Sustainable and Green Technologies for Industrial Chemical Engineering

A special issue of Eng (ISSN 2673-4117). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 8473

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
INAMAT^2-Departamento de Ciencias, Edificio de los Acebos, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
Interests: preparation, characterization, and catalytic activity of metal-supported catalysts; surface properties of solids; pollutants adsorption; environmental management; industrial waste valorization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, industrial processes are subject to continuous review in order to minimize the emission of pollutants, as well as purify the effluents that are produced. Likewise, a continuous review of the raw materials used is necessary to make them more sustainable. The objective of this Special Issue is to present examples of industrial processes adapted to these current requirements.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Gil Bravo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Eng is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable industrial processes
  • green industrial processes
  • alternative processes
  • circular economy
  • minimization of polluting emissions
  • purification of polluting emissions

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

17 pages, 5372 KiB  
Article
Screening of Azo-Dye-Degrading Bacteria from Textile Industry Wastewater-Activated Sludge
by Grazielly Maria Didier de Vasconcelos, Isabela Karina Della-Flora, Maikon Kelbert, Lidiane Maria de Andrade, Débora de Oliveira, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza and Cristiano José de Andrade
Eng 2024, 5(1), 116-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng5010008 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
This study investigates the biodegradation of Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), an azo dye prevalent in the textile industry, by bacteria isolated from activated sludge in a textile effluent treatment plant. RR 141, characterized by nitrogen–nitrogen double bonds (-N=N-), contributes to environmental issues [...] Read more.
This study investigates the biodegradation of Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), an azo dye prevalent in the textile industry, by bacteria isolated from activated sludge in a textile effluent treatment plant. RR 141, characterized by nitrogen–nitrogen double bonds (-N=N-), contributes to environmental issues when improperly disposed of in textile effluents, leading to reduced oxygen levels in water bodies, diminished sunlight penetration, and the formation of potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic aromatic amines. This research focuses on identifying bacteria from activated sludge with the potential to decolorize RR 141. Microbiological identification employs MALDI-TOF-MS, known for its precision and rapid identification of environmental bacteria, enhancing treatment efficiency. Results highlight Bacillus thuringiensis and Kosakonia radicincitans as the most promising strains for RR 141 decolorization. Analysis of micro-organisms in activated sludge and database exploration suggests a correlation between these strains and the decolorization process. It is worth noting that this is the first report on the potential use of K. radicincitans for azo dye decolorization. Three distinct culture media—BHI, MSG, and MS—were assessed to investigate their impact on RR 141 decolorization. Notably, BHI and MSG media, incorporating a carbon source, facilitated the bacterial growth of both tested species (B. thuringiensis and K. radicincitans), a phenomenon absent in the MS medium. This observation suggests that the bacteria exhibit limited capability to utilize RR 141 dye as a carbon source, pointing towards the influence of the culture medium on the discoloration process. The study evaluates performance kinetics, decolorization capacity through UV-VIS spectrophotometry, potential degradation pathways via HPLC-MS analysis, phytotoxicity, and enzymatic activity identification. B. thuringiensis and K. radicincitans exhibit potential in decolorizing RR141, with 38% and 26% removal individually in 120 h. As a consortium, they achieved 36% removal in 12 h, primarily through biosorption rather than biodegradation, as indicated by HPLC-MS analyses. In conclusion, the research emphasizes the importance of exploring bacteria from activated sludge to optimize azo dye degradation in textile effluents. B. thuringiensis and K. radicincitans emerge as promising candidates for bioremediation, and the application of MALDI-TOF-MS proves invaluable for rapid and precise bacteria identification. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Activity Concentration Index Values for Concrete Multistory Residences in Greece Due to Fly Ash Addition in Cement
by Stamatia Gavela and Georgios Papadakos
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2926-2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040164 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 852
Abstract
According to 2013/59/Euratom Directive, the activity concentration index (ACI) is required to be estimated for each building material that is of concern from a radiation protection point of view. This index applies to building materials and not to constituents that cannot [...] Read more.
According to 2013/59/Euratom Directive, the activity concentration index (ACI) is required to be estimated for each building material that is of concern from a radiation protection point of view. This index applies to building materials and not to constituents that cannot be used as building materials themselves. Fly ash is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants and is one of the main constituents of cement. The radioactivity in fly ash that is produced by Greek lignite power plants cannot be considered insignificant. For example, in the case of the Megalopolis power plant, the concentration for radioisotopes of the 226Ra chain is found to be about 1 kBq/kg. Since natural radionuclide concentrations, which are harmful to human health in terms of radiation exposure, exist in fly ash, ACI should be assessed for building materials containing fly ash. The present study evaluates the ACI of concrete containing fly ash cement when used in multistory residential buildings. Results showed that cement produced in Greece by the three main Greek cement production plants, containing lignite fly ash, and used as a material for concrete multistory constructions, should not be considered as “of concern from a radiation protection point of view”. Each country that wishes to evaluate the use of fly ash into constructions should repeat the method for the ACI uncertainty budget proposed in this study, to assess whether it significantly exceeds the reference value (whether it is of concern from a radiation protection point of view). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4719 KiB  
Article
The Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling of Montmorillonite for Adsorptive Removal of Cesium, Strontium, and Uranium Ions from Aqueous Solution
by Iryna Kovalchuk, Oleg Zakutevskyy, Volodymyr Sydorchuk, Olena Diyuk and Andrey Lakhnik
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2812-2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040158 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Clay minerals are widely used to treat groundwater and surface water containing radionuclides. In our study, the method of mechanochemical activation for increasing the sorption capacity of the natural clay mineral montmorillonite was used. By adjusting the grinding time, the increasing sorption parameters [...] Read more.
Clay minerals are widely used to treat groundwater and surface water containing radionuclides. In our study, the method of mechanochemical activation for increasing the sorption capacity of the natural clay mineral montmorillonite was used. By adjusting the grinding time, the increasing sorption parameters of mechanochemically activated montmorillonite were determined. X-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, and the determination of the specific surface by low-temperature adsorption–desorption of nitrogen to characterize the natural and mechanochemical-activated montmorillonites were used. It was established that the maximal sorption of uranium, strontium, and cesium is found for montmorillonite after mechanochemical treatment for 2 h. It is shown that the filling of the surface of montmorillonite with ions of different natures occurs in various ways during different times of mechanochemical treatment. The appropriateness of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the sorption parameters of uranium, strontium, and cesium ions on montmorillonite after its mechanochemical activation was established. The effect of natural organic substances—humic acids—on the efficiency of water purification from uranium on mechanoactivated montmorillonite was studied. The obtained sorbents can be effectively used for the removal of trace amounts of radionuclides of different chemical natures (uranium, cesium, and strontium) from polluted surface and ground waters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 10104 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Multistage Fuel-Oxidation Chemistry, Soot Radiation, and Real Gas Properties on the Operation Process of Compression Ignition Engines
by Valentin Y. Basevich, Sergey M. Frolov, Vladislav S. Ivanov, Fedor S. Frolov and Ilya V. Semenov
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2682-2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040153 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
The objectives of the study are to reveal the influence of multistage fuel-oxidation chemistry, thermal radiation of soot during the combustion of a small (submillimeter size) fuel droplet, and real gas effects on the operation process of compression ignition engines. The use of [...] Read more.
The objectives of the study are to reveal the influence of multistage fuel-oxidation chemistry, thermal radiation of soot during the combustion of a small (submillimeter size) fuel droplet, and real gas effects on the operation process of compression ignition engines. The use of the multistage oxidation chemistry of iso-octane in the zero-dimensional approximation reveals the appearance of different combinations of cool, blue, and hot flames at different compression ratios and provides a kinetic interpretation of these phenomena that affect the heat release function. Cool flames are caused by the decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxide, during which a very reactive radical, OH, is formed. Blue flames are caused by the decomposition of H2O2 with the formation of OH. Hot flames are caused by the chain branching reaction between atomic hydrogen and molecular oxygen with the formation of OH and O. So-called “double” cool flames correspond to the sequential appearance of a separated cool flame and a low-intensity blue flame rather than two successive cool flames. The use of a one-dimensional model of fuel droplet heating, evaporation, autoignition, and combustion at temperatures and pressures relevant to compression ignition engines shows that the thermal radiation of soot during the combustion of small (submillimeter size) droplets is insignificant and can be neglected. The use of real gas caloric and thermal equations of state of the matter in a three-dimensional simulation of the operation process in a diesel engine demonstrates the significant effect of real gas properties on the engine pressure diagram and on the NO and soot emissions: real gas effects reduce the maximum pressure and mass-averaged temperature in the combustion chamber by about 6 and 9%, respectively, increases the autoignition delay time by a 1.6 crank angle degree, increase the maximum heat release rate by 20%, and reduce the yields of NO and soot by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2607 KiB  
Article
Performance of Thermal-, Acid-, and Mechanochemical-Activated Montmorillonite for Environmental Protection from Radionuclides U(VI) and Sr(II)
by Iryna Kovalchuk
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2141-2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030122 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Low-cost sorption materials based on the clay mineral of the smectite group—montmorillonite—were used for the removal of radionuclides uranium (VI) and strontium (II) from contaminated water. A wide range of industrial methods such as thermal treatment, acid activation, and mechanochemical activation were applied. [...] Read more.
Low-cost sorption materials based on the clay mineral of the smectite group—montmorillonite—were used for the removal of radionuclides uranium (VI) and strontium (II) from contaminated water. A wide range of industrial methods such as thermal treatment, acid activation, and mechanochemical activation were applied. Complex methods, such as SEM microscopy analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption at −196 °C, were used to assess the characteristics of the structure of the obtained materials. The thermal treatment, acid activation, and mechanochemical activation resulted in changes in the surface properties of the clay minerals: specific surface area, porosity, and distribution of active sites. It was established that the mechanochemical activation of montmorillonite significantly increases the sorption characteristics of the material for U(VI) and Sr(II) and the acid activation of montmorillonite increases it for U(VI). The appropriateness of the experimental adsorption values for U(VI) and Sr(II) on modified montmorillonite to Langmuir and Freundlich models was found. Independently of the changes induced by acid attack, calcinations, or milling, the sorption of U(VI) and Sr(II) ions on treated montmorillonite occurs on a homogeneous surface through monolayer adsorption in a similar fashion to natural montmorillonite. Water purification technologies and modern environmental protection technologies may successfully use the obtained clay-based sorbents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1523 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Cloud Point Extraction Using Surfactants in the Recovery of Polyphenols from Apricot Cannery Waste
by Ioannis Giovanoudis, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Dimitrios Kalompatsios, Eleni Bozinou, Olga Gortzi, George D. Nanos and Stavros I. Lalas
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1225-1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020072 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Cloud Point Extraction (CPE) to isolate natural antioxidants (polyphenols) from apricot cannery waste (ACW). Four different food-grade surfactants (Genapol X-080, PEG 8000, Tween 80, and Lecithin) were tested at varying concentrations [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Cloud Point Extraction (CPE) to isolate natural antioxidants (polyphenols) from apricot cannery waste (ACW). Four different food-grade surfactants (Genapol X-080, PEG 8000, Tween 80, and Lecithin) were tested at varying concentrations to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique. It was observed that low concentrations of surfactants in one-step CPE resulted in less than 65% polyphenol recovery, which necessitated further extraction steps. However, high concentrations of surfactants were found to significantly improve polyphenol extraction from ACW for all surfactants tested. Among the four surfactants, PEG 8000 was found to be the most effective in most circumstances; specifically, adding only 2% of the surfactant per step in a two-step CPE was enough to effectively extract polyphenols with recovery rates better than 99%. When 10% w/v of PEG 8000 was used, recoveries greater than 92% were obtained. Since PEG 8000 is a reagent with low toxicity and the CPE method is simple, rapid, cheap, sensitive, and selective, the extracted organic compounds from ACW can be used as natural antioxidants in food technology. This has important implications for the development of natural and sustainable food additives. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2684 KiB  
Article
Prediction Model for Optimal Efficiency of the Green Corrosion Inhibitor Oleoylsarcosine: Optimization by Statistical Testing of the Relevant Influencing Factors
by Saad E. Kaskah, Gitta Ehrenhaft, Jörg Gollnick and Christian B. Fischer
Eng 2023, 4(1), 635-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010038 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Optimization and statistical methods are used to minimize the number of experiments required to complete a study, especially in corrosion testing. Here, a statistical Box–Behnken design (BBD) was implemented to investigate the effects of four independent variables (inhibitor concentration [I], immersion time t [...] Read more.
Optimization and statistical methods are used to minimize the number of experiments required to complete a study, especially in corrosion testing. Here, a statistical Box–Behnken design (BBD) was implemented to investigate the effects of four independent variables (inhibitor concentration [I], immersion time t, temperature ϑ, and NaCl content [NaCl]) based on the variation of three levels (lower, middle, and upper) on the corrosion protection efficiency of the green inhibitor oleoylsarcosine for low-carbon steel type CR4 in salt water. The effects of the selected variables were optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) supported by the Minitab17 program. Depending on the BBD analytical tools, the largest effects were found for ϑ, followed by [I]. The effect of interactions between these variables was in the following order: [I] and ϑ > t and ϑ > [I] and [NaCl]. The second-order model used here for optimization showed that the upper level (+1) with 75 mmol/L for [I], 30 min for t, and 0.2 mol/L [NaCl] provided an optimal protective effect for each of these factors, while the lower level (−1) was 25 °C for ϑ. The theoretical efficiency predicted by the RSM model was 99.4%, while the efficiency during the experimental test procedure with the best-evaluated variables was 97.2%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

32 pages, 9176 KiB  
Review
On the Genesis of a Catalyst: A Brief Review with an Experimental Case Study
by Simón Yunes, Jeffrey Kenvin and Antonio Gil
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2375-2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030136 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
The science of catalysis has a direct impact on the world economy and the energy environment that positively affects the environmental ecosystem of our universe. Any catalyst, before being tested in a reaction, must undergo a specific characterization protocol to simulate its behavior [...] Read more.
The science of catalysis has a direct impact on the world economy and the energy environment that positively affects the environmental ecosystem of our universe. Any catalyst, before being tested in a reaction, must undergo a specific characterization protocol to simulate its behavior under reaction conditions. In this work, these steps that must be carried out are presented, both generically and with examples, to the support and to the catalyst itself before and after the reaction. The first stage consists of knowing the textural and structural properties of the support used for the preparation of the catalysts. The specific surface area and the pore volume are fundamental properties, measured by N2 adsorption at −196 °C when preparing the catalyst, dispersing the active phase, and allowing the diffusion and reaction of the reactants and products on its surface. If knowing the structure of the catalyst is important to control its behavior against a reaction, being able to analyze the catalyst used under the reaction conditions is essential to have knowledge about what has happened inside the catalytic reactor. The most common characterization techniques in heterogeneous catalysis laboratories are those described in this work. As an application example, the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CH4 has been selected and summarized in this work. In this case, the synthesis and characterization of Cu and Ni catalysts supported on two Al2O3 with different textural properties, 92 and 310 m2/g, that allow for obtaining various metallic dispersions, between 3.3 and 25.5%, is described. The catalytic behavior of these materials is evaluated from the CO2 methanation reaction, as well as their stability from the properties they present before and after the reaction. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop