Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 27245

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Neuroscience and Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Napoli, NA, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; paediatric dentistry; preventive dentistry; obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; biomaterials
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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry "Scuola Medica Salernitana", via Salvador Allende 43, 84081, Baronissi, SA, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; temporomandibular disorders, orofacial pain; COVID-19; dental materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; interceptive orthodontics; clear aligners; early childhood caries; paediatric dentistry; digital monitoring; preventive dentistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to the Special Issue on Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment. 

Diseases affecting the orofacial complex are among those with the highest prevalence and thus make it a healthcare issue. There is strong evidence that most oral health conditions are largely preventable and can be easily treated in their early stages. Preventive dentistry is concerned with caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer and other relevant conditions that affect the oral cavity and its related structures. In recent decades, patients with different general health problems have increased significantly, requiring specific treatments and increasing even more the importance of prevention and effective treatments.

Even in growing patients, it is very important to make an early diagnosis and start treatment with the correct timing to prevent more severe malocclusions and increase the effectiveness of treatment. This Special Issue will also cover several aspects of pediatric dentistry with an emphasis on childhood caries, the first months of life and how to develop good oral health, and new frontiers in pediatric dentistry and prevention. Uneven epidemiology has consequences for caries risk assessment, treatment plans, patient/parent motivation, and public health measures, each itself a topic to be explored.

Furthermore, recent developments in the area of digital dentistry and teledentistry have revolutionized the workflow in all dental fields. Hence, there is an absolute need for more research on this issue. 

This Special Issue is a call for research and recent advances in the field of oral health. Both theoretical and experimental studies are welcome, as well as comprehensive reviews and survey papers.

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo D'Antò
Dr. Stefano Martina
Dr. Silvia Caruso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental health
  • oral health
  • prevention
  • caries
  • periodontal disease
  • orthodontics
  • pediatric dentistry
  • oral medicine
  • oral surgery
  • community dentistry
  • digital dentistry

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Quality of Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials Published in Three of the Most Citable Periodontal Journals from 2018 to 2022
by Fahad Alharbi, Khalid Gufran, Muzammil Moin Ahmed, Abdulaziz Alsakr and Abdullah Almutairi
Healthcare 2023, 11(24), 3180; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11243180 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the reporting quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in periodontology. Three leading periodontology journals, the Journal of Periodontology (JOP), the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (JOCP), and the Journal of Periodontal Research (JOPR), were selected for this investigation. The [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the reporting quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in periodontology. Three leading periodontology journals, the Journal of Periodontology (JOP), the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (JOCP), and the Journal of Periodontal Research (JOPR), were selected for this investigation. The RCTs were identified by manually searching for human trial articles published in these three journals. Two authors independently conducted the literature search, and a pre-piloted extraction sheet was used to screen the potential RCTs. The CONSORT checklist guidelines were employed to calculate the score value. Intra-examiner reliability was assessed by scoring a random sample of 10% of the papers in a second round conducted by the first examiner three months after the initial data collection. A search of abstracts published over a five-year period yielded 176 articles that reported RCTs, accounting for 11.7% of all articles published in the three journals. The highest number of RCTs was published in 2020, and more than half of the included RCTs (51%) originated from Europe. Many of the analyzed RCTs inadequately reported almost half of the items on the CONSORT checklist. Furthermore, univariate analysis revealed significant associations between certain factors and the overall CONSORT score, such as publication in JOP (p = 0.048), publication year of 2019 (p = 0.041) and 2021 (p = 0.042), first author from North America (p = 0.016), and RCTs with more than six authors (p = 0.042). Clinical trial research in periodontics has made significant progress in the past five years. However, there is room for improvement in adhering to the CONSORT guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
11 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Link between Oral Health, Periodontal Disease, Smoking, and Systemic Diseases in Romanian Patients
by Christoph Schwarz, Adrian Ioan Hajdu, Ramona Dumitrescu, Ruxandra Sava-Rosianu, Vanessa Bolchis, Diana Anusca, Andreea Hanghicel, Aurora Doris Fratila, Roxana Oancea, Daniela Jumanca, Atena Galuscan and Marius Leretter
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162354 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
(1) Background: The link between oral and systemic health is becoming increasingly obvious. Oral diseases, particularly periodontitis, have been linked to various diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, among others. This survey aimed to assess the oral health condition of individuals, considering both [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The link between oral and systemic health is becoming increasingly obvious. Oral diseases, particularly periodontitis, have been linked to various diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, among others. This survey aimed to assess the oral health condition of individuals, considering both their overall health and periodontal status, by performing oral examinations and collecting data using questionnaires. (2) Methods: After obtaining approval from the University’s Ethics Committee, the study was carried out from 2021 to 2022 at the Department of Oral Health, located in the Emergency Municipal Hospital in Timisoara, Timis County, Romania. Bivariate correlations were performed using nonparametric Spearman’s Rho using SPPS software version 23. To assess the importance of smoking frequency related to the severity of periodontitis diagnosis, the ANOVA Simple test (one-way) and Hochberg GT2 post hoc analysis were utilized. The chi-squared test was employed for nominal variables. A significance level of 0.05 (alpha = 0.05) was adopted for all statistical tests. (3) Results: There is a significant positive association between the frequency of systemic disease and the severity of the periodontitis diagnosis taken as a total, Rho (242) = 0.151, p < 0.05, and taken as a stage, Rho (242) = 0.199, p < 0.01, thus as the severity of the diagnosis increases, the patient presents comorbidities. Hochberg GT2 post hoc analysis indicates that the non-smoking group has statistically significantly lower diagnostic severity (Mdif = −0.81, p = 0.01), with a strong effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.73). (4) Conclusions: The findings are increasingly indicating a potential association between oral diseases and a range of systemic diseases. The impact of periodontal disease on the quality of life is significant, especially in individuals with associated systemic conditions and present risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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11 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Malocclusion Complexity in Patients with Disc Displacement Disorders: A Case–Control Study
by Iván Daniel Zúñiga-Herrera, Fernando Javier Aguilar-Pérez, Mauricio Escoffié-Ramírez and José Rubén Herrera-Atoche
Healthcare 2023, 11(15), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11152202 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the possible association between disc displacement (DD) disorders and malocclusion complexity. This cross-sectional study was carried out using a case–control design. The Research Diagnosis Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used to identify cases and controls. The Index of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the possible association between disc displacement (DD) disorders and malocclusion complexity. This cross-sectional study was carried out using a case–control design. The Research Diagnosis Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used to identify cases and controls. The Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON) was used to quantify malocclusion complexity as easy, mild, moderate, difficult, or very difficult. A total of 310 subjects were included: 130 cases and 180 controls. A binary logistic regression (p < 0.05) was used to identify associations. The odds ratio (OR) was also calculated. DD was associated with sex, age, and malocclusion complexity (p < 0.05). The malocclusion complexity comparison showed that 89.3% of the controls fell within the easy–moderate levels of the ICON, whereas 85.4% of the cases were in the moderate–very difficult levels (p ≤ 0.001). Difficult and very difficult malocclusions had high ORs (9.801 and 9.689, respectively) compared to the easy cases. In conclusion, patients with malocclusion complexity levels classified as difficult or very difficult have greater odds of presenting DD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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11 pages, 657 KiB  
Article
The Facial Characteristics of Individuals with Posterior Crossbite: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Karlina Kienkas, Gundega Jakobsone and Girts Salms
Healthcare 2023, 11(13), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131881 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Facial morphology is known to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Scientific evidence regarding facial parameters in patients with posterior crossbite is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the association between posterior crossbite and facial parameters. This cross-sectional study included 34 adolescents [...] Read more.
Facial morphology is known to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Scientific evidence regarding facial parameters in patients with posterior crossbite is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the association between posterior crossbite and facial parameters. This cross-sectional study included 34 adolescents with and 34 adolescents without posterior crossbite in the age range from 13 to 15 years. Facial surface scans were acquired with a 3dMD imaging system, and landmark-based analysis was performed. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlations. Individuals in the control group had lower face heights (females: p = 0.003, r = 0.45; males: p = 0.005, r = 0.57). The control group females presented with smaller intercanthal width (p = 0.04; r = 0.31) and anatomical nose width (p = 0.004; r = 0.43) compared with the crossbite group females. The males in the control group had wider nostrils. In the control group, significant correlations among different facial parameters were more common, including the correlations between eye width and other transversal face measurements. On the contrary, the facial width was correlated with nasal protrusion (r = 0.657; p < 0.01) and the morphological width of the nose (r = 0.505; p < 0.05) in the crossbite group alone. In both groups, the philtrum width was linked with the anatomical and morphological widths of the nose. Conclusions: Patients with posterior crossbites have increased face height and different patterns of facial proportions compared with individuals without crossbites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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10 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
Performance of the Malmgren Index for Assessing Root Resorption on 2D vs. 3D Radiographs: A Pilot Study
by Hanne Michielsens, Julie Decreus, Giacomo Begnoni, Anna Verdonck, Reinhilde Jacobs, Guy Willems and Maria Cadenas de Llano-Pérula
Healthcare 2023, 11(13), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11131860 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Objectives: To compare the performance of the Malmgren index on 2D and 3D radiographs. Methods: Patients with a panoramic radiograph and a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) taken at an interval of <3 months and presenting root resorption (RR) on at least one [...] Read more.
Objectives: To compare the performance of the Malmgren index on 2D and 3D radiographs. Methods: Patients with a panoramic radiograph and a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) taken at an interval of <3 months and presenting root resorption (RR) on at least one incisor and/or canine were retrospectively included. RR was scored twice by two observers using the Malmgren index in both the 2D and 3D sets, and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. Results: 155 teeth were analyzed. The ICC was the lowest in 2D, followed by overall, transversal and sagittal 3D. Malmgren scores were systematically higher in 2D, which overestimated RR, especially in the transversal plane on all incisors and canines and in the sagittal plane on the maxillary incisors. 2D respectively leads to 28.0–34.8% of false positives and negatives when discriminating between RR or not. The early stages of RR are often misdiagnosed in 2D, while later stages are more accurate. Conclusions: The original Malmgren index is not suited for 3D images, especially axial, where using dichotomized values (resorption yes/no) leads to overestimation of RR. A low-dose CBCT of the upper incisors could detect RR with high diagnostic accuracy in the early stages of orthodontic treatment, especially in patients with dental trauma or familial RR history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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13 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Knowledge and Practice of Resident Dentists in Iasi, Romania in the Management of Traumatic Dental Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Alice Murariu, Elena-Raluca Baciu, Livia Bobu, Simona Stoleriu, Roxana-Ionela Vasluianu, Monica Silvia Tatarciuc, Diana Diaconu-Popa, Petruța Huțanu and Gabriela Luminița Gelețu
Healthcare 2023, 11(9), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11091348 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Dentists play an essential role in the treatment of dental and periodontal traumatic injuries by providing early and correct treatment. The purpose of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge of dental residents regarding dental trauma. The cross-sectional study was [...] Read more.
Dentists play an essential role in the treatment of dental and periodontal traumatic injuries by providing early and correct treatment. The purpose of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge of dental residents regarding dental trauma. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Dental Medicine within the “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Iasi, Romania on a sample of 366 residents in General Dentistry, Pediatric Dentistry and Periodontology. To assess their knowledge, a questionnaire was created containing 18 questions about the clinical signs and therapy of dental trauma, with a focus on tooth avulsion. A very low level of knowledge (<25%) was found only for the type of splinting required to maintain an avulsed tooth on the arch. The highest number of correct answers was provided by the residents in Periodontology. Physiological serum as storage medium was recognized by a percentage of 75.9–80% of the subjects, and 60–77% of them recognized pulp necrosis as complication of dental avulsion. The study underlines the need to introduce in the curriculum of all categories of residents additional information, not only in the already existent theoretical form, but also as possible scenarios of various clinical situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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12 pages, 3166 KiB  
Article
Effects of Iron Salts on Demineralization and Discoloration of Primary Incisor Enamel Subjected to Artificial Cariogenic Challenge versus Saline Immersion
by Bahareh Nazemisalman, Mehran Mohseni, Shayan Darvish, Mahya Farsadeghi and Ionut Luchian
Healthcare 2023, 11(4), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11040569 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1579
Abstract
Aim: This study aimed to assess the effects of iron salts on the demineralization and discoloration of primary incisor enamel subjected to artificial cariogenic challenge (ACC) versus saline immersion. Methodology: In this in vitro experimental study, 90 primary incisors were evaluated in 10 [...] Read more.
Aim: This study aimed to assess the effects of iron salts on the demineralization and discoloration of primary incisor enamel subjected to artificial cariogenic challenge (ACC) versus saline immersion. Methodology: In this in vitro experimental study, 90 primary incisors were evaluated in 10 groups (n = 9). Five groups were subjected to ACC, and the other five were immersed in saline. Ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, ferrous ammonium citrate, and ferrous gluconate were added to both saline and cariogenic solutions. The solutions were refreshed every 48 h. After 14 days, the teeth were removed from the media and their demineralization was inspected via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was also performed. The color of the specimens was measured at baseline and after the intervention using the Vita Shade Guide. Results: Data were analyzed by the Kruskal–Wallis test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s test. The color change of specimens subjected to ACC was greater than the color change of those in saline (p = 0.083). The teeth subjected to ACC showed greater iron uptake than did those in saline (p = 0.023). SEM assessment revealed a regular pattern of enamel prisms, with some broken prisms and superficial cracks in the teeth immersed in saline. The teeth subjected to ACC showed numerous fractures and cracks, which were greater in the ferrous sulfate group. Conclusions: Immersion in ACC increased the structural porosities and led to greater iron uptake and, consequently, higher discoloration. The maximum structural changes and subsequent staining were noted in the ferrous sulfate group, followed by ferrous ammonium citrate, ferrous fumarate, and ferrous gluconate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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9 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
Anatomical Evaluation of Posterior Maxillary Roots in Relation to the Maxillary Sinus Floor in a Saudi Sub-Population: A Cross-Sectional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study
by Abdulaziz Abdulwahed, Mohammed Mustafa, Mohmed Isaqali Karobari, Ahmad Alomran, Khalid Alasimi, Abdulrahman Alsayeg, Abdullah Alsakaker and Hadi Mohammed Alamri
Healthcare 2023, 11(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010150 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
To evaluate the mean distance and differences between posterior maxillary teeth and maxillary sinus floor (MSF) concerning the age and gender of the patients, a total of 124 maxillary sinuses and 496 posterior maxillary teeth were randomly selected in 62 cone-beam computed tomography [...] Read more.
To evaluate the mean distance and differences between posterior maxillary teeth and maxillary sinus floor (MSF) concerning the age and gender of the patients, a total of 124 maxillary sinuses and 496 posterior maxillary teeth were randomly selected in 62 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Mean distances between posterior maxillary roots (PMRs) from different teeth and the MSF were measured using a calibrated tool in the software. Other relations regarding the gender and age of the patients were determined. The mean root–MSF distances in the right and left first premolars were more significant compared to the second premolars. No significant relation was found between the apices of the right and left first and second molar roots and the floor of the maxillary sinus concerning gender. A statistically significant relation was found between the apices of the buccal root of the right first premolar, right and left first and second molars and floor of the maxillary sinus concerning the age group 21–40 years (p-value = 0.009). This study showed that the second molar mesiobuccal root apex is frequently related to the sinus floor. Differences were reported concerning age, concerning the distance between posterior maxillary teeth and the maxillary sinus floor. CBCT technology helped provide the clinical proximity between the MSF and the posterior teeth root apices during the treatment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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9 pages, 829 KiB  
Article
Effects of Heat-Not-Burn Cigarette Smoking on the Secretion of Saliva and Its Innate Immune System Components
by Yukihiro Mori, Mamoru Tanaka, Hana Kozai, Yuka Aoyama, Yukihiro Shigeno, Kiyoshi Hotta, Makoto Aoike, Hatsumi Kawamura, Masato Tsurudome and Morihiro Ito
Healthcare 2023, 11(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010132 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Saliva and salivary antimicrobial proteins play important roles in the innate immunity, which prevents infections of orally invading bacteria and viruses. In this study, we compared the secretion rates of salivary lactoferrin (Lac) and lysozyme (Lys) in heat-not-burn (HNB) cigarette smokers and non-smokers. [...] Read more.
Saliva and salivary antimicrobial proteins play important roles in the innate immunity, which prevents infections of orally invading bacteria and viruses. In this study, we compared the secretion rates of salivary lactoferrin (Lac) and lysozyme (Lys) in heat-not-burn (HNB) cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The analysis population for this study included 212 members of the fire department, including 32 HNB cigarette smokers, 17 paper cigarette smokers, 14 combined HNB and paper cigarette smokers, and 149 non-smokers. Salivary Lac and Lys concentrations were assessed using enzyme immunoassay. Saliva secretion was significantly lower among HNB cigarette smokers (p < 0.01) than among non-smokers. Accompanying this result, salivary Lac and Lys secretion rates were significantly lower among smokers, particularly HNB cigarette smokers, than among non-smokers (all p < 0.01). Our findings suggest a possible adverse effect of HNB cigarette on the amount of Lac and Lys released into the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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10 pages, 1366 KiB  
Article
Effects of Flap Design on the Periodontal Health of Second Lower Molars after Impacted Third Molar Extraction
by Pier Carmine Passarelli, Michele Antonio Lopez, Andrea Netti, Edoardo Rella, Marta De Leonardis, Luigi Svaluto Ferro, Andrea Lopez, Franklin Garcia-Godoy and Antonio D’Addona
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122410 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the envelope flap and triangular flap for impacted lower third molar (M3) extraction and their effects on the periodontal health of adjacent second molars (M2). A population of 60 patients undergoing M3 extraction with the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the envelope flap and triangular flap for impacted lower third molar (M3) extraction and their effects on the periodontal health of adjacent second molars (M2). A population of 60 patients undergoing M3 extraction with the envelope flap (Group A) or triangular flap (Group B) was analyzed, comparing probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession (REC) recorded at six sites (disto-lingual, mid-lingual, mesio-lingual, disto-vestibular, mid-vestibular, and mesio-vestibular) before (T0) and 6 months after extraction (T1). There was a statistically significant mean difference in PPD and CAL at two sites, disto-vestibular (dv) and disto-lingual (dl), between values recorded before and 6 months after surgery for either Group A or Group B. Furthermore, for the same periodontal records, at 6 months after surgery, a statistically significant difference was recorded between younger and older patients, implying that the healing process was more beneficial for younger patients. No significant differences were found between the two groups (A and B) in PPDdl, PPDdv, CALdl, and CALdv, confirming that the mucoperiosteal flap design does not influence the periodontal healing process of second molars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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7 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Dental Anxiety and Influencing Factors in Adults
by Muhammad Usman Muneer, Fahad Ismail, Nadia Munir, Asma Shakoor, Gotam Das, Abdul Razzaq Ahmed and Muhammad Adeel Ahmed
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122352 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3379
Abstract
Dental anxiety is one of the most common conditions present amongst the masses globally. It is this fear that makes individuals avoid seeking dental treatment which results in a deteriorated oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Discrepancies exist in the prevalence of dental [...] Read more.
Dental anxiety is one of the most common conditions present amongst the masses globally. It is this fear that makes individuals avoid seeking dental treatment which results in a deteriorated oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Discrepancies exist in the prevalence of dental anxiety based on gender, education levels, level of deprivation of a society and its socioeconomic status. In this study, a sample size of 522 respondents was collected. Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale and modified dental anxiety scales were used to collect the necessary data. These data were analyzed by cross tabbing and chi-square test of significance was applied to assess the association between dental anxiety and other factors. Female gender was significantly associated with dental anxiety with p-value = 0.03. Higher education levels and dental anxiety also displayed significant associations with each other, with a p-value of 0.048. Seventy-six percent of the individuals of lower socioeconomic status were prone to be more dentally anxious. Dental anxiety was more significant in individuals with higher levels of education in our study. Respondents who were part of a lower socioeconomic class were also more prone to being anxious while receiving dental treatment. Knowing the factors that cause dental anxiety can help dentists effectively manage and treat their patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
8 pages, 1330 KiB  
Article
Preparing Children for Their First Dental Visit: A Guide for Parents
by Simone Bagattoni, Francesca Nascimben, Elena Biondi, Raquel Fitzgibbon, Lisa Lardani, Maria Rosaria Gatto, Gabriela Piana and Katia Mattarozzi
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112321 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
The aim of the study was to test an information booklet containing suggestions to parents on how to prepare their child for the first dental visit. Forty-five children and one parent per included child took part in the trial. Children were randomized in [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to test an information booklet containing suggestions to parents on how to prepare their child for the first dental visit. Forty-five children and one parent per included child took part in the trial. Children were randomized in two groups; the information booklet was e-mailed to the parents of the study group. At the end of the visit, the dentist and the parent evaluated the child’s behavior through the Frankl Behavior Rating Scale (FBRS) and the utility of the booklet through a Likert scale. The children evaluated the pleasantness of the visit and the perceived pain through the Wong–Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS). Parents evaluated the information booklet as highly understandable and useful. According to the dentist, informed children were more cooperative (FBRS median score: 4; IQR: 3.5–4) than the control group (median score 3; IQR: 2–4) (p = 0.013; Mann–Whitney U test). Children prepared with the booklet reported less pain (WBFPRS: 0.40 ± 0.82 vs. 1.42 ± 1.99; p = 0.034; t-test;) and tended to evaluate the visit as more enjoyable (WBFPRS: 1.1 ± 2.14 vs. 2.75 ± 3.43; p = 0.064; t-test) than unprepared children. The information booklet increases the child’s ability to cooperate during the visit and could represent a useful instrument for the clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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Review

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14 pages, 271 KiB  
Review
Oral Adverse Events Associated with BRAF and MEK Inhibitors in Melanoma Treatment: A Narrative Literature Review
by Michele Basilicata, Vincenzo Terrano, Alessandro D'Aurelio, Giovanni Bruno, Teresa Troiani, Patrizio Bollero and Stefania Napolitano
Healthcare 2024, 12(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12010105 - 02 Jan 2024
Viewed by 941
Abstract
Background: Melanoma cancer represents the most lethal type of skin cancer originating from the malignant transformation of melanocyte cells. Almost 50% of melanomas show the activation of BRAF mutations. The identification and characterization of BRAF mutations led to the development of specific drugs [...] Read more.
Background: Melanoma cancer represents the most lethal type of skin cancer originating from the malignant transformation of melanocyte cells. Almost 50% of melanomas show the activation of BRAF mutations. The identification and characterization of BRAF mutations led to the development of specific drugs that radically changed the therapeutic approach to melanoma. Methods: We conducted a narrative review of the literature according to a written protocol before conducting the study. This article is based on previously conducted studies. We identified articles by searching electronic databases (Medline, Google Scholar and PubMed). We used a combination of “melanoma”, “Braf-Mek inhibitors”, “ targeted therapy” and “oral side effects”. Results: Eighteen studies were reported in this article showing the relationship between the use of targeted therapy in melanoma cancer and the development of oral side effects, such as mucositis, hyperkeratosis and cellular proliferation. Conclusion: Targeted therapy plays an important role in the treatment of melanoma cancer, showing a notable increase in response rate, prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival in BRAF-mutated melanoma patients. Oral side effects represent a common finding over the course of treatment. However, these adverse effects can be easily managed in a multidisciplinary approach involving collaboration between medical oncologists and dental doctors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)

Other

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10 pages, 14435 KiB  
Case Report
Maxillary Impacted Canine and Upper Lateral Incisor Agenesis Treatment with “Canine First Technique” and Clear Aligners: A Case Report
by Tecla Bocchino, Stefano Martina, Carolina Sangiuolo, Marzio Galdi, Alessandra Valletta and Vincenzo D’Antò
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162345 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
The aim of this study was to show a case of an impacted canine in an adult patient with agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisor treated with clear aligners (CA). A 19-year-old male with a persistence of 5.3 and absence of 1.2 came [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to show a case of an impacted canine in an adult patient with agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisor treated with clear aligners (CA). A 19-year-old male with a persistence of 5.3 and absence of 1.2 came to our department of the School of Orthodontics at the University of Federico II in Naples and asked for an aesthetic treatment. The Canine First approach was used to surgically expose the canine and pull it into the dental arch. In order to ensure long-term aesthetic, periodontal, and occlusal results, a treatment with CAs to close the space through the mesial placement of the canine and the enameloplasty of the tooth crown was performed. At the end of the treatment, the occlusal objectives were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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19 pages, 767 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of Clear Aligners versus Fixed Appliances on Periodontal Status of Patients Undergoing Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews
by Federica Di Spirito, Francesco D’Ambrosio, Davide Cannatà, Vincenzo D’Antò, Francesco Giordano and Stefano Martina
Healthcare 2023, 11(9), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11091340 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
The present umbrella review of four systematic reviews with meta-analysis aimed to assess whether clear aligners are associated with better periodontal conditions compared with fixed appliances in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The present study protocol was developed in accordance with the PRISMA statement [...] Read more.
The present umbrella review of four systematic reviews with meta-analysis aimed to assess whether clear aligners are associated with better periodontal conditions compared with fixed appliances in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The present study protocol was developed in accordance with the PRISMA statement before the literature search, data extraction, and analysis and was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42023401808). The question formulation, search, and study selection strategies were developed according to the PICO model. Systematic reviews with a meta-analysis published in English without date restriction were electronically searched across the Cochrane Library, Web of Science (Core Collection), Scopus, EMBASE, and MEDLINE/PubMed databases until 10 February 2023. An assessment of study quality was performed using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Differences in the PI, GI, and BOP in the short- and medium-term follow-ups, in the PPD in long-term follow-up, and the gingival recessions in the short-term follow-up were found between subjects with clear aligners and fixed appliances, revealing a slight tendency for clear aligners to be associated with healthier periodontal conditions. However, even if statistically significant, such differences would be negligible in a clinical environment. Therefore, the impact of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners and fixed appliances on periodontal health status should be considered comparable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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17 pages, 1270 KiB  
Systematic Review
Intentional Replantation of Single-Rooted and Multi-Rooted Teeth: A Systematic Review
by Massimo Pisano, Federica Di Spirito, Stefano Martina, Giuseppe Sangiovanni, Francesco D’Ambrosio and Alfredo Iandolo
Healthcare 2023, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010011 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
The technique of intentional replantation can provide a second chance to save teeth that would be destined for extraction. Therefore, the present systematic review aimed primarily to estimate tooth survival after intentional replantation and secondarily to compare treatment outcomes in single-rooted and multi-rooted [...] Read more.
The technique of intentional replantation can provide a second chance to save teeth that would be destined for extraction. Therefore, the present systematic review aimed primarily to estimate tooth survival after intentional replantation and secondarily to compare treatment outcomes in single-rooted and multi-rooted teeth. The study protocol was developed before the analysis according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Articles were electronically searched in PubMed/MEDLINE, the COCHRANE library and Google Scholar by two independent reviewers, and those that met the eligibility criteria were included. A statistical analysis using the chi-square test with a p-value of <0.05 was performed on the reported outcomes of intentional replantation. A total of 44 single-rooted replanted teeth with five failures (11.36%) and 42 multi-rooted replanted teeth with six failures (14.28%) were reported in the literature, corresponding to a survival rate of 88.64% and 85.57%, respectively. The overall survival rate for the replantation procedure was 86.7%, indicating that intentional replantation can be considered a safe therapeutic choice, with no statistically significant difference between the survival rates of single-rooted and multi-rooted replanted teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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