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Health Care for Old Adults

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Care Sciences & Services".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 42373

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Departamento de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Terapia Ocupacional, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha (UCLM), 45071 Toledo, Spain
Interests: ageing; older people; polypharmacy; preventive activities and public health; physical activity and health; nursing; violence; elder abuse
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Facultad de Fisioterapia y Enfermería y Fisioterapia de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 45005 Toledo, Spain
Interests: preventive activities and public health; physical activity and health; nursing care; women and health; quality of life; sexuality; mood; chronic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Facultad de Fisioterapia y Enfermería, Grupo IMCU, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha (UCLM), 45071 Toledo, Spain
Interests: older people; nursing; physical activity; body composition; childhood obesity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Social and Health Care Research Center, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
Interests: physical activity; body composition analysis; body composition; childhood obesity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world’s population is aging faster than in recent decades. Age is associated with increases in chronic diseases, morbidity, frailty, disabilities, and dependence, resulting in a greater use of health services and health care costs. This results in increased demand for care, primarily from the informal system, with the main caregivers often being women. Institutionalization is sometimes perceived as a failure of care. To respond to this issue, a multidisciplinary involvement and approach is needed at all levels of care. In recent years, the amount of scientific research and policy development has grown, addressing subjects such as digital health, which represents a driver of change towards new care models including eHealth, mHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, and many more.

This Special Issue seeks papers on new research on the phenomenon of care in the elderly, new health care systems, nursing homes, informal care, frailty, dependence, and epidemiological surveys concerning the problems faced by older people, with the final goal to improve the health and care of older people. We also welcome high-quality systematic reviews related to these matters. I would be delighted if this Special Issue serves as a trigger for elaborate policies and to innovate solutions to increase the health care level of older people and their caregivers.

Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres
Prof. Dr. Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca
Dr. José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera
Prof. Dr. Diana Patricia Pozuelo-Carrascosa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aged
  • caregivers
  • digital health
  • disabilities
  • eHealth
  • frailty
  • health care cost
  • health services
  • nursing homes
  • patient care
  • social supports
  • telemedicine

Published Papers (16 papers)

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13 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Medication Decision-Making and the Medicines’ Pathway in Nursing Homes: Experiences and Expectations of Involvement of Residents and Informal Caregivers
by Amber Damiaens, Ann Van Hecke and Veerle Foulon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(11), 5936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20115936 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Background: Information on how residents and their informal caregivers are involved in the medicines’ pathway in nursing homes is scarce. Likewise, it is not known how they would prefer to be involved therein. Methods: A generic qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 17 [...] Read more.
Background: Information on how residents and their informal caregivers are involved in the medicines’ pathway in nursing homes is scarce. Likewise, it is not known how they would prefer to be involved therein. Methods: A generic qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 17 residents and 10 informal caregivers from four nursing homes was performed. Interview transcripts were analyzed using an inductive thematic framework. Results: Four themes were derived to describe resident and informal caregiver involvement in the medicines’ pathway. First, residents and informal caregivers show behaviors of involvement across the medicines’ pathway. Second, their attitude towards involvement was mainly one of resignation, but variation was noted in their involvement preferences, ranging from minimal information to active participation needs. Third, institutional and personal factors were found to contribute to the resigned attitude. Last, situations were identified that drive residents and informal caregivers to act, regardless of their resigned attitude. Conclusions: Resident and informal caregiver involvement in the medicines’ pathway is limited. Nevertheless, interviews show that information and participation needs are present and show potential for residents’ and informal caregivers’ contribution to the medicines’ pathway. Future research should explore initiatives to increase the understanding and acknowledgement of opportunities for involvement and to empower residents and informal caregivers to take on their roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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11 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Group-Based Patterns of Life Satisfaction and Functional Independence over the 10 Years after Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults: A Model Systems Study
by Carmen M. Tyler, Mia E. Dini and Paul B. Perrin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(9), 5643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20095643 - 26 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Background: Older adults who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been shown to have reduced functional independence and life satisfaction relative to younger individuals with TBI. The purpose of this study was to examine the covarying patterns of functional independence and life [...] Read more.
Background: Older adults who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been shown to have reduced functional independence and life satisfaction relative to younger individuals with TBI. The purpose of this study was to examine the covarying patterns of functional independence and life satisfaction over the 10 years after TBI in adults who were 60 years of age or older upon injury. Method: Participants were 1841 individuals aged 60 or older at the time of TBI, were enrolled in the longitudinal TBI Model Systems database, and had Functional Independence Measure and Satisfaction with Life Scale scores during at least one time point at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after TBI. Results: A k-means cluster analysis identified four distinct group-based longitudinal patterns of these two variables. Three cluster groups suggested that functional independence and life satisfaction generally traveled together over time, with one group showing relatively high functional independence and life satisfaction over time (Cluster 2), one group showing relatively moderate functional independence and life satisfaction (Cluster 4), and one group showing relatively low functional independence and life satisfaction (Cluster 1). Cluster 3 had relatively high functional independence over time but, nonetheless, relatively low life satisfaction; they were also the youngest group upon injury. Participants in Cluster 2 generally had the highest number of weeks of paid competitive employment but lower percentages of underrepresented racial/ethnic minority participants, particularly Black and Hispanic individuals. Women were more likely to be in the cluster with the lowest life satisfaction and functional independence (Cluster 1). Conclusion: Functional independence and life satisfaction generally accompany one another over time in older adults, although this does not always occur, as life satisfaction can still be low in a subgroup of older individuals after TBI with higher functioning. These findings contribute to a better understanding of post-TBI recovery patterns in older adults over time that may inform treatment considerations to improve age-related discrepancies in rehabilitation outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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9 pages, 370 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Living Arrangements on the Prevalence of Falls after Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Comparison between Institutionalized and General Geriatric Population
by Anca Maria Pop, Octav Marius Russu, Sándor György Zuh, Andrei Marian Feier and Tudor Sorin Pop
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043409 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Due to population aging, there is an increasing need for orthopedic surgery, especially total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). In geriatric patients, postoperative falls are common events which can compromise the success of these expensive procedures. The aim of our [...] Read more.
Due to population aging, there is an increasing need for orthopedic surgery, especially total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). In geriatric patients, postoperative falls are common events which can compromise the success of these expensive procedures. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of living arrangements on the prevalence of postoperative falls following joint replacement. We included 441 patients after TKA or THA, living in nursing homes, alone or with family. The prevalence of falls in the first 2 years (15.2%) was significantly influenced by living arrangements: patients with TKA or THA living alone had three times higher odds of falling compared to those living with family, and institutionalized patients with THA had four times higher odds of falling compared to those living with family. Of 67 patients who fell, 6 (8.9%) needed reintervention. For TKA patients, the fall rates were not significantly different between institutions and family, indicating the interest of nursing homes in offering proper care. However, for the THA group, the results were poorer, emphasizing the need for improvement in postoperative rehabilitation. Further multi-centric studies are required for generalizing the impact of living arrangements on fall prevalence after joint replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
14 pages, 397 KiB  
Article
Multidimensional Frailty and Lifestyles of Community-Dwelling Older Portuguese Adults
by Ana da Conceição Alves Faria, Maria Manuela F. P. S. Martins, Olga Maria Pimenta Lopes Ribeiro, João Miguel Almeida Ventura-Silva, Esmeralda Faria Fonseca, Luciano José Moreira Ferreira, Paulo João Figueiredo Cabral Teles and José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214723 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
(1) Background: Lifestyles are referred to as conditioning factors for the frailty of older adults. However, there are few studies that explore its association. The objective of the present study is to analyze the association between sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors of older [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Lifestyles are referred to as conditioning factors for the frailty of older adults. However, there are few studies that explore its association. The objective of the present study is to analyze the association between sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors of older adults people with multidimensional frailty. (2) Methods: Descriptive and correlational study carried out with older adults people registered in a Health Unit in Portugal. Data were collected through a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire and application of the Individual Lifestyle Profile and Tilburg Frailty Index to assess the lifestyles and multidimensional frailty of older adults, respectively. This last instrument, being of a multidimensional nature, assesses not only physical, but also psychological and social frailty, with a cut-off point of 6. (3) Results: Of the 300 older adults who participated, most were female (60.3%) and had a mean age of 81.34 ± 6.75 years. Moreover, 60.3% of the sample were frail older adults. Gender, marital status, number of household members, number of chronic diseases, number of daily medications, self-perception of health status and lifestyle and use of a walking device were associated with multidimensional frailty (p ≤ 0.001). Healthy eating habits, physical activity, relational behaviour, preventive behaviour, and stress management were significantly associated with lower physical, psychological, and social frailty (p ≤ 0.001). (4) Conclusions: When community health workers are aware of multidimensional frailty predictors and their components, they can intervene early and, consequently, delay the onset and progression of frailty in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
12 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
Attitudes, Perceptions and Practices of Influenza Vaccination in the Adult Population: Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey in Spain
by Camino Prada-García, Virginia Fernández-Espinilla, Cristina Hernán-García, Iván Sanz-Muñoz, José Martínez-Olmos, Jose M. Eiros and Javier Castrodeza-Sanz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 11139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191711139 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
In Spain, the 2021/22 influenza season overlapped with the sixth wave of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). Influenza is a major public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, perceptions and [...] Read more.
In Spain, the 2021/22 influenza season overlapped with the sixth wave of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). Influenza is a major public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, perceptions and practices of influenza vaccination in the Spanish population, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic, with special attention paid to people over 65 years of age. A cross-sectional study was carried out by conducting 2211 telephone interviews. It was observed that 81.6% of people ≥ 65 years were vaccinated annually or with some frequency compared to 35.5% of those under 65 years (p < 0.001). Fifty percent of Spaniards showed an intention to be vaccinated in the 2021/22 campaign, during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. In the case of people ≥ 65 years old, this figure was 83% compared to 42% of those under 65 years old (p < 0.001). Significant predictors of intention to be vaccinated were age of 65 years or older (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5), female sex (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.4), belonging to risk groups (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6–3.1) and having been previously vaccinated (OR 29.7, 95% CI 22.5–39.2). The main reasons for deciding to be vaccinated were the need to be protected against the virus and to be vaccinated annually. On the other hand, lack of recommendation and considering the influenza vaccine as not necessary were the main reasons for not getting vaccinated. In addition, health personnel stood out as the main source of information (32.9%) compared to traditional media (26.9%) and public administration (12.3%). This study aimed to assess and analyse the factors influencing willingness to receive influenza vaccines in the COVID-19 era among Spanish adults, as well as the main information channels and strategies to encourage vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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15 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
SarQoL Questionnaire in Community-Dwelling Older Adults under EWGSOP2 Sarcopenia Diagnosis Algorithm: A New Screening Method?
by Carlos Guillamón-Escudero, Angela Diago-Galmés, David Zuazua Rico, Alba Maestro-González, Jose M. Tenías-Burillo, Jose M. Soriano and Julio J. Fernández-Garrido
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148473 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
This article is an observational and cross-sectional study that related the result obtained in the questionnaire for the evaluation of quality of life related to muscle mass (SarQoL) and the prevalence of sarcopenic pathology measured under the EWGSOP2 algorithm. Participants were 202 community-dwelling [...] Read more.
This article is an observational and cross-sectional study that related the result obtained in the questionnaire for the evaluation of quality of life related to muscle mass (SarQoL) and the prevalence of sarcopenic pathology measured under the EWGSOP2 algorithm. Participants were 202 community-dwelling older adults living in Valencia, Spain. The prevalence of sarcopenia in men was 28.9%, while in women it was 26.2%. In the case of the SarQoL questionnaire, the mean score obtained for men was 75.5 and 72.6 for women, showing significant differences in both sexes between the results obtained by the group with and without sarcopenia. After the exhaustive data analysis, a high discriminative capacity for sarcopenic disease was found in the SarQoL questionnaire total score and in domains 2 (locomotion), 4 (functionality) and 5 (activities of daily living). In accordance with the existing controversy regarding the use of SARC-F as a screening method for sarcopenia, the authors pointed out the capacity of domain 2 (locomotion) in isolation as a possible screening method for this disease, exposing a high risk of suffering sarcopenia when scores in this domain were below 60 points. Further research is needed to develop new lines of research as these showed in this work, as well as new and easily applicable screening methods for sarcopenia in clinical practice, that allow a rapid detection of this disease in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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17 pages, 3015 KiB  
Article
Chronotropic Response and Heart Rate Variability before and after a 160 m Walking Test in Young, Middle-Aged, Frail, and Non-Frail Older Adults
by Lesli Álvarez-Millán, Claudia Lerma, Daniel Castillo-Castillo, Rosa M. Quispe-Siccha, Argelia Pérez-Pacheco, Jesús Rivera-Sánchez and Ruben Fossion
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148413 - 09 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
The frailty syndrome is characterized by a decreased capacity to adequately respond to stressors. One of the most impaired physiological systems is the autonomous nervous system, which can be assessed through heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) analysis. In this article, we studied the [...] Read more.
The frailty syndrome is characterized by a decreased capacity to adequately respond to stressors. One of the most impaired physiological systems is the autonomous nervous system, which can be assessed through heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) analysis. In this article, we studied the chronotropic response (HR and HRV) to a walking test. We also analyzed HRV indices in rest as potential biomarkers of frailty. For this, a 160 m-walking test and two standing rest tests (before and after the walking) were performed by young (19–29 years old, n = 21, 57% women), middle-aged (30–59 years old, n = 16, 62% women), and frail older adults (>60 years old, n = 28, 40% women) and non-frail older adults (>60 years old, n = 15, 71% women), classified with the FRAIL scale and the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Frequency domain parameters better allowed to distinguish between frail and non-frail older adults (low-frequency power LF, high-frequency power HF (nu), LF/HF ratio, and ECG-derived respiration rate EDR). Frail older adults showed an increased HF (nu) and EDR and a reduced LF (nu) and LF/HF compared to non-frail older adults. The increase in HF (nu) could be due to a higher breathing effort. Our results showed that a walk of 160 m is a sufficient cardiovascular stressor to exhibit an attenuated autonomic response in frail older adults. Several HRV indices showed to be potential biomarkers of frailty, being LF (nu) and the time required to reach the maximum HR the best candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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8 pages, 341 KiB  
Article
Falls and Preventive Practices among Institutionalized Older People
by Cristina Lavareda Baixinho, Carla Madeira, Silvia Alves, Maria Adriana Henriques and Maria dos Anjos Dixe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137577 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
The present study about falls among the older adult population essentially explores bio-physiological factors. In light of the complexity of the factors that cause these accidents, it is important to identify the safety and self-care practices of institutionalized older adults and their relationship [...] Read more.
The present study about falls among the older adult population essentially explores bio-physiological factors. In light of the complexity of the factors that cause these accidents, it is important to identify the safety and self-care practices of institutionalized older adults and their relationship with falls in order to introduce prevention measures and personalized cognitive–behavioral strategies. The objective of this study was to: (a) determine the frequency of falls and their recurrence among institutionalized older adults, and (b) to associate the occurrence of falls among institutionalized adults with or without cognitive impairment to communication and safety practices. This was a quantitative, correlational, and longitudinal study with 204 institutionalized older adults living in two long-term care facilities in Portugal. The Scale of Practices and Behaviors for Institutionalized Elderly to Prevent Falls was administered to the sample. The prevalence of falls at a 12-month follow-up was 41.6%, of which 38.3% were recurring episodes. Older adults with cognitive decline showed lower mean scores for safety practices. Further research with larger samples should explore the relationships between communication and safety practices and falls, their recurrence, and fear of new falls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
13 pages, 654 KiB  
Article
Observational Variables for Considering a Switch from a Normal to a Dysphagia Diet among Older Adults Requiring Long-Term Care: A One-Year Multicenter Longitudinal Study
by Maaya Takeda, Yutaka Watanabe, Takae Matsushita, Kenshu Taira, Kazuhito Miura, Yuki Ohara, Masanori Iwasaki, Kayoko Ito, Junko Nakajima, Yasuyuki Iwasa, Masataka Itoda, Yasuhiro Nishi, Junichi Furuya, Yoshihiko Watanabe, George Umemoto, Masako Kishima, Hirohiko Hirano, Yuji Sato, Mitsuyoshi Yoshida and Yutaka Yamazaki
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116586 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
This one-year multicenter longitudinal study aimed to assess whether older adult residents of long-term care facilities should switch from a normal to a dysphagia diet. Using the results of our previous cross-sectional study as baseline, older adults were subdivided into those who maintained [...] Read more.
This one-year multicenter longitudinal study aimed to assess whether older adult residents of long-term care facilities should switch from a normal to a dysphagia diet. Using the results of our previous cross-sectional study as baseline, older adults were subdivided into those who maintained a normal diet and those who switched to a dysphagia diet. The explanatory variables were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Barthel Index, clinical dementia rating (CDR), and 13 simple and 5 objective oral assessments (remaining teeth, functional teeth, oral diadochokinesis, modified water swallowing test, and repetitive saliva swallowing test), which were used in binomial logistic regression analysis. Between-group comparison showed a significantly different BMI, Barthel Index, and CDR. Significant differences were also observed in simple assessments for language, drooling, tongue movement, perioral muscle function, and rinsing and in objective assessments. In multi-level analysis, switching from a normal to a dysphagia diet was significantly associated with simple assessments of tongue movement, perioral muscle function, and rinsing and with the objective assessment of the number of functional teeth. The results suggest that simple assessments can be performed regularly to screen for early signs of discrepancies between food form and eating/swallowing functions, which could lead to the provision of more appropriate food forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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20 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
Elderly Caregiving Quality Improvement: A Pilot Study of the Burdens of Vietnamese Caregivers in Taiwan
by Chang-Yu Wu, Yu-Ying Li and Maurice J. Lyver
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106293 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2903
Abstract
Taiwan is expected to reach super-aged status by 2026, leading to an increased demand for elderly caregiving services. Low local unemployment and a dwindling working-age population mean the island’s care system relies heavily on female foreign domestic workers (FDWs) from Southeast Asian neighbors [...] Read more.
Taiwan is expected to reach super-aged status by 2026, leading to an increased demand for elderly caregiving services. Low local unemployment and a dwindling working-age population mean the island’s care system relies heavily on female foreign domestic workers (FDWs) from Southeast Asian neighbors such as Vietnam to satisfy labor shortages. Although suggested by anecdotal evidence, limited research has been conducted on the link between the shortfall in FDW qualifications, training, preparedness, and expertise and their employment stressors. Therefore, this study aims to assist FDWs by evaluating their stressors and helping them better understand health care delivery by (1) administering the Modified Caregiver Strain Index (MCSI) revised 2003 questionnaire, (2) performing semi-structured in-depth one-on-one interviews, (3) classifying interview results according to thematic analysis, and (4) using these themes to devise and deliver a 12-week multilingual health education teach-back program. Our results indicate that Vietnamese FDWs face specific challenges, including language barriers, homesickness, intensive physical and psychological work demands, stress adaptation, and occupational exposures. Despite yielding no significant improvements in caregiving strain, our intervention, conducted at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, pinpoints and classifies areas of grave concern and proposes recommendations that can assist long-term care (LTC) stakeholders in understanding and overcoming their respective challenges, thereby improving the quality of elderly care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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13 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
Adaptation and Validation of the Individual Lifestyle Profile Scale of Portuguese Older Adults Living at Home
by Ana da Conceição Alves Faria, Maria Manuela Martins, Olga Maria Pimenta Lopes Ribeiro, João Miguel Almeida Ventura-Silva, Paulo João Figueiredo Cabral Teles and José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095435 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
(1) Background: Unadjusted lifestyles have been the main cause of risk for the loss of years of healthy life. However, currently valid and reliable instruments to assess the lifestyles of the elderly are quite long and difficult to interpret. For this reason, the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Unadjusted lifestyles have been the main cause of risk for the loss of years of healthy life. However, currently valid and reliable instruments to assess the lifestyles of the elderly are quite long and difficult to interpret. For this reason, the objective of this study was to adapt and validate the ‘Individual Lifestyle Profile’ (ILP) scale in a sample of elderly people; (2) Methods: A methodological study was carried out and a sample of 300 older adults enrolled in a Health Unit located in the North of Portugal was used, who responded to the scale. We examined internal consistency, predictive validity, and discriminative ability; (3) Results: After the Exploratory Factorial analysis, a solution was found with four factors that explain a variance of 67.8%. The designation of the factors was changed from the original scale, with the exception of one dimension, and they were called Health Self-management, Social Participation and Group Interaction, Citizenship and Physical Activity. The total internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.858, ranging from 0.666 to 0.860 in the mentioned factors; (4) Conclusions: The ILP scale proved to be easy to apply and presented a good reliability and validity index, based on internal consistency, AFE and AFC. The scale allows evaluating the lifestyle of older adults, and its use will be aimed at modifying behaviors associated with negative lifestyles of older adults and their individual needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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12 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
Is the Xiaomi Mi Band 4 an Accuracy Tool for Measuring Health-Related Parameters in Adults and Older People? An Original Validation Study
by Ana de la Casa Pérez, Pedro Ángel Latorre Román, Marcos Muñoz Jiménez, Manuel Lucena Zurita, José Alberto Laredo Aguilera, Juan Antonio Párraga Montilla and José Carlos Cabrera Linares
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031593 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6066
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the validity and accuracy of the low-cost Xiaomi Mi Band 4 (MB4) fitness tracker in relation to step count and heart rate in free-living conditions. Methods: 46 participants join in this study (38.65 ± [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the validity and accuracy of the low-cost Xiaomi Mi Band 4 (MB4) fitness tracker in relation to step count and heart rate in free-living conditions. Methods: 46 participants join in this study (38.65 ± 14.36 years old). The MB4 was compared with a video recording in laboratory conditions, also with the Sense Wear and Firstbeat monitors in free-living conditions. Results: No significant differences were found in the number of steps in the laboratory protocol between devices, in both, at low and high walking speed. For the free-living conditions, the MB4 showed high values of convergent validity in relation to the Firstbeat monitor during recording in both rest and walking situations. Moreover, the MB4 showed adequate values of convergent validity with the Sense Wear monitor during the 24 h recording, at medium speeds, and climbing stairs. Conclusion: The accuracy and precision of the MB4 is reasonable and can be used to monitor the average of step count and heart rate in free-living conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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12 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Transitional Care Management from Emergency Services to Communities: An Action Research Study
by José Batista, Carla Munhoz Pinheiro, Carla Madeira, Pedro Gomes, Óscar Ramos Ferreira and Cristina Lavareda Baixinho
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212052 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
In recent years, nurses have developed projects in the area of hospital to community transition. The objective of the present study was to analyze the transitional care offered to elderly people after they used emergency services and were discharged to return to the [...] Read more.
In recent years, nurses have developed projects in the area of hospital to community transition. The objective of the present study was to analyze the transitional care offered to elderly people after they used emergency services and were discharged to return to the community. The action research method was chosen. The participants were nurses, elderly people 70 years old or older, and their caregivers. The study was carried out from October 2018 to August 2019. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with the nurses, analysis of medical records, participatory observation, phone calls to the elderly people and caregivers, and team meetings. The qualitative data were submitted to Bardin’s content analysis. Statistical treatment was carried out by applying SPSS version 23.0. The institution’s research ethics committee approved the research. Only 31.4% of the sample experienced care continuity after discharge, and the rate of readmission to emergency services during the first 30 days after discharge was 33.4%. The referral letters lacked data on information provided to patients or caregivers, and nurses mentioned difficulties in communication between care levels, as well as obstacles to teamwork; they also mentioned that the lack of health policies and clinical rules to formalize transitional care between the hospital and the community perpetuated non-coordination of care between the two contexts. The low level of literacy of patients and their relatives are mentioned as a cause for not understanding the information regarding seeking primary health care services and handing the discharge letter. It was concluded that there is an urgent need to mobilize health teams toward action in the patients’ process of returning home, and this factor must be taken into account in care planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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14 pages, 508 KiB  
Article
The Health Status Transition and Medical Expenditure Evaluation of Elderly Population in China
by Lianjie Wang, Yao Tang, Farnaz Roshanmehr, Xiao Bai, Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary and Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136907 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2963
Abstract
(1) Background: Because of the rapid expansion of the aging population in China, their health status transition and future medical expenditure have received increasing attention. This paper analyzes the health transition of the elderly and how their health transition impacts medical expenditures. At [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Because of the rapid expansion of the aging population in China, their health status transition and future medical expenditure have received increasing attention. This paper analyzes the health transition of the elderly and how their health transition impacts medical expenditures. At the same time, feasible policy suggestions are provided to respond to the rising medical expenditure and the demand for social care. (2) Methods: The data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) from 2011 to 2015 and analyzed using the Markov model and the Two-Part model (TPM) to forecast the size of the elderly population and their medical expenditures for the period 2020–2060. (3) Results: The study indicates that: (1) for the elderly with a mild disability, the probability of their health improvement is high; in contrast, for the elderly with a moderate or severe disability, their health deterioration is almost certain; (2) the frequency of the diagnosis and treatments of the elderly is closely related to their health status and medical expenditure; alternatively, as the health status deteriorates, the intensity of the elderly individuals’ acceptance of their diagnosis and treatment increases, and so does the medical expense; (3) the population of the elderly with mild and moderate disability demonstrates an inverted “U”-shape, which reaches a peak around 2048, whereas the elderly with severe disability show linear growth, being the target group for health care; (4) with the population increase of the elderly who have severe disability, the medical expenditure increases significantly and poses a huge threat to medical service supply. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide classified and targeted health care according to the health status of the elderly. In addition, improving the level of medical insurance, establishing a mechanism for sharing medical expenditure, and adjusting the basic demographic structure are all important policy choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

18 pages, 1729 KiB  
Review
A Literature Review of High-Tech Physiotherapy Interventions in the Elderly with Neurological Disorders
by Marios Spanakis, Ioanna Xylouri, Evridiki Patelarou and Athina Patelarou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159233 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6585
Abstract
Neurological physiotherapy adopts a problem-based approach for each patient as determined by a thorough evaluation of the patient’s physical and mental well-being. Τhis work aims to provide a literature review of physical therapy interventions in the elderly with neurological diseases (NDs) and discuss [...] Read more.
Neurological physiotherapy adopts a problem-based approach for each patient as determined by a thorough evaluation of the patient’s physical and mental well-being. Τhis work aims to provide a literature review of physical therapy interventions in the elderly with neurological diseases (NDs) and discuss physiotherapy procedures and methods that utilize cutting-edge technologies for which clinical studies are available. Hence, the review focuses on acute NDs (stroke), deteriorating NDs (Parkinson’s disease), and age-related cognitive impairment. The most used physiotherapy procedures on which clinical data are available are balance and gait training (robot-assisted or not), occupational therapy, classical physiotherapy, walking and treadmill training, and upper limb robot-assisted therapy. Respectively, the most often-used equipment are types of treadmills, robotic-assisted equipment (Lokomat® and Gait Trainer GT1), and portable walkway systems (GAITRite®), along with state-of-the-art technologies of virtual reality, virtual assistants, and smartphones. The findings of this work summarize the core standard tools and procedures, but more importantly, provide a glimpse of the new era in physiotherapy with the utilization of innovative equipment tools for advanced patient monitoring and empowerment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

14 pages, 655 KiB  
Study Protocol
Development and Usability Assessment of a Mobile App (Demensia KITA) to Support Dementia Caregivers in Malaysia: A Study Protocol
by Nurul Syaireen A. Rashid, Xin Wee Chen, Muhamad Fadhil Mohamad Marzuki, Aseel A. Takshe, Ahmad Okasha, Faridah Maarof and Raudah Mohd Yunus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 11880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191911880 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
The impact of dementia on caregivers is complex and multi-dimensional. In low- and middle-income settings, caregivers are often left without adequate support, despite their multiple needs. These include health information, caregiving skills, social and emotional support, and access to local resources—all of which [...] Read more.
The impact of dementia on caregivers is complex and multi-dimensional. In low- and middle-income settings, caregivers are often left without adequate support, despite their multiple needs. These include health information, caregiving skills, social and emotional support, and access to local resources—all of which can be partially fulfilled by technology. In recent years, mobile apps have emerged and proven useful for caregivers. We found a few existing apps suitable for Malaysian users in terms of affordability and cultural and linguistic compatibility. Our study aims to design a mobile app that suits dementia caregivers in Malaysia and consists of three phases. Phase I is content development that employs Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and Nominal Group Technique (NGT) involving field experts. Phase II comprises a mobile app (Demensia KITA) designed in collaboration with a software developer specializing in mobile health apps. Phase III entails testing the usability of the app using the Malay version of the mHealth App Usability Questionnaire (M-MAUQ). This study protocol elaborates on the rigorous steps of designing a mobile app and testing its usability, along with anticipated challenges. Our protocol will provide insight for future researchers, healthcare providers, and policymakers and pave the way for better use of digital technology in the field of aging and caregiving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Old Adults)
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