Impact of Climate Change and Globalisation on Endemic and Emerging Forest Diseases

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2022) | Viewed by 12417

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Slovenian Forestry Institute, Department of Forest Protection, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: forest pathology; forest diseases; invasive forest pathogens; pathogenicity; diversity; biology; modelling; information technologies

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali (TESAF), University of Padova, Viale dell’Università 16, I-35020 Legnaro, Italy
Interests: forest pathology; molecular ecology; fungal endophytes; invasive Phytophthora species; diversity, biology, pathogenicity and taxonomy of Botryosphaeriaceae species
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Understanding how forest health is influenced by global trade, climate change and multitrophic interaction among endemic and alien insect pests and pathogens is a key challenge for the future. In recent decades, many endemic pathogens, including some opportunistic and endophytic species, have modified the nature of interactions with plant hosts as a consequence of climate change and/or the introduction of alien pests and pathogens via global trade. In this Special Issue, we welcome studies dealing with endemic and emerging forest pathogens that have changed their host range, expanded their geographical distribution, or modified their biology in relation to climate change, globalization and interaction with invasive insect pests or pathogens. We also welcome original studies on the economic impact, management, risk assessment and modelling of emerging forest diseases. 

Dr. Nikica Ogris
Dr. Benedetto T. Linaldeddu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • endemic and emerging forest diseases 
  • fungal endophytes 
  • climate change, globalization, global trade 
  • pathogen biology 
  • insect-pathogens interactions 
  • economic impact 
  • phytosanitary risk 
  • management of forest diseases

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2985 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Interactions between Eutypella parasitica and Some Frequently Isolated Fungi from the Wood of the Dead Branches of Young Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)
by Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur and Nikica Ogris
Forests 2020, 11(10), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11101072 - 6 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2902
Abstract
The ten most frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of Acer pseudoplatanus L. were tested in dual cultures to evaluate their in vitro antagonistic activity against Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz, the causative agent of a destructive [...] Read more.
The ten most frequently isolated fungi from the wood of the dead branches of Acer pseudoplatanus L. were tested in dual cultures to evaluate their in vitro antagonistic activity against Eutypella parasitica R.W. Davidson and R.C. Lorenz, the causative agent of a destructive disease of maples in Europe and North America. The tested fungi, treated also as challenge isolates, were Diaporthe sp., Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, E. parasitica, Fusarium avenaceum, Neocucurbitaria acerina, Neonectria sp., Peniophora incarnata, Petrakia irregularis, and Phomopsis pustulata. The antagonistic ability of each challenge isolate was evaluated by calculating an index of antagonism (AI) based on the interaction type in the dual cultures. The results of competition between the fungal isolates were quantified after re-isolations from the interaction zone (s). The dual cultures revealed two main types of competitive interactions: Deadlock, consisting of mutual inhibition after mycelial contact or at a distance, and replacement, reflecting in the inhibition of E. parasitica, followed by partial overgrowth by the replacing fungus. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in average AI and s of challenge isolates between different dual culture assays. Based on the results of the antagonism index, Eutypa sp., Eu. maura, Neonectria sp., and P. incarnata had the highest inhibitory effect on E. parasitica growth and were recognized as the most promising candidates for further biocontrol studies of E. parasitica. The mycelium of E. parasitica at the interaction zones remained mostly viable, except in dual cultures with Eutypa sp., F. avenaceum, and Neonectria sp., where re-isolations did not yield any colony of the E. parasitica isolate. Based on the results, we assume that E. parasitica is a weak competitor, which invests less energy in direct mycelial competition. We discuss the potential of the observed antagonists as a possible biocontrol of Eutypella canker of maple. Nevertheless, additional experiments should be performed for a solid conclusion about competitive ability of E. parasitica and usefulness of antagonists as biocontrol. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 6208 KiB  
Review
What Do We Know about Botryosphaeriaceae? An Overview of a Worldwide Cured Dataset
by Eduardo Batista, Anabela Lopes and Artur Alves
Forests 2021, 12(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030313 - 8 Mar 2021
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 4740
Abstract
Botryosphaeriaceae-related diseases occur worldwide in a wide variety of plant hosts. The number of studies targeting the distribution, diversity, ecology, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species are consistently increasing. However, with the lack of consistency in species delimitation, the name of hosts, and the [...] Read more.
Botryosphaeriaceae-related diseases occur worldwide in a wide variety of plant hosts. The number of studies targeting the distribution, diversity, ecology, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species are consistently increasing. However, with the lack of consistency in species delimitation, the name of hosts, and the locations of studies, it is almost impossible to quantify the presence of these species worldwide, or the number of different host–fungus interactions that occur. In this review, we collected and organized Botryosphaeriaceae occurrences in a single cured dataset, allowing us to obtain for the first time a complete perspective on species’ global diversity, dispersion, host association, ecological niches, pathogenicity, communication efficiency of new occurrences, and new host–fungus associations. This dataset is freely available through an interactive and online application. The current release (version 1.0) contains 14,405 cured isolates and 2989 literature references of 12,121 different host–fungus interactions with 1692 different plant species from 149 countries. Full article
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21 pages, 6883 KiB  
Review
Laurel Wilt: Current and Potential Impacts and Possibilities for Prevention and Management
by Rabiu O. Olatinwo, Stephen W. Fraedrich and Albert E. Mayfield III
Forests 2021, 12(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020181 - 4 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3645
Abstract
In recent years, outbreaks of nonnative invasive insects and pathogens have caused significant levels of tree mortality and disturbance in various forest ecosystems throughout the United States. Laurel wilt, caused by the pathogen Raffaelea lauricola (T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva) and the primary [...] Read more.
In recent years, outbreaks of nonnative invasive insects and pathogens have caused significant levels of tree mortality and disturbance in various forest ecosystems throughout the United States. Laurel wilt, caused by the pathogen Raffaelea lauricola (T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva) and the primary vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is a nonnative pest-disease complex first reported in the southeastern United States in 2002. Since then, it has spread across eleven southeastern states to date, killing hundreds of millions of trees in the plant family Lauraceae. Here, we examine the impacts of laurel wilt on selected vulnerable Lauraceae in the United States and discuss management methods for limiting geographic expansion and reducing impact. Although about 13 species belonging to the Lauraceae are indigenous to the United States, the highly susceptible members of the family to laurel wilt are the large tree species including redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), with a significant economic impact on the commercial production of avocado (Persea americana Mill.), an important species native to Central America grown in the United States. Preventing new introductions and mitigating the impact of previously introduced nonnative species are critically important to decelerate losses of forest habitat, genetic diversity, and overall ecosystem value. Full article
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