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Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 May 2021) | Viewed by 45908

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Interests: health consequences of exposure to air pollutants and climate change; environmental epidemiology; susceptibility, vulnerability, and environmental health disparities; children’s health

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Guest Editor
RAND CorporationArlington, VA 22202, USA
Interests: environmental epidemiology; climate change and health; air pollution; extreme weather; vulnerability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution and climate change are two of the greatest environmental health stressors of our time. As the fifth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, air pollution is responsible for more deaths than many well-known health risk factors, including physical inactivity. The health risks of climate change are many and include the spread of vector-borne diseases, malnutrition resulting from food insecurity, heat- and cold-related illness, mental health impacts from displacement due to extreme weather events, and health effects of poor air quality from wildfires and high ozone, among others. In many cases, air pollution and climate change are tied together, either by the industrial processes responsible for them or the solutions to mitigate them.

This Special Issue aims to present new contributions on the health impacts of both air pollution and climate change, as well as weather patterns associated with climate change. We encourage submissions that characterize novel health impacts of these environmental stressors, either alone or jointly. We are also particularly interested in contributions that evaluate factors, policies or interventions that may help mitigate or adapt to climate change, as well as improve air quality. Finally, research that identifies vulnerable subpopulations or communities and emphasizes principles of equity is strongly encouraged.

Dr. Antonella Zanobetti
Dr. Jaime Madrigano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • particulate matter
  • ozone
  • climate change
  • temperature
  • extreme weather
  • coastal storms
  • intervention studies
  • environmental health

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2484 KiB  
Article
Respiratory Health Effects of Wildfire Smoke during Summer of 2018 in the Jämtland Härjedalen Region, Sweden
by Andreas Tornevi, Camilla Andersson, Ana Cristina Carvalho, Joakim Langner, Nikolai Stenfors and Bertil Forsberg
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136987 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
During the summer of 2018 Sweden experienced a high occurrence of wildfires, most intense in the low-densely populated Jämtland Härjedalen region. The aim of this study was to investigate any short-term respiratory health effects due to deteriorated air quality generated by the smoke [...] Read more.
During the summer of 2018 Sweden experienced a high occurrence of wildfires, most intense in the low-densely populated Jämtland Härjedalen region. The aim of this study was to investigate any short-term respiratory health effects due to deteriorated air quality generated by the smoke from wildfires. For each municipality in the region Jämtland Härjedalen, daily population-weighted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were calculated through the application of the MATCH chemistry transport model. Modelled levels of PM2.5 were obtained for two summer periods (2017, 2018). Potential health effects of wildfire related levels of PM2.5 were examined by studying daily health care contacts concerning respiratory problems in each municipality in a quasi-Poisson regression model, adjusting for long-term trends, weekday patterns and weather conditions. In the municipality most exposed to wildfire smoke, having 9 days with daily maximum 1-h mean of PM2.5 > 20 μg/m3, smoke days resulted in a significant increase in daily asthma visits the same and two following days (relative risk (RR) = 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28–5.47). Meta-estimates for all eight municipalities revealed statistically significant increase in asthma visits (RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.09–2.57) and also when grouping all disorders of the lower airways (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.01–1.92). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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12 pages, 500 KiB  
Article
MCR: Open-Source Software to Automate Compilation of Health Study Report-Back
by Erin Polka, Ellen Childs, Alexa Friedman, Kathryn S. Tomsho, Birgit Claus Henn, Madeleine K. Scammell and Chad W. Milando
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116104 - 5 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3523
Abstract
Sharing individualized results with health study participants, a practice we and others refer to as “report-back,” ensures participant access to exposure and health information and may promote health equity. However, the practice of report-back and the content shared is often limited by the [...] Read more.
Sharing individualized results with health study participants, a practice we and others refer to as “report-back,” ensures participant access to exposure and health information and may promote health equity. However, the practice of report-back and the content shared is often limited by the time-intensive process of personalizing reports. Software tools that automate creation of individualized reports have been built for specific studies, but are largely not open-source or broadly modifiable. We created an open-source and generalizable tool, called the Macro for the Compilation of Report-backs (MCR), to automate compilation of health study reports. We piloted MCR in two environmental exposure studies in Massachusetts, USA, and interviewed research team members (n = 7) about the impact of MCR on the report-back process. Researchers using MCR created more detailed reports than during manual report-back, including more individualized numerical, text, and graphical results. Using MCR, researchers saved time producing draft and final reports. Researchers also reported feeling more creative in the design process and more confident in report-back quality control. While MCR does not expedite the entire report-back process, we hope that this open-source tool reduces the barriers to personalizing health study reports, promotes more equitable access to individualized data, and advances self-determination among participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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13 pages, 3289 KiB  
Article
Epidemiologic Impacts in Acute Infectious Disease Associated with Catastrophic Climate Events Related to Global Warming in the Northeast of Mexico
by Jesus Santos-Guzman, Francisco Gonzalez-Salazar, Gregorio Martínez-Ozuna, Victor Jimenez, Andrea Luviano, Daniel Palazuelos, Rubinia Iveth Fernandez-Flores, Mario Manzano-Camarillo, Esteban Picazzo-Palencia, Francisco Gasca-Sanchez and Gerardo Manuel Mejia-Velazquez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094433 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
Rising global temperatures and seawater temperatures have led to an increase in extreme weather patterns leading to droughts and floods. These natural phenomena, in turn, affect the supply of drinking water in some communities, which causes an increase in the prevalence of diseases [...] Read more.
Rising global temperatures and seawater temperatures have led to an increase in extreme weather patterns leading to droughts and floods. These natural phenomena, in turn, affect the supply of drinking water in some communities, which causes an increase in the prevalence of diseases related to the supply of drinking water. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the effects of global warming on human health in the population of Monterrey, Mexico after Hurricane Alex. We interpolated data using statistical downscaling of climate projection data for 2050 and 2080 and correlated it with disease occurrence. We found a remarkable rise in the incidence of transmissible infectious disease symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated and were associated with drinking of contaminated water like tap water or water from communal mobile water tanks, probably because of the contamination of clean water, the disruption of water sanitation, and the inability to maintain home hygiene practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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11 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Impacts of Ambient Air Pollution on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Korea Health Panel Survey Study
by Myung-Jae Hwang, Jong-Hun Kim and Hae-Kwan Cheong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239128 - 7 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that ambient air pollution leads to a decrease in mental and physical function. Although studies on the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and health-related quality of life have been conducted, the impact of short-term exposure has rarely [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that ambient air pollution leads to a decrease in mental and physical function. Although studies on the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and health-related quality of life have been conducted, the impact of short-term exposure has rarely been reported. This study explored the association between short-term exposure to air pollution and EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) scores, an indicator of health-related quality of life, using repeated measures. We selected 5420 respondents from seven metropolitan cities (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan) and one province (Jeju) in South Korea who had participated three or more times in the Korea Health Panel survey conducted from 2009 to 2013. A total of 24,536 observations were used. We applied the daily lag effects of air pollutants on the EQ-VAS stratified by sex and age group using the generalized linear mixed model. After controlling confounders, the EQ-VAS scores decreased statistically significantly in males aged 40–49 years, and females aged 50–64 years with chronic disease. The EQ-VAS scores reduced the most to −1.571 (95% confidence interval: −2.307–−0.834) and −1.722 (95% confidence interval: −2.499–−0.944) per interquartile range increment of carbon monoxide in males aged 40–49 years and per interquartile range increment of sulfur dioxide in females aged 50–64 years, respectively. This study provides evidence that short-term exposure to air pollution is related to the discomfort experienced by individuals in their daily lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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15 pages, 773 KiB  
Article
Interaction Effects of Air Pollution and Climatic Factors on Circulatory and Respiratory Mortality in Xi’an, China between 2014 and 2016
by Kingsley Katleho Mokoena, Crystal Jane Ethan, Yan Yu and Asenso Theophilus Quachie
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239027 - 3 Dec 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2986
Abstract
Several studies have reported that air pollution and climatic factors are major contributors to human morbidity and mortality globally. However, the combined interactive effects of air pollution and climatic factors on human health remain largely unexplored. This study aims to investigate the interactive [...] Read more.
Several studies have reported that air pollution and climatic factors are major contributors to human morbidity and mortality globally. However, the combined interactive effects of air pollution and climatic factors on human health remain largely unexplored. This study aims to investigate the interactive effects of air pollution and climatic factors on circulatory and respiratory mortality in Xi’an, China. Time-series analysis and the distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were employed as the study design and core statistical method. The interaction relative risk (IRR) and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) for temperature and Air Quality Index (AQI) interaction on circulatory mortality were 0.973(0.969, 0.977) and −0.055(−0.059, −0.048), respectively; while for relative humidity and AQI interaction, 1.098(1.011, 1.072) and 0.088(0.081, 0.107) respectively, were estimated. Additionally, the IRR and RERI for temperature and AQI interaction on respiratory mortality were 0.805(0.722, 0.896) and −0.235(−0.269, −0.163) respectively, while 1.008(0.965, 1.051) and −0.031(−0.088, 0.025) respectively were estimated for relative humidity and AQI interaction. The interaction effects of climatic factors and AQI were synergistic and antagonistic in relation to circulatory and respiratory mortality, respectively. Interaction between climatic factors and air pollution contributes significantly to circulatory and respiratory mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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16 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
Associations between Particulate Matter and Otitis Media in Children: A Meta-Analysis
by Sang-Youp Lee, Myoung-jin Jang, Seung Ha Oh, Jun Ho Lee, Myung-Whan Suh and Moo Kyun Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124604 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM), a primary component of air pollution, is a suspected risk factor for the development of otitis media (OM). However, the results of studies on the potential correlation between an increase in the concentration of PM and risk of developing OM [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM), a primary component of air pollution, is a suspected risk factor for the development of otitis media (OM). However, the results of studies on the potential correlation between an increase in the concentration of PM and risk of developing OM are inconsistent. To better characterize this potential association, a meta-analysis of studies indexed in three global databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library) was conducted. These databases were systematically screened for observational studies of PM concentration and the development of OM from the time of their inception to 31 March 2020. Following these searches, 12 articles were analyzed using pooled odds ratios generated from random-effects models to test for an association between an increased concentration of PM and the risk of developing OM. The data were analyzed separately according to the size of particulate matter as PM2.5 and PM10. The pooled odds ratios for each 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were 1.032 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.005–1.060) and 1.010 (95% CI, 1.008–1.012), respectively. Specifically, the pooled odds ratios were significant within the short-term studies (PM measured within 1 week of the development of OM), as 1.024 (95% CI, 1.008–1.040) for PM2.5 concentration and 1.010 (95% CI, 1.008–1.012) for PM10 concentration. They were significant for children under 2 years of age with pooled odds ratios of 1.426 (95% CI, 1.278–1.519) for an increase in the concentration of PM2.5. The incidence of OM was not correlated with the concentration of PM, but was correlated with an increase in the concentration of PM. In conclusion, an increase in the concentration of PM2.5 is more closely associated with the development of OM compared with an increase in the concentration of PM10; this influence is more substantial in shorter-term studies and for younger children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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15 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Association with Anaemia Prevalence and Haemoglobin Levels in Chinese Older Adults
by Mona Elbarbary, Trenton Honda, Geoffrey Morgan, Yuming Guo, Yanfei Guo, Paul Kowal and Joel Negin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093209 - 5 May 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3995
Abstract
Background: Health effects of air pollution on anaemia have been scarcely studied worldwide. We aimed to explore the associations of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with anaemia prevalence and haemoglobin levels in Chinese older adults. Methods: We used two-level linear regression models [...] Read more.
Background: Health effects of air pollution on anaemia have been scarcely studied worldwide. We aimed to explore the associations of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with anaemia prevalence and haemoglobin levels in Chinese older adults. Methods: We used two-level linear regression models and modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to examine the associations of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on haemoglobin concentrations and the prevalence of anaemia, respectively, among 10,611 older Chinese adults enrolled in World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) China. The average community exposure to ambient air pollutants (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5), 1 μm or less (PM1) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) for each participant was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. Haemoglobin levels were measured for participants from dried blood spots. The models were controlled for confounders. Results: All the studied pollutants were significantly associated with increased anaemia prevalence in single pollutant model (e.g., the prevalence ratios associated with an increase in inter quartile range in three years moving average PM10 (1.05; 95% CI: 1.02–1.09), PM2.5 (1.11; 95% CI: 1.06–1.16), PM1 (1.13; 95% CI: 1.06–1.20) and NO2 (1.42; 95% CI: 1.34–1.49), respectively. These air pollutants were also associated with lower concentrations of haemoglobin: PM10 (−0.53; 95% CI: −0.67, −0.38); PM2.5 (−0.52; 95% CI: −0.71, −0.33); PM1 (−0.55; 95% CI: −0.69, −0.41); NO2 (−1.71; 95% CI: −1.85, −1.57) respectively. Conclusions: Air pollution exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of anaemia and decreased haemoglobin levels in a cohort of older Chinese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
13 pages, 1867 KiB  
Article
Spatial Variability of Heat-Related Mortality in Barcelona from 1992–2015: A Case Crossover Study Design
by Vijendra Ingole, Marc Marí-Dell’Olmo, Anna Deluca, Marcos Quijal, Carme Borrell, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Hicham Achebak, Dirk Lauwaet, Joan Gilabert, Peninah Murage, Shakoor Hajat, Xavier Basagaña and Joan Ballester
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072553 - 8 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5206
Abstract
Numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between summer temperatures and increased heat-related deaths. Epidemiological analyses of the health effects of climate exposures usually rely on observations from the nearest weather station to assess exposure-response associations for geographically diverse populations. Urban climate models provide [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between summer temperatures and increased heat-related deaths. Epidemiological analyses of the health effects of climate exposures usually rely on observations from the nearest weather station to assess exposure-response associations for geographically diverse populations. Urban climate models provide high-resolution spatial data that may potentially improve exposure estimates, but to date, they have not been extensively applied in epidemiological research. We investigated temperature-mortality relationships in the city of Barcelona, and whether estimates vary among districts. We considered georeferenced individual (natural) mortality data during the summer months (June–September) for the period 1992–2015. We extracted daily summer mean temperatures from a 100-m resolution simulation of the urban climate model (UrbClim). Summer hot days (above percentile 70) and reference (below percentile 30) temperatures were compared by using a conditional logistic regression model in a case crossover study design applied to all districts of Barcelona. Relative Risks (RR), and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI), of all-cause (natural) mortality and summer temperature were calculated for several population subgroups (age, sex and education level by districts). Hot days were associated with an increased risk of death (RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.10–1.16) and were significant in all population subgroups compared to the non-hot days. The risk ratio was higher among women (RR = 1.16; 95% CI= 1.12–1.21) and the elderly (RR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.13–1.22). Individuals with primary education had similar risk (RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.08–1.18) than those without education (RR = 1.10; 95% CI= 1.05–1.15). Moreover, 6 out of 10 districts showed statistically significant associations, varying the risk ratio between 1.12 (95% CI = 1.03–1.21) in Sants-Montjuïc and 1.25 (95% CI = 1.14–1.38) in Sant Andreu. Findings identified vulnerable districts and suggested new insights to public health policy makers on how to develop district-specific strategies to reduce risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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15 pages, 905 KiB  
Article
Prenatal Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure and Longitudinal Weight Growth Trajectories in Early Childhood
by Anna S. Rosofsky, M. Patricia Fabian, Stephanie Ettinger de Cuba, Megan Sandel, Sharon Coleman, Jonathan I. Levy, Brent A. Coull, Jaime E. Hart and Antonella Zanobetti
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041444 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3693
Abstract
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been associated with impaired fetal growth and postnatal weight gain, but few studies have examined the effect on weight growth trajectories. We examine the association between validated 1 km2 resolution particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, [...] Read more.
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been associated with impaired fetal growth and postnatal weight gain, but few studies have examined the effect on weight growth trajectories. We examine the association between validated 1 km2 resolution particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, averaged over pregnancy, and sex-specific growth trajectories from birth to age six of participants in the Boston-based Children’s HealthWatch cohort (4797 participants, 84,283 measures). We compared weight trajectories, predicted using polynomial splines in mixed models, between prenatal PM2.5 above or below the median (9.5 µg/m3), and examined birth weight as an effect modifier. Females exposed to average prenatal PM2.5 ≥ 9.5 µg/m3 had higher weights compared to females exposed to < 9.5 µg/m3 throughout the study period (0.16 kg at 24 months, 0.61 kg at 60 months). In males, higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure was associated with significantly lower weights after 24 months of age, with differences increasing with time (−0.17 at 24 months, −0.72 kg at 60 months). Associations were more pronounced among low birth weight (<2500 g) females, but did not differ by birth weight status in males. Our findings demonstrate the complex association between air pollution exposures and childhood weight trajectories and emphasize the importance of sex-stratified analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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12 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Associations of Fine Particulate Matter and Synoptic Weather Types with Cardiovascular Mortality: An Ecological Time-Series Study in Shanghai, China
by Qing Tian, Mei Li, Scott Montgomery, Bo Fang, Chunfang Wang, Tian Xia and Yang Cao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031111 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3671
Abstract
Background: Exposures to both ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and extreme weather conditions have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in numerous epidemiologic studies. However, evidence on the associations with CVD deaths for interaction effects between PM2.5 and [...] Read more.
Background: Exposures to both ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and extreme weather conditions have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in numerous epidemiologic studies. However, evidence on the associations with CVD deaths for interaction effects between PM2.5 and weather conditions is still limited. This study aimed to investigate associations of exposures to PM2.5 and weather conditions with cardiovascular mortality, and further to investigate the synergistic or antagonistic effects of ambient air pollutants and synoptic weather types (SWTs). Methods: Information on daily CVD deaths, air pollution, and meteorological conditions between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 was obtained in Shanghai, China. Generalized additive models were used to assess the associations of daily PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological factors with CVD deaths. A 15-day lag analysis was conducted using a polynomial distributed lag model to access the lag patterns for associations with PM2.5. Results: During the study period, the total number of CVD deaths in Shanghai was 59,486, with a daily mean of 54.3 deaths. The average daily PM2.5 concentration was 55.0 µg/m3. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 1.26% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40%, 2.12%) increase in CVD mortality. No SWT was statistically significantly associated with CVD deaths. For the interaction between PM2.5 and SWT, statistically significant interactions were found between PM2.5 and cold weather, with risk for PM2.5 in cold dry SWT decreasing by 1.47% (95% CI: 0.54%, 2.39%), and in cold humid SWT the risk decreased by 1.45% (95% CI: 0.52%, 2.36%). In the lag effect analysis, statistically significant positive associations were found for PM2.5 in the 1–3 lag days, while no statistically significant effects were found for other lag day periods. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with short-term increased risk of cardiovascular deaths with some lag effects, while the cold weather may have an antagonistic effect with PM2.5. However, the ecological study design limited the possibility to identify a causal relationship, so prospective studies with individual level data are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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14 pages, 2766 KiB  
Article
Impact of Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Incidence of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in Wuhan, China
by Jiayuan Hao, Zhiyi Yang, Wenwen Yang, Shuqiong Huang, Liqiao Tian, Zhongmin Zhu, Yuanan Lu, Hao Xiang and Suyang Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020428 - 8 Jan 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3979
Abstract
Background: Few studies have previously explored the relationship between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and meteorological factors with the effect modification of air pollution, and these studies had inconsistent findings. We therefore applied a time-series analysis assessing the effects of temperature [...] Read more.
Background: Few studies have previously explored the relationship between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and meteorological factors with the effect modification of air pollution, and these studies had inconsistent findings. We therefore applied a time-series analysis assessing the effects of temperature and humidity on the incidence of HFMD in Wuhan, China to deepen our understanding of the relationship between meteorological factors and the risk of HFMD. Methods: Daily HFMD cases were retrieved from Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 1 February 2013 to 31 January 2017. Daily meteorological data including 24 h average temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, and atmospheric pressure were obtained from Hubei Meteorological Bureau. Data on Air pollution was collected from 10 national air-monitoring stations in Wuhan city. We adopted a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) combined with Poisson regression and time-series analysis to estimate the effects of temperature and relative humidity on the incidence HFMD. Results: We found that the association between temperature and HFMD incidence was non-linear, exhibiting an approximate “M” shape with two peaks occurring at 2.3 °C (RR = 1.760, 95% CI: 1.218–2.542) and 27.9 °C (RR = 1.945, 95% CI: 1.570–2.408), respectively. We observed an inverted “V” shape between relative humidity and HFMD. The risk of HFMD reached a maximum value at a relative humidity of 89.2% (RR = 1.553, 95% CI: 1.322–1.824). The largest delayed cumulative effects occurred at lag 6 for temperature and lag 13 for relative humidity. Conclusions: The non-linear relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of HFMD on different lag days could be used in the early targeted warning system of infectious diseases, reducing the possible outbreaks and burdens of HFMD among sensitive populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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Review

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13 pages, 638 KiB  
Review
Lung Health in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing the Need for Cleaner Air
by Refiloe Masekela and Aneesa Vanker
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176178 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
Air pollution is increasingly recognized as a global health emergency with its impacts being wide ranging, more so for low- and middle-income countries where both indoor and outdoor pollution levels are high. In Africa, more than 80% of children live in households which [...] Read more.
Air pollution is increasingly recognized as a global health emergency with its impacts being wide ranging, more so for low- and middle-income countries where both indoor and outdoor pollution levels are high. In Africa, more than 80% of children live in households which use unclean sources of energy. The effects of both indoor and outdoor pollution on lung health on children who are the most vulnerable to their effects range from acute lower respiratory tract infections to long-term chronic health effects. We reviewed the literature on the effects of air pollution in children in Sub-Saharan Africa from prenatal exposure, infancy and school-going children. Data from Sub-Saharan Africa on quantification of exposures both indoor and outdoor mainly utilizes modelling or self-reporting. Exposures to biomass not only increases the risk of acute respiratory tract infections in young children but also increases the risk of carriage of pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract. Although there is limited evidence of association between asthma and pollution in African children, airway hyper-responsiveness and lower lung function has been demonstrated in children with higher risk of exposure. Interventions at a policy level to both quantify the exposure levels at a population level are urgently needed to address the possible interventions to limit exposure and improve lung health in children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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Other

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15 pages, 370 KiB  
Commentary
Science Policy to Advance a Climate Change and Health Research Agenda in the United States
by Jaime Madrigano, Regina A. Shih, Maxwell Izenberg, Jordan R. Fischbach and Benjamin L. Preston
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157868 - 25 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3419
Abstract
Climate change is thought to be one of the greatest public health threats of the 21st century and there has been a tremendous growth in the published literature describing the health implications of climate change over the last decade. Yet, there remain several [...] Read more.
Climate change is thought to be one of the greatest public health threats of the 21st century and there has been a tremendous growth in the published literature describing the health implications of climate change over the last decade. Yet, there remain several critical knowledge gaps in this field. Closing these gaps is crucial to developing effective interventions to minimize the health risks from climate change. In this commentary, we discuss policy trends that have influenced the advancement of climate change and health research in the United States context. We then enumerate specific knowledge gaps that could be addressed by policies to advance scientific research. Finally, we describe tools and methods that have not yet been fully integrated into the field, but hold promise for advancing the science. Prioritizing this advancement offers the potential to improve public health-related policies on climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Climate Change-Mediated Health Impacts)
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