy is highly prevalent among the elderly, with significant consequences for safety. The aim of this study was to assess the consumption of drugs in a nursing home in the province of Leon and establish the relationship between polypharmacy and the most common comorbid diseases. A descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study design was used. Residents’ information and treatments were collected by reviewing on medical charts, completed with clinical information obtained from the physician of the nursing home. The mean age of residents was 86.8 years, and 63.8% were female. Mean medical consumption amounted to 7.02 prescriptions. Polypharmacy was observed in 54.9% of residents, and excessive polypharmacy in 22.1%. The most commonly used medications (ATC classification) were those acting on the cardiovascular system (84.4%) and the nervous system (82.8%). A high-level of drug consumption was observed in the nursing home. Interventions should focus on those residents hospitalized the last year and with recent contact with a general practitioner. There is a need to develop a comprehensive monitoring system to assess the quality of prescriptions for nursing home residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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16 pages, 1012 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity, Mental Health and Consumption of Medications in Pre-Elderly People: The National Health Survey 2017
by Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca, Diana P. Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla and José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031100 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
Background: The promotion of Physical Activity (PA) is an important public health goal to reduce comorbidity and diseases associated with aging such as anxiety and depression. Aim: To investigate the association between level of PA, mental health and the consumption of [...] Read more.
Background: The promotion of Physical Activity (PA) is an important public health goal to reduce comorbidity and diseases associated with aging such as anxiety and depression. Aim: To investigate the association between level of PA, mental health and the consumption of medications among a representative cohort of Spanish pre-elderly people. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 5977 participants aged 50 to 64 years who participated in the National Health Survey in Spain 2017. The levels of PA were evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the mental conditions were measured by the Goldberg Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). The chi-square test was used for qualitative variables; Pearson’s correlation was conducted between GHQ-12 score with different quantitative variables; and a logistic regression was used to determine the association between PA and mental health with the sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The participants were 51.9% women and 48.1% men with a mean age of 56.79 years, and 35.5% of participants had a low level of PA. A low level of PA was associated with cases of mental health vulnerability, anxiety and depression (in women), the consumption of more medications and greater multimorbidity. Conclusion: It is important that people reach old age with an optimal health status in order to reduce age-related disability and morbidity. More than a third of the Spanish pre-elderly do not reach the levels of PA recommended by the WHO. People who had low level of PA consumed more medications and had higher mental health vulnerability and greater multimorbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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12 pages, 849 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Physical Performance and Frailty Syndrome in Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Body Composition
by Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Asier Mañas, José Losa-Reyna, Luis M. Alegre, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Francisco J. García-García and Ignacio Ara
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010203 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2715
Abstract
The objectives were to clarify whether the relationship between physical performance and frailty was independently and jointly mediated by movement behaviors and body composition. We analyzed 871 older adults (476 women) from The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and [...] Read more.
The objectives were to clarify whether the relationship between physical performance and frailty was independently and jointly mediated by movement behaviors and body composition. We analyzed 871 older adults (476 women) from The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and fat index (FI) were determined using bone densitometry. Sedentary time (ST) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using accelerometry. The Frailty Trait Scale and The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were used to evaluate frailty and physical performance, respectively. Simple and multiple mediation analyses were carried out to determine the role of movement behaviors and body composition, adjusted for potential confounders. ST and MVPA acted independently as mediators in the relationship between SPPB and frailty (0.06% for ST and 16.89% for MVPA). FI also acted as an independent mediator in the same relationship (36.47%), while the mediation role of SMI was not significant. MVPA and FI both acted jointly as mediators in this previous relationship explaining 58.15% of the model. Our data support the fact that interventions should simultaneously encourage the promotion of MVPA and strategies to decrease the FI in order to prevent or treat frailty through physical performance improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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22 pages, 4522 KiB  
Article
International R&D Collaboration for a Global Aging Society: Focusing on Aging-Related National-Funded Projects
by Doyeon Lee, Seungwook Kim and Keunhwan Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228545 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
An international research and development (R&D) collaboration for aging-related projects is necessary to alleviate the severe economic/healthcare/humanitarian challenges of a global aging society. This study presents a practical/systematic framework that enables the provision of information on the research goals, the status of science [...] Read more.
An international research and development (R&D) collaboration for aging-related projects is necessary to alleviate the severe economic/healthcare/humanitarian challenges of a global aging society. This study presents a practical/systematic framework that enables the provision of information on the research goals, the status of science and technology, and action plans of aging-related program development processes. We used data on aging-related national-funded projects from the United States of America, the European Union, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Korea. We collected data on 6318 national-funded projects, subsequently designating research fields to each project. By analyzing the content of the projects, their representative research fields, and the associated keywords, we assessed the general goals of six different research fields. To recognize the current scientific capabilities of these research fields, we divided the projects by clusters. We provided information on research organizations, specific goals (i.e., project title), project periods, and the funding related to the projects. These may be used by stakeholders in various governments/institutions/industries during future discussions regarding the establishment of an international R&D collaboration strategy. The approach we proposed may facilitate the linkage between knowledge and action during strategy development by maximizing scientific legitimacy, developing consensual knowledge, and minimizing diverging opinions among stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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15 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
Health, Security and Participation: A Structural Relationship Modeling among the Three Pillars of Active Ageing in China
by Yinan Yang, Yingying Meng and Pengtao Dong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197255 - 04 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
This paper explores and tests the impact of health and security on the participation of Chinese older people using data from the China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey (CLASS) in 2014. Based on the framework of Active Ageing, the exogenous latent variables “health” and [...] Read more.
This paper explores and tests the impact of health and security on the participation of Chinese older people using data from the China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey (CLASS) in 2014. Based on the framework of Active Ageing, the exogenous latent variables “health” and “security” are assumed to directly affect the endogenous latent variable “participation”, and indirectly affect it via mediating the function of “willingness”. The estimation results of the structural equation model show that health has a significant positive impact, while security has a significant negative impact on participation. In addition, health and security can significantly enhance the willingness of older people to participate. After the opposite effects of health and security are offset, their net effect on participation is generally negative. According to these empirical results, this paper concludes that the optimization of health coupled with the moderation of security level is more beneficial for promoting the participation of older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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14 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Navigating Life with HIV as an Older Adult in South African Communities: A Phenomenological Study
by Naomi Hlongwane and Sphiwe Madiba
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165797 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3009
Abstract
The study explored how older adults experience an HIV diagnosis, deal with issues of stigma and disclosure, and navigate the healthcare system. Descriptive phenomenology was used to collect data from 20 older adults receiving antiretroviral treatment in health facilities in Gauteng Province, South [...] Read more.
The study explored how older adults experience an HIV diagnosis, deal with issues of stigma and disclosure, and navigate the healthcare system. Descriptive phenomenology was used to collect data from 20 older adults receiving antiretroviral treatment in health facilities in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data analysis was inductive and followed the thematic approach. After diagnosis with HIV, the older adults experienced shock and disbelief, internalized their new reality of being HIV-positive, and found it difficult to disclose their HIV status. Stigma was embedded in their patterns of disclosure, and they chose not to disclose in order to manage stigma, protect their status, and maintain their privacy. Moreover, nondisclosure allowed them to achieve some normality in their lives without the fear of rejection. The older adults adopted various survival skills that aided them to accept their HIV status. Self-acceptance was important for the older adults who did not want to feel cheated out of life by the HIV diagnosis. The positive supportive attitudes of the healthcare professionals provided the much-needed support network for the older adults immediately after they had received their HIV test results. This was instrumental in their acceptance of their HIV status, their adherence to clinic visits, and their ability to live a healthy, positive life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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15 pages, 884 KiB  
Article
Is China Moving toward Healthy Aging? A Tracking Study Based on 5 Phases of CLHLS Data
by Yinan Yang and Yingying Meng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124343 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3510
Abstract
Health is the key to the aging problem, and “healthy aging” depicts the overall changing trends in the health of all elderly individuals in a society. Based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) data from the years 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011 [...] Read more.
Health is the key to the aging problem, and “healthy aging” depicts the overall changing trends in the health of all elderly individuals in a society. Based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) data from the years 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014, this article investigates whether there is a trend of “healthy aging” in China. A second-order factor model including four dimensions of physical health, functional status, mental health and social health was constructed to measure a latent variable, “Health_elders”. The further multigroup comparison results by structural equation modeling showed that, with the exception of 2008, the Health_elders in 2002, 2005, 2011 and 2014 displayed an upward trend, and the mean differences in Health_elders across five periods were significant. These findings indicate that on the whole, compared with older people in the past, older people in more recent periods are healthier, which supports the trend of “healthy aging” in China. In terms of cohorts, the average health levels of male, town-residing elderly populations are higher, while the healthy aging trends among female, rural and urban elderly populations are stronger. Moreover, the physical health levels of the 60–74 years-old cohort are decreasing, and the participation of elderly individuals in social activities is low, which are the weaknesses in the healthy aging process in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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13 pages, 1189 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity, Ability to Walk, Weight Status, and Multimorbidity Levels in Older Spanish People: The National Health Survey (2009–2017)
by Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca and José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124333 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
Background. Many studies have shown a relationship between physical functioning and health status in older people. Aim. The purpose of this study was to analyze the temporal trends of physical activity (PA), ability to walk, weight status, self-perceived health, and disease or chronic [...] Read more.
Background. Many studies have shown a relationship between physical functioning and health status in older people. Aim. The purpose of this study was to analyze the temporal trends of physical activity (PA), ability to walk, weight status, self-perceived health, and disease or chronic health problems in people over 65 years from 2009 to 2017, using the European Health Survey in Spain and the National Health Survey in Spain. Methods. This study included 13,049 older people: 6026 (2330 men and 3696 women; age (mean, SD (Standard Deviation)) = 75.61 ± 7.11 years old) in 2009 and 7023 (2850 men and 4173 women; age (mean, SD) = 76.01 ± 7.57 years old) in 2017. Results. In 2017, older people exhibited lower values of moderate PA (p < 0.001), a lower number of hours of walking per week (p < 0.001), and worse self-perceived health status (p < 0.001) compared to 2009. These differences are maintained when comparing the sexes. Compliance with PA recommendations was 27.9% and 6.1% (chi-squared = 352.991, p < 0.001) in 2009 and 2017, respectively. There were no significant differences in weight status between older people in 2009 and 2017. In 2017, older people had significantly high percentages of disease or chronic health problems (p < 0.05), number of diseases (p < 0.001), severe difficulty walking 500 m without assistance (p < 0.05), and severe difficulty going up or down 12 stairs. Conclusions. From 2009 to 2017, Spanish older people worsened their PA levels and perception of their health status, and they increased their disease levels, which could be associated with the worsening of ability to walk in 2017. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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17 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Age, Organized Physical Activity and Sedentarism on Fitness in Older Adults: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study
by Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, David Navarrete-Villanueva, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Sara Vila-Maldonado, Eva Gesteiro, Narcis Gusi, Jose Gerardo Villa-Vicente, Luis Espino, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Jose A. Casajus, Ignacio Ara, Alba Gomez-Cabello and German Vicente-Rodríguez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124312 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
The aims of the present study were (1) to describe the changes in physical fitness during an 8 year follow-up in a large sample of Spanish adults aged 65 or over that are initially engaged in organized physical activity (OPA), (2) to compare [...] Read more.
The aims of the present study were (1) to describe the changes in physical fitness during an 8 year follow-up in a large sample of Spanish adults aged 65 or over that are initially engaged in organized physical activity (OPA), (2) to compare fitness changes according to different age groups (65 to 69 vs. 70 to 74 vs. ≥75 years-old), (3) to evaluate the independent and combined effects of changes in OPA engagement and sitting time (ST) on physical fitness. A total of 642 (147 males) non-institutionalized over 65 years-old participants completed the EXERNET battery fitness tests and completed a validated questionnaire from which information regarding OPA and ST were collected. All participants completed evaluations in 2008–2009 and in 2016–2017. An impairment of fitness-related variables happens after 65 years of age in both males and females, with the older participants (≥75), showing the largest decreases. Males who continued performing OPA demonstrated lower decreases in balance, leg flexibility and agility when compared to those who stopped performing OPA during the follow-up. Females who continued performing OPA demonstrated lower decreases of all variables except for balance when compared to those who stopped performing OPA during the follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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Review

Jump to: Research

14 pages, 476 KiB  
Review
Physical Activity Programs during Pregnancy Are Effective for the Control of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
by José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera, María Gallardo-Bravo, Joseba Aingerun Rabanales-Sotos, Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca and Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176151 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 11286
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus has an incidence of 14% worldwide and nursing is responsible for its monitoring during pregnancy. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is directly related to gestational diabetes mellitus development. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has negative repercussions on the evolution of the [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus has an incidence of 14% worldwide and nursing is responsible for its monitoring during pregnancy. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is directly related to gestational diabetes mellitus development. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has negative repercussions on the evolution of the pregnancy and the fetus. The objective of this systematic review is to establish how physical activity influences pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to analyze what benefits physical activity has in the control of gestational diabetes mellitus. A systematic search was carried out in different databases (Cochrane, Superior Council of Scientific Investigations (CSIC), EBSCOhost, Pubmed, Scopus, Web os Science, and Proquest) for papers published within the last 12 years, taking into account different inclusion and exclusion criteria. Six randomized controlled studies and one observational case-control study of a high quality were selected. Fasting, postprandial glucose and HbcA1 were assessed, as well as the requirement and amount of insulin used. Thus, there is a positive relationship between the performance of physical activity and the control of gestational diabetes mellitus. Resistance, aerobic exercise, or a combination of both are effective for the control of glucose, HbcA1, and insulin. Due to the variability of the exercises of the analyzed studies and the variability of the shape of the different pregnant women, it does not permit the recommendation of a particular type of exercise. However, any type of physical activity of sufficient intensity and duration can have benefits for pregnant women with GDM. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus should exercise for at least 20–50 min a minimum of 2 times a week with at a least moderate intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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22 pages, 3224 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Respiratory Muscle Training for Pulmonary Function and Walking Ability in Patients with Stroke: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Diana P. Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera, Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla and Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155356 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5834
Abstract
Background: Neurological dysfunction due to stroke affects not only the extremities and trunk muscles but also the respiratory muscles. Aim: to synthesise the evidence available about the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (RMT) to improve respiratory function parameters and functional capacity [...] Read more.
Background: Neurological dysfunction due to stroke affects not only the extremities and trunk muscles but also the respiratory muscles. Aim: to synthesise the evidence available about the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (RMT) to improve respiratory function parameters and functional capacity in poststroke patients. Methods: a systematic electronic search was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, PEDro and Web of Science databases, from inception to May 2020. Study selection and data extraction: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of RMT versus non-RMT or sham RMT in poststroke patients. We extracted data about respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity (walking ability, dyspnea, balance, activities of daily life), characteristics of studies and features of RMT interventions (a type of RMT exercise, frequency, intensity and duration). Two reviewers performed study selection and data extraction independently. Results: nineteen RCTs met the study criteria. RMT improved the first second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and walking ability (6 min walking test), but not Barthel index, Berg balance scale, and dyspnea. Conclusions: RMT interventions are effective to improve respiratory function and walking ability in poststroke patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Aging)
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