Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies

A special issue of Environments (ISSN 2076-3298).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (19 November 2021) | Viewed by 51151

Special Issue Editor

LEAF, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: soil pollution; trace elements; soil quality assessment; organic wastes valorization; soil amendments; phytoremediation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When the presence of a chemical in soil affects humans, or other living organisms, producing undesired effects, that soil is considered polluted. Some of these chemicals are human-made, such as organic xenobiotics (e.g., pesticides), while others may have both a natural and anthropogenic origin, such as trace elements (e.g., metals and metalloids). In addition to these usually known pollutants, soils can be also affected by emerging contaminants (e.g., nanoparticles, human and veterinary drugs, microplastics), knowledge of which is still scarce.

These pollutants will not only affect the soil but, ultimately, different resources and environmental compartments, which will represent a major risk. To control this risk, measures must be taken on the polluted soil, which can range from the sole isolation of the affected area, to its full decontamination. Of course, confinement and remediation actions are costly, and sometimes, pollution affects countries that lack legislation, and the extension of the affected area makes the costs of soil remediation high and, certainly, not considered as a priority. Nevertheless, there are solutions for the management of contaminated soils, controlling risks, and promoting their remediation using sustainable practices. This is true for biological methods, bioremediation and phytoremediation, which can be used both singly or combined, allowing the immobilization, extraction or degradation of different soil contaminants, contributing to the control of the risk of exposure to the pollutant, or to soil decontamination, through the continuous reduction of their concentration.

This Special Issue welcomes studies on different soil pollutants: concentrations and soil–plant–water interactions, bioavailability assessment, risks to human health, negative effects on the environment (e.g., freshwater and groundwater, soil organisms, soil functions, ecosystem services), soil quality evaluation, and sustainable soil remediation strategies. Studies in real soil pollution scenarios and remediation in long-term field studies are encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Paula Alvarenga
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • soil pollutants
  • potentially toxic trace elements
  • persistent organic pollutants
  • soil emerging pollutants
  • bioavailability assessment
  • risk assessment
  • soil quality
  • soil remediation
  • phytoremediation
  • bioremediation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies
Environments 2022, 9(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9040046 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4360
Abstract
When the presence of a chemical in soil affects humans or other living organisms, producing undesired effects, that soil is considered polluted [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

16 pages, 2382 KiB  
Article
Impact of Old Pb Mining and Metallurgical Production in Soils from the Linares Mining District (Spain)
Environments 2022, 9(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9020024 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3809
Abstract
Mineral processing and metallurgy production centers may leave a far-reaching fingerprint of soil contamination. This scenario is particularly relevant in the mining district of Linares (Southern Spain), where former industrial sites are now dedicated to other land uses. Within this context, we selected [...] Read more.
Mineral processing and metallurgy production centers may leave a far-reaching fingerprint of soil contamination. This scenario is particularly relevant in the mining district of Linares (Southern Spain), where former industrial sites are now dedicated to other land uses. Within this context, we selected five sectors of concern in Linares region, which are currently used as agricultural and residential areas. The study began with an edaphic characterization, including grain-size fractioning and soil chemical analyses, which were complemented by mineralogical and sequential extraction information. Anomalous soil concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were found, with higher values than the admissible regional guideline limits. Moreover, chemical speciation indicated that in general, Pb, Zn, and Cd were highly available and bound mainly to the carbonate fraction. In addition, health risk assessment evidenced potential threats by Pb and As. Regarding remediation approaches, we observed that, in soils affected by mining and ore dressing activities, the clay and silt size fractions contained the highest pollution load, making them suitable for a size classification treatment. By contrast, in areas affected by metallurgical activity, pollutants were prone to be evenly distributed among all grain sizes, thereby complicating the implementation of such remediation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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12 pages, 5655 KiB  
Article
Structural Selectivity of PAH Removal Processes in Soil, and the Effect of Metal Co-Contaminants
Environments 2022, 9(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9020023 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3040
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form a convenient structural series of molecules with which to examine the selectivity exerted on their removal by soil microbiota. It is known that there is an inverse relationship between PAH molecular size and degradation rates in soil. In [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form a convenient structural series of molecules with which to examine the selectivity exerted on their removal by soil microbiota. It is known that there is an inverse relationship between PAH molecular size and degradation rates in soil. In this paper, we look at how the magnitude of the slope for this relationship, m, can be used as an indicator of the effect of metal co-contaminants on degradation rates across a range of PAH molecular weights. The analysis utilises data collected from our previous microcosm study (Deary, M.E.; Ekumankama, C.C.; Cummings, S.P. Development of a novel kinetic model for the analysis of PAH biodegradation in the presence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants. Journal of Hazard Materials 2016, 307, 240–252) in which we followed the degradation of the 16 US EPA PAHs over 40 weeks in soil microcosms taken from a high organic matter content woodland soil. The soil was amended with a PAH mixture (total concentration of 2166 mg kg−1) and with a range of metal co-contaminant concentrations (lead, up to 782 mg kg−1; cadmium up to 620 mg kg−1; and mercury up to 1150 mg kg−1). It was found that the magnitude of m increases in relation to the applied concentration of metal co-contaminant, indicating a more adverse effect on microbial communities that participate in the removal of higher molecular weight PAHs. We conclude that m is a useful parameter by which we might measure the differential effects of environmental contaminants on the PAH removal. Such information will be useful in planning and implementing remediation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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14 pages, 1923 KiB  
Article
Bioremediation Capacity of Edaphic Cyanobacteria Nostoc linckia for Chromium in Association with Other Heavy-Metals-Contaminated Soils
Environments 2022, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9010001 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3431
Abstract
Anthropogenic activity is the main factor contributing to soil pollution with various toxic metals, including Cr(VI), which dictates the need for decontamination. Often, the traditionally used remediation methods (soil removal, stabilization/solidification, physicochemical extraction, and soil washing) are not sufficiently efficient. Among gentle soil [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activity is the main factor contributing to soil pollution with various toxic metals, including Cr(VI), which dictates the need for decontamination. Often, the traditionally used remediation methods (soil removal, stabilization/solidification, physicochemical extraction, and soil washing) are not sufficiently efficient. Among gentle soil remediation, options can be considered. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of Nostoc linckia to remediate soils contaminated with Cr(VI) in association with other metals. Metal uptake by biomass was assessed using neutron activation analysis, while the components of Nostoc biomass were determined using specific methods. The capacity to accumulate chromium from the contaminated environment (Cr in association with Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) by the Nostoc linckia is kept at a high level for three generations of cyanobacterium, and the capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn is growing over the cultivation cycles. The process of accumulation of heavy metals is associated with significant changes in the biochemical composition of Nostoc biomass. Due to the high bioaccumulation capacity and the specific growth mode with the formation of crusts on the soil surface, the edaphic cyanobacteria Nostoc linckia is an important candidate for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with chromium in association with other metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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16 pages, 3885 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Natural, Synthetic and Modified Clays
Environments 2021, 8(11), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8110124 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4125
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of major scientific concern owing to their widespread presence in environmental compartments and their potential toxicological effects on humans and biota. In this study, the adsorption capacity of natural (montmorillonite (Mt)), synthetic (Na-Mica-4), and modified (with octadecylamine and [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of major scientific concern owing to their widespread presence in environmental compartments and their potential toxicological effects on humans and biota. In this study, the adsorption capacity of natural (montmorillonite (Mt)), synthetic (Na-Mica-4), and modified (with octadecylamine and octadecyltrimethylamine (ODA-Mt, ODA-Mica-4, and ODTMA-Mt and ODTMA-Mica-4)) clays were assessed and compared for the removal of 16 PAHs. Materials were synthesized and characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Zeta potential, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed its correct preparation and the incorporation of PAHs in the structure of the clays after the adsorption tests. The proposed materials were effective PAH adsorbents, with adsorption percentages close to 100%, in particular those using Mt. Mt and Na-Mica-4 presented a better adsorption capacity than their organofunctionalized derivatives, indicating that the adsorption of PAHs may occur both in the surface part and in the interlayer. The proposed adsorbents take the advantage of being a low cost and highly effective. They can be an interesting alternative for wastewater treatment and soil remediation to prevent PAH contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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16 pages, 2451 KiB  
Article
Effect of Biochar Application Depth on a Former Mine Technosol: Impact on Metal(Loid)s and Alnus Growth
Environments 2021, 8(11), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8110120 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
The contamination of soil by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a problem resulting from various anthropic activities including the exploitation of mines, which determines an accumulation of metal(loid)s in the surrounding area. It is therefore necessary to use remediation techniques to prevent the [...] Read more.
The contamination of soil by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a problem resulting from various anthropic activities including the exploitation of mines, which determines an accumulation of metal(loid)s in the surrounding area. It is therefore necessary to use remediation techniques to prevent the potential damage to human health and the ecosystem. One of these techniques is phytoremediation, which involves the revegetation of contaminated areas in such a way as to reduce the spread of contaminants and entry into the groundwater by stabilizing the metal(loid)s in the soil, decreasing their mobility. To increase the ability of plants to grow under the extreme conditions of contaminated soils, it is necessary to use amendments, which can also intervene directly in reducing the mobility of contaminants. In this study, an open-field mesocosm was set up using a former mining technosol contaminated mainly by As. A biochar produced from hardwood was added at two different depths to evaluate the effectiveness of these application modalities for an overall observation duration of 17 months. Iron sulphate was also applied in both non-biochar and biochar amended conditions. In addition, trees of Alnus sp. were planted to examine the effectiveness of these plants for their use in soil remediation and the effect of the treatments used. The results showed an increase in soil pH induced by the biochar, which decreased over time. During the period examined, the application of biochar in the deepest layer was able to retain As more effectively. The Alnus sp. showed similar growth rates among the various treatments, resulting from its tolerance towards arsenic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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14 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Potential Use of Copper-Contaminated Soils for Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivation
Environments 2021, 8(11), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8110111 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3631
Abstract
To mitigate climate change, reducing greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved by decreasing the use of fossil fuels and increasing that of alternative sources, such as energy crops. However, one of the most important problems in the use of biomass as a fuel [...] Read more.
To mitigate climate change, reducing greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved by decreasing the use of fossil fuels and increasing that of alternative sources, such as energy crops. However, one of the most important problems in the use of biomass as a fuel is that of changing soil use and consumption, leading to competition with food crops. We addressed the topic by evaluating the possibility to exploit contaminated areas for energy crops cultivation. Indeed, soil contamination makes land inappropriate for cultivation, with damaging consequences for ecosystems, as well as posing serious health hazards to living beings. Specifically, this work aimed to evaluate the ability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants to grow on a copper (Cu)-contaminated medium. In addition, the effectiveness of an environment-friendly treatment with sulfate in improving plant ability to cope with Cu-induced oxidative stress was also explored. Results showed that plants were able to grow at high Cu concentrations. Therefore, hemp could represent an interesting energy crop in Cu-contaminated soils. Although the response of Cu-treated plants was evidenced by the increase in thiol content, following modulation of sulfur metabolism, it remains to be clarified whether the use of exogenous sulfate could be an agronomic practice to improve crop performance under these edaphic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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18 pages, 1845 KiB  
Article
Comparison between a Traditional (Horse Manure) and a Non-Conventional (Cork Powder) Organic Residue in the Uptake of Potentially Toxic Elements by Lettuce in Contaminated Soils
Environments 2021, 8(5), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8050045 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
The use of natural organic correctives is a current agricultural practice that may have advantages for the production of plants in contaminated soils. Cork powder is a natural sub-product of the cork industry that has several potential benefits compared to more commonly used [...] Read more.
The use of natural organic correctives is a current agricultural practice that may have advantages for the production of plants in contaminated soils. Cork powder is a natural sub-product of the cork industry that has several potential benefits compared to more commonly used soil amendments. In this work, an evaluation was performed of the use of cork powder (a non-conventional organic residue) and horse manure (traditionally used in agriculture) to control the availability of potentially toxic elements in artificially contaminated soils. Four concentrations were used for each element: Cr (100 to 800 mg kg−1), Ni (37.5 to 300 mg kg−1), Zn (150 to 1200 mg kg−1), Cd (1.5 to 12 mg kg−1) and Pb (150 to 1200 mg kg−1). The accumulation of these elements in lettuce plants grown in pots under controlled conditions was evaluated. With the exception of Cd, no significant differences were detected in the absorption of the different elements by lettuce plants at the studied amounts of correctives applied (1% for cork powder and 0.5% for horse manure). Cadmium was the element that accumulated most in lettuce. Cork powder was shown to be less effective than horse manure in controlling the bioavailability of these elements in the soil. Further tests with chemically modified cork products could improve its efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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9 pages, 2947 KiB  
Communication
Evaluating the Pollution Risk of Soil Due to Natural Drainage of Orange Peel: First Results
Environments 2021, 8(5), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8050043 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Orange peel (OP), the main residue of the citrus industry, is usually used for animal feeding and soil fertilisation if more advanced options are lacking. In areas with warm and dry climatic conditions, OP is land-spread for solar-drying on the fields, the leachate [...] Read more.
Orange peel (OP), the main residue of the citrus industry, is usually used for animal feeding and soil fertilisation if more advanced options are lacking. In areas with warm and dry climatic conditions, OP is land-spread for solar-drying on the fields, the leachate produced is a potential pollution factor for soil especially due to the release of organic matter; heavy rainfalls could even aggravate the hazard. Since literature does not report any quantitative evaluation of this risk, this study presents three OP drainage tests in lysimeters, where OP was left releasing leachate on a soil layer. A first test was carried out on raw OP naturally draining, while, in a second and a third test, a rainfall of 100 mm was applied on already drained and solar-dried OP, respectively. After drainage, raw OP reduced its initial volume by about 90% and the leachate production accounted only for about 20% of the initial volume. The simulated rainfall produced even lower volumes of leachate (2–3% of the initial biomass volume), in spite of the high rainfall volume and long drainage time after its application. The COD concentration in the leachate from the raw OP was significantly higher than those produced after simulated rainfall. However, the COD amount released to the soil was negligible. The lysimetric tests showed that the release of leachate occurs mainly during the first phase of drainage and that rainfall is absorbed and does not produce significant leaching. Overall, the risk of soil pollution due to the natural drainage of OP is negligible, due to both limited amounts of leachate and organic loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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12 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Sources of Light Density Microplastic Related to Two Agricultural Practices: The Use of Compost and Plastic Mulch
Environments 2021, 8(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8040036 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 6645
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) constitute a known, undesirable contaminant of the ecosystems. Land-based pollution is considered to be an important contributor, but microplastics in the terrestrial environment remains largely unquantified. Some agriculture practices, such as plastic mulch and compost application, are suspected to be major [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) constitute a known, undesirable contaminant of the ecosystems. Land-based pollution is considered to be an important contributor, but microplastics in the terrestrial environment remains largely unquantified. Some agriculture practices, such as plastic mulch and compost application, are suspected to be major sources of microplastics as plastics are exposed to weathering or are present in organic fertilizers. The overall aim of this research is to bridge the terrestrial plastic contamination information gap, focusing on light density microplastics in two vegetable production systems in Southeast Spain and in the Netherlands. The selected farmer in Spain used plastic mulch for more than 12 years whereas the two farmers in the Netherlands annually applied 10 t ha−1 compost for the past 7 and 20 years. Samples from two different depths were collected: 0–10 cm and 10–30 cm. High quality compost samples originating from municipal organic waste and from garden and greenhouse waste were obtained from two Dutch compost plants. All samples from both Spanish (n = 29) and Dutch (n = 40) soils were contaminated by microplastics, containing 2242 ± 984 MPs kg−1 and 888 ± 500 MPs kg−1, respectively. Compost samples from municipal organic waste (n = 9) were more contaminated than the ones from garden and green house wastes (n = 19), with, respectively, 2800 ± 616 MPs kg−1 and 1253 ± 561 MPs kg−1. These results highlight the need for studies focusing on the effects of microplastics in the environment and the need for monitoring campaigns and the implementation of thresholds to regulate the microplastic contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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15 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
Dissolution of Ag Nanoparticles in Agricultural Soils and Effects on Soil Exoenzyme Activities
Environments 2021, 8(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8030022 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
To assess environmental risks related to the mobility and toxicity of AgNPs, the chemical availability of AgNPs and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) in three agricultural soils was quantified in a pot experiment. Porewater collection and soil extractions with 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.4 [...] Read more.
To assess environmental risks related to the mobility and toxicity of AgNPs, the chemical availability of AgNPs and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) in three agricultural soils was quantified in a pot experiment. Porewater collection and soil extractions with 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.4 M Glycine (pH 1.5) and 0.05 M NH4-EDTA were performed. The effect on soil exoenzyme activities was also assessed. Porewater concentration was low (<0.4% and <0.04% of dosed Ag, for AgNPs and PVP-AgNPs, respectively) and only detected in acidic soils (pH 4.4 and 4.9). The PVP-coating reduced the downward mobility of AgNPs in soil and possibly also their dissolution rate (and subsequent release of dissolved Ag+ ions into porewater). The effect of variation in organic matter on soil enzymatic activity was larger than that of AgNPs, as no significant additional inhibitory effect from Ag could be observed. Only at low pH and in the presence of complexing ligands that form very stable Ag complexes (0.4 M Glycine extraction at pH 1.5) up to 58% of the Ag added to soil was released (independently of PVP coating). An extraction with glycine is proposed as a useful indicator of potentially available Ag in soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

35 pages, 3226 KiB  
Review
Potentially Toxic Elements’ Contamination of Soils Affected by Mining Activities in the Portuguese Sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt and Optional Remediation Actions: A Review
Environments 2022, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9010011 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6512
Abstract
Both sectors of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portuguese and Spanish, have been exploited since ancient times, but more intensively during and after the second half of the 19th century. Large volumes of polymetallic sulfide ore were extracted in open pits or in underground [...] Read more.
Both sectors of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portuguese and Spanish, have been exploited since ancient times, but more intensively during and after the second half of the 19th century. Large volumes of polymetallic sulfide ore were extracted in open pits or in underground works, processed without environmental concerns, and the generated waste rocks and tailings were simply deposited in the area. Many of these mining sites were abandoned for years under the action of erosive agents, leading to the spread of trace elements and the contamination of soils, waters and sediments. Some of these mine sites have been submitted to rehabilitation actions, mostly using constructive techniques to dig and contain the contaminated tailings and other waste materials, but the remaining soil still needs to be treated with the best available techniques to recover its ecosystem functions. Besides the degraded physical structure and poor nutritional status of these soils, they have common characteristics, as a consequence of the pyrite oxidation and acid drainage produced, such as a high concentration of trace elements and low pH, which must be considered in the remediation plans. This manuscript aims to review the results from studies which have already covered these topics in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, especially in its Portuguese sector, considering: (i) soils’ physicochemical characteristics; (ii) potentially toxic trace elements’ concentration; and (iii) sustainable remediation technologies to cope with this type of soil contamination. Phytostabilization, after the amelioration of the soil’s properties with organic and inorganic amendments, was investigated at the lab and field scale by several authors, and their results were also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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15 pages, 808 KiB  
Review
The Dynamics of Tungsten in Soil: An Overview
Environments 2021, 8(7), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8070066 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
The increasing use of tungsten in the production of green energy in the aerospace and military industries, and in many other hi-tech applications, may increase the content of this element in soil. This overview examines some aspects of the behavior of tungsten in [...] Read more.
The increasing use of tungsten in the production of green energy in the aerospace and military industries, and in many other hi-tech applications, may increase the content of this element in soil. This overview examines some aspects of the behavior of tungsten in soil, such as the importance of characteristics of soils in relation to bioavailability processes, the chemical approaches to evaluate tungsten mobility in the soil environment and the importance of adsorption and desorption processes. Tungsten behavior depends on soil properties of which the most important is soil pH, which determines the solubility and polymerization of tungstate ions and the characteristics of the adsorbing soil surfaces. During the adsorption and desorption of tungsten, iron, and aluminum oxides, and hydroxides play a key role as they are the most important adsorbing surfaces for tungsten. The behavior of tungsten compounds in the soil determines the transfer of this element in plants and therefore in the food chain. Despite the growing importance of tungsten in everyday life, environmental regulations concerning soil do not take this element into consideration. The purpose of this review is also to provide some basic information that could be useful when considering tungsten in environmental legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution Assessment and Sustainable Remediation Strategies)
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