Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry and Oral Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2023) | Viewed by 16188

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry "Scuola Medica Salernitana", via Salvador Allende 43, 84081, Baronissi, SA, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; temporomandibular disorders, orofacial pain; COVID-19; dental materials
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Guest Editor
School of Orthodontics, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Oral Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; dental materials; archwires properties; functional appliances; temporomandibular disorders; class III; digital dentistry; soft tissue
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, 84084 Baronissi, Italy
Interests: implant dentistry; oral surgery; bone reconstructive surgery; dental materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to a Special Issue on Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances.

Materials Science is constantly developing in dentistry. In the last years, innovative techniques have been developed thanks to the introduction of new materials. On the other hand, characteristics of materials already in current use are still unknown and some materials could have new uses in the different branches of dentistry.

In addition, recent developments in the area of digital dentistry have revolutionised the workflow and manufacture of all dental branches. However, there is poor scientific evidence on the use of new technologies and digital appliances; hence, there is an absolute need for more research on this issue.

In this Special Issue, we invite research and recent advances in the fields of advanced dental materials. Both theoretical and experimental studies are welcome, as well as comprehensive review and survey papers.

Dr. Stefano Martina
Dr. Roberto Rongo
Dr. Mario Caggiano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • materials properties
  • digital dentistry
  • dental appliances
  • orthodontic appliances
  • customized appliances
  • tissue engineering
  • CAD-CAM

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Implant Stability in Regenerated Bone
by Mario Caggiano and Alfonso Acerra
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12161; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212161 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Bone regeneration is a surgical therapy that is increasingly being used for implant placement in functional patient rehabilitation [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)

Research

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15 pages, 7907 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for a Different Type of Cono-in Dental Implant
by Caterina Callea, Mario Ceddia, Adriano Piattelli, Alessandro Specchiulli and Bartolomeo Trentadue
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5313; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095313 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
The aim of biomechanics applied to implantology is to determine the deformative and tensional states by solving the equilibrium equations within the mandibular bone and the osseointegrated implant to ensure its stability and improve the success rate. The finite element method is a [...] Read more.
The aim of biomechanics applied to implantology is to determine the deformative and tensional states by solving the equilibrium equations within the mandibular bone and the osseointegrated implant to ensure its stability and improve the success rate. The finite element method is a powerful numerical technique that uses computing power to derive approximate solutions for the analysis of components with very complex geometry, loads, materials, and especially the biomechanical problems analysis, which is challenging to find in vivo or in vitro. This study performs a complete FEA survey on 3 implants Cono-in with 3 different diameters 3.4 mm, 4.5 mm, and 5.2 mm with abutments inclined to 15° and evaluates the tensions that are generated in the system as a result of the application of chewing loads. In this study, the extent of the stresses developed in the peri-crestal zone of the implants with the variation of the occlusal overstress acting on them was also evaluated. Autodesk Inventor Nastran Software was used to perform this type of localized finite element analysis; With this type of analysis, it was possible to analyze the peri-crestal area of the implant more precisely through a more accurate reconstruction of the mesh element, which allowed us to solve the FEA solution mathematically. The results showed how the application of the inclined load with respect to the vertical load on a larger diameter system leads to an increase in stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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10 pages, 1675 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Different Archwires on Initial Orthodontic Pain Perception: A Prospective Controlled Cohort Study
by Maria Lavinia Bartolucci, Serena Incerti Parenti, Livia Solidoro, Ingrid Tonni, Francesco Bortolotti, Corrado Paganelli and Giulio Alessandri-Bonetti
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4929; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084929 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
The early stages of orthodontic treatment are frequently associated with pain that can vary in intensity and duration, representing one of the main reasons for treatment discontinuation. Whilst the use of drugs is recognised as being effective to control orthodontic pain, there are [...] Read more.
The early stages of orthodontic treatment are frequently associated with pain that can vary in intensity and duration, representing one of the main reasons for treatment discontinuation. Whilst the use of drugs is recognised as being effective to control orthodontic pain, there are no reliable data indicating the best first archwire for efficacy and minimum discomfort. A prospective controlled cohort study was conducted to compare the intensity and the characteristics of orthodontic pain during the first 15 days of treatment with 2 archwires. Fifty subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups: one received 0.012 inch stainless steel (SS) as the first archwire; the other, a 0.014 inch super-elastic nickel–titanium (Ni-Ti) archwire. Patients compiled a visual analogue scale to measure pain intensity over 15 days, a questionnaire for pain characteristics, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to control the psychosocial component of pain. Dental casts were digitally analysed to evaluate the initial arch length discrepancy. In the first 3 days of treatment, the mean VAS values of the SS group were significantly lower than those of the Ni-Ti group (p < 0.05). No significant differences emerged between the groups concerning pain characteristics. The 0.012 inch SS archwire could be used at the beginning of orthodontic treatment to minimise pain perception and improve compliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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15 pages, 2737 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Resin Cement’s Different Thicknesses and Poisson’s Ratios on the Stress Distribution of Class II Amalgam Restoration Using Finite Element Analysis
by Hakan Yasin Gönder, Yasemin Derya Fidancıoğlu, Muhammet Fidan, Reza Mohammadi and Said Karabekiroğlu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4125; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074125 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Using a three-dimensional finite element analysis, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cements’ thicknesses and Poisson’s ratios on the stress distribution in enamel, dentin, restoration, and resin cement in a computer-aided design of a class II disto-occlusal cavity. Dental tomography [...] Read more.
Using a three-dimensional finite element analysis, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cements’ thicknesses and Poisson’s ratios on the stress distribution in enamel, dentin, restoration, and resin cement in a computer-aided design of a class II disto-occlusal cavity. Dental tomography was used to scan the maxillary first molar, creating a three-dimensional tooth model. A cavity was created with a 95 degree cavity edge angle. Resin cement with varying Poisson’s ratios (V1: 0.35 and V2: 0.24) was used under the amalgam. The simulated groups’ thicknesses ranged from 50 µm to 150 µm. A load of 600 N was applied to the chewing area. The finite element method was used to assess the stress distribution in the enamel, dentin, restorations, and resin cement. The stress in the restoration increased with the use of a 100 µm resin cement thickness and decreased with the use of a 150 µm resin cement thickness. For the V1 and V2 groups, the cement thickness with the maximum stress value for the enamel and dentin was 150 µm, while the cement thickness with the lowest stress value was 50 µm. The greatest stress values for V1 and V2 were obtained at a 150 µm cement thickness, while the lowest stress values were observed at a 100 µm cement thickness. Using resin cement with a low Poisson’s ratio under amalgam may reduce stress on enamel and restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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13 pages, 4358 KiB  
Article
Static Bacterial Leakage in Different Conometric Connections: An In Vitro Study
by Simonetta D’Ercole, Tatiane Cristina Dotta, Giovanna Iezzi, Alessandro Cipollina, Vinicius Pedrazzi, Adriano Piattelli and Morena Petrini
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042693 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
This in vitro study aims to evaluate the bacterial microleakage of three conometric connections. Sixty dental implants (3P implafavourite Scalenghe) were divided in groups (n = 20): Cone–Morse with passing screw (Group 1); Cone–Morse with solid abutment (Group 2); and Conometric connection with [...] Read more.
This in vitro study aims to evaluate the bacterial microleakage of three conometric connections. Sixty dental implants (3P implafavourite Scalenghe) were divided in groups (n = 20): Cone–Morse with passing screw (Group 1); Cone–Morse with solid abutment (Group 2); and Conometric connection with esthetic abutment (Group 3). The implants were fixed in resin bases. Then, 1.0 µL of Streptococcus oralis (SO) was inoculated in the internal platform in 10 fixtures for each group, and another 10 were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). The abutments were then screwed, and five implants from each subgroup were randomly selected for SEM inspection to ensure that the abutments were installed correctly. Data were submitted to statistical analysis, ANOVA and Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (p ≤ 0.05). The turbidity of the broth was monitored for 14 days of follow-up in order to determine the penetration of the bacterial suspension into the surrounding solution, but the observation of the samples lasted until the 90th day, in which there was no difference between the two. Microbial contamination was found in 30%, 20%, and 50% of Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively, but there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, and PA showed greater infiltration than SO. Although no statistically significant differences were found, cone morse connections showed lower infiltration percentages, respective to the conometric connection with 18° angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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7 pages, 626 KiB  
Communication
Dental Trauma Epidemiology in Primary Dentition: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study
by Raquel Fitzgibbon, Elisabetta Carli, Gabriela Piana, Marco Montevecchi and Simone Bagattoni
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031878 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of dental trauma (DT) injuries in primary teeth, a health hazard issue that is often neglected by the public health care system. The records of 298 children who attended the Unit of Dental Care for Special [...] Read more.
Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of dental trauma (DT) injuries in primary teeth, a health hazard issue that is often neglected by the public health care system. The records of 298 children who attended the Unit of Dental Care for Special Needs Patients and Pediatric Dentistry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy and had suffered a DT between January 2011 and December 2021 were examined to assess age, gender, cause and place of the DT, type of lesion and teeth involved. The chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. A total of 265 children (89%) suffered a single trauma, and 33 (11%) suffered from repeated DT. A total of 511 teeth (mean 1.7 ± 0.5) experienced dental trauma. Most of the trauma occurred in the 2–3 years range (153 DT, 30%). The most affected teeth were the upper central incisors (n = 388; 76%). The DT involved periodontal tissue in 316 teeth (62%) and hard dental tissue in 262 cases (51%). DT in primary teeth is commonly caused by accidental falls at home, occurs most frequently to toddlers’ upper central incisors, and usually affects tooth-supporting structures. Clinicians should be aware of the most frequent DT and be updated concerning treatment guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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14 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
Immediate Loading of Fixed Prostheses in Fully Edentulous Jaws: A 7-Year Follow-Up from a Single-Cohort Retrospective Study
by Giuseppe Pantaleo, Alfonso Acerra, Francesco Giordano, Francesco D’Ambrosio, Michele Langone and Mario Caggiano
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12427; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312427 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective single-cohort study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of four-to-five implants immediately restored with metal-resin screw-retained cross-arch fixed prostheses in edentulous jaws 10 years after loading. One-hundred-and-four consecutive patients received four to five implants placed with a torque [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective single-cohort study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of four-to-five implants immediately restored with metal-resin screw-retained cross-arch fixed prostheses in edentulous jaws 10 years after loading. One-hundred-and-four consecutive patients received four to five implants placed with a torque superior 35 Ncm. One-hundred-and-twenty-seven metal-resin screw-retained fixed prostheses (59 mandibular and 68 maxillary) were to be delivered within 3 days. Outcome measures, evaluated by the treating clinician, were: prosthesis and implant failures, prosthetic modifications, peri-implant mucositis, and biological and prosthetic complications. A total of 549 implants were placed. Twenty-one implants failed in 14 patients and 102 prostheses were remade, at least once, in 81 patients: 2 due to implant failures and 33 because of fractures of the prostheses. In particular, 25 original metal-resin prostheses had to be remade because of fractures versus only eight of the replacement monolithic metal-resin prostheses. All patients were wearing fixed prostheses at the end of the follow-up. Thirty-six biological complications occurred in 22 patients. Eighty-six prosthetic complications occurred in 42 patients. In conclusion, immediately loaded cross-arch prostheses supported by four-to-five immediately placed implants are a viable therapeutic option if robust prostheses are made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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10 pages, 1095 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Two Curing Protocols on the Colour Stability and Translucency of Resin Luting Agents
by Riccardo Monterubbianesi, Flavia Vitiello, Vincenzo Tosco, Rim Bourgi, Angelo Putignano and Giovanna Orsini
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11120; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111120 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
The colour properties of resin luting agents (RLAs) can influence the aesthetic of an indirect restoration. This in vitro study aims to evaluate the colour stability and translucency of RLAs cured using two different protocols by means of a spectrophotometer. Six RLAs were [...] Read more.
The colour properties of resin luting agents (RLAs) can influence the aesthetic of an indirect restoration. This in vitro study aims to evaluate the colour stability and translucency of RLAs cured using two different protocols by means of a spectrophotometer. Six RLAs were investigated: Enamel Plus Flow (MF), Enamel Plus (MH), light-cure Nexus Third Generation (NX3L), dual-cure Nexus Third Generation (NX3D), RelyX Veneer (RXL) and RelyX Ultimate (RXD). The samples were randomly divided into two groups (n = 5) according to the curing protocol used: the traditional protocol (P1), in which the samples were cured for 40 s, and the step luting protocol (P2), in which samples were cured for 5 s. Then, after 20 s, they were cured again for an additional 40 s. Colour changes and differences in translucency were calculated before (t0) and 1 day (t1) and 7 days (t7) after immersion of the samples in distilled water. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons and a t-test for paired comparisons (α = 0.05). The colour and translucency of the RLAs changed between t0 and t7 (p < 0.05). In particular, only RXD showed a visually perceptible difference in colour and translucency between P1 and P2 (p = 0.00). The results of this study suggest that, except for RXD, the curing protocol does not affect the colour or translucency of the tested RLAs, even if all these materials underwent perceptible changes in colour and translucency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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18 pages, 11266 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Coating Loss from Coated Stainless Steel Orthodontic Wire
by Arata Ito, Hideki Kitaura, Takahiro Noguchi, Fumitoshi Ohori and Itaru Mizoguchi
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9497; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199497 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
The leaching of metal ions from orthodontic appliances into the oral cavity is problematic for metal-allergic patients. Non-metal orthodontic appliances, such as plastic and ceramic brackets and elastomeric materials, have been clinically used and are effective for treatment of metal-allergic patients. However, only [...] Read more.
The leaching of metal ions from orthodontic appliances into the oral cavity is problematic for metal-allergic patients. Non-metal orthodontic appliances, such as plastic and ceramic brackets and elastomeric materials, have been clinically used and are effective for treatment of metal-allergic patients. However, only a few types of orthodontic wire are available for use in patients with metal allergies, thus restricting the establishment of orthodontic force systems in these patients. Wire surfaces can be coated with various substances to prevent leaching of metal ions. However, detachment of the coating may occur during orthodontic procedures, resulting in metal ion leaching from the substrate material. This study was performed to examine the resilience of various types of coated stainless steel wire to low pH, bending, and brushing. Wire surface characteristics were examined by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of coating detachment due to bending of the wire was quantified by determining the change in the amount of metal ions eluted from the site of the bend immersed in hydrochloric acid. Exposure of the substrate metal by brushing was investigated by energy dispersive spectrometry. The results indicated that polyethylene naphthalate (PEN)-coated wire is resilient to bending, while gold (Au)-coated and titanium nitride (TiN)-coated wires are resilient to brushing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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8 pages, 1919 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Deviations between Computer-Planned Implant Position and In Vivo Placement through 3D-Printed Guide: A CBCT Scan Analysis on Implant Inserted in Esthetic Area
by Mario Caggiano, Alessandra Amato, Alfonso Acerra, Francesco D’Ambrosio and Stefano Martina
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5461; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115461 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Background: Implant rehabilitation in cases of monoedentulism in the esthetic area is a challenge for the clinician. The aim of our study was to test the diagnostic–therapeutic accuracy of computer-guided implant placement in the esthetic area. Methods: Postimplant surgery cone beam computed tomography [...] Read more.
Background: Implant rehabilitation in cases of monoedentulism in the esthetic area is a challenge for the clinician. The aim of our study was to test the diagnostic–therapeutic accuracy of computer-guided implant placement in the esthetic area. Methods: Postimplant surgery cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were retrospectively analyzed to assess the accuracy of computer-guided implant placement compared to the preoperative computer-digital planned implant position. We selectively enrolled CBCT scans of patients who underwent immediate or delayed implant placement of a single maxillary incisor, treated with computer-guided implant surgery through a tooth-supported digitally designed 3D printed guide. Our analysis consisted of three digital measurements: the mean deviation of the implant axis, and the mean mesiodistal implant deviation measured both at the apex and at the head of the implant. Results: A total of 95 implants were placed in 95 patients (60 Males, 35 Females; age from 27 to 45-year-old). Congruence analysis showed a mean deviation of implant axis of 1.04° ± 0.56° in sagittal projection, a mean mesiodistal implant deviation between adjacent teeth of 0.14 mm ± 0.07 mm at implant head level and 0.8 mm ± 0.3 mm at the apex in axial projection. Conclusions: computer-guided implant placement through a tooth-supported guide was extremely accurate in the esthetic area because the deviations between the real implant position and the preoperative planning was not clinically relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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Review

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15 pages, 3543 KiB  
Review
Unveiling the Performance of Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instruments through Multimethod Research: A Review
by Jorge N. R. Martins, Emmanuel J. N. L. Silva, Duarte Marques, Abayomi O. Baruwa, João Caramês, Francisco M. Braz Fernandes and Marco A. Versiani
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7048; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127048 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
This article aims to explore the importance of multimethod research in assessing the performance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments. The review highlights the limitations of relying solely on measurements obtained through a narrow set of mechanical tests and acknowledges the challenge of replicating [...] Read more.
This article aims to explore the importance of multimethod research in assessing the performance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments. The review highlights the limitations of relying solely on measurements obtained through a narrow set of mechanical tests and acknowledges the challenge of replicating real-world working conditions in controlled laboratory settings. While achieving a perfect simulation may be difficult, the focus should be on developing research strategies that provide a superior understanding of outcomes. The multimethod research, which combines qualitative and quantitative methodologies, offers a promising solution to address this challenge effectively. By integrating nonquantifiable data with quantitative measurements, researchers may overcome the limitations of individual methodologies and gain deeper and more comprehensive insights into instrument performance. This multimethod approach enables a more accurate interpretation of results, enhancing the validity of the methodology. Therefore, conducting a comprehensive analysis of various competencies displayed by NiTi systems is essential for a comprehensive understanding of their characteristics, including cyclic fatigue, torsional and bending resistance, cutting efficiency, microhardness, design analysis, element composition, phase transformation temperatures, shaping ability, and additional methodologies that can address specific inquiries. By combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a multimethod approach, researchers can enhance their ability to answer research questions and provide valuable insights for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Materials and Appliances)
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