energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

New Horizons for Low-Temperature Engineering: From Refrigeration to Cryogenics

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "J: Thermal Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2023) | Viewed by 16820

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Energy Engineering, Technische Universität Berlin, Marchstr. 18, 10587 Berlin, Germany
Interests: energy engineering and refrigeration; energy storage; applied thermodynamics; exergy-based methods; development of energy; energy costs; environmentally effective energy-conversion technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of research and application associated with low temperatures is continuously growing and expanding. Low-temperature systems are applied almost everywhere: in air conditioning, food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries; biotechnical applications; machinery; civil and chemical engineering; liquefaction of gases; CO2 capture and storage as well as air liquefaction and separation (cryogenics); and innovative technologies on low-temperature and cryogenic energy storage as well as multigeneration systems. Such progress and development must be efficient and sustainable. The idea of this Special Issue is to present a collection of papers that describe the state-of-the-art in the field of application, research, and development of low-temperature systems, including their evaluation using methods of modern thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics as well as economic and environmental assessments and different methods of optimization.

Prof. Dr. Tatiana Morosuk
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • air conditioning systems
  • refrigeration systems
  • LNG systems
  • cryogenic systems
  • multigeneration systems
  • low-temperature energy storage
  • cryogenic energy storage
  • renewable refrigeration
  • energy and exergy analysis, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics
  • economic and environmental analysis
  • optimization

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 4587 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Analysis of an Ethylene Reliquefaction System Using the Entropy-Cycle Method
by Viktoriia Sokolovska-Yefymenko, Larisa Morozyuk, Volodymyr Ierin and Oleksandr Yefymenko
Energies 2023, 16(2), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020920 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1710
Abstract
In this study, a boil-off gas reliquefaction system that is a part of liquid ethylene gas (LEG) carriers is evaluated. The reliquefaction system is formed by two thermally interconnected two-stage refrigeration cycles. The working fluid of the bottoming cycle is ethylene; the working [...] Read more.
In this study, a boil-off gas reliquefaction system that is a part of liquid ethylene gas (LEG) carriers is evaluated. The reliquefaction system is formed by two thermally interconnected two-stage refrigeration cycles. The working fluid of the bottoming cycle is ethylene; the working fluid of the topping cycle is propylene. The research is based on determining the irreversibilities in the reliquefaction system cycles using the entropy-cycle method of thermodynamic analysis. The impact of the process performance in the main components on the reliquefaction system energy efficiency has been evaluated by the entropy-cycle method. The greatest thermodynamic irreversibility is observed in the two-stage compression process of the bottoming cycle (9%), total throttling irreversibility in the reliquefaction system (8.5%), and vapor superheating at the suction into the low stage of the two-stage compressor of the bottoming cycle (8%). The results of the study showed that it is necessary to improve the design of expansion devices using the replacement of throttle devices with ejectors when designing cascade ethylene reliquefaction plants. In addition, when operating such systems much attention should be paid to the condition of the insulation of cargo pipelines and the parameters of the cooling system of the cargo compressor. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4764 KiB  
Article
Exergoeconomic Analysis of a Variable Area Solar Ejector Refrigeration System under Hot Climatic Conditions
by Bourhan Tashtoush, Iscah Songa and Tatiana Morosuk
Energies 2022, 15(24), 9540; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15249540 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
The present study investigates low-grade heat utilization in ejector refrigeration systems under hot climatic conditions. A variable area ejector is used to maximize the harvested heat from the generator of the solar system at peak times. Exergy, economic, and exergoeconomic analyses are conducted [...] Read more.
The present study investigates low-grade heat utilization in ejector refrigeration systems under hot climatic conditions. A variable area ejector is used to maximize the harvested heat from the generator of the solar system at peak times. Exergy, economic, and exergoeconomic analyses are conducted to evaluate the performance of the system. A thermodynamic model of the system has been developed using Ebsilon Professional software. Available experimental and theoretical data validate the results. The effects of properties of the working fluids, ejector geometry, and operation conditions are also evaluated. It was found that the coefficient of performance of the system reached 0.45 at a generator pressure of 3 bars. Furthermore, it was noticed that the overall exergy efficiency could be increased for a fixed generator temperature while increasing the ejector area ratio. A value of 21% exergetic efficiency was calculated for the system. The exergoeconomic analysis of the system demonstrated that heat exchangers are required to be improved thermodynamically at the expense of the capital investment cost. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3836 KiB  
Article
Exergetic and Economic Evaluation of CO2 Liquefaction Processes
by Feng Chen and Tatiana Morosuk
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7174; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217174 - 1 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3436
Abstract
The transport of CO2, as a part of the carbon capture and storage chain, has received increased attention in the last decade. This paper aims to evaluate the most promising CO2 liquefaction processes that can be used for port-to-port and [...] Read more.
The transport of CO2, as a part of the carbon capture and storage chain, has received increased attention in the last decade. This paper aims to evaluate the most promising CO2 liquefaction processes that can be used for port-to-port and port–offshore CO2 ship transportation. The energetic, exergetic, and economic analyses are applied. The liquefaction pressure has been set to 15 bar (liquefaction temperature −30 °C), which corresponds to the design of the existing CO2 carriers. The three-stage vapor-compression process has been selected among closed systems (with propane-R290, ammonia-R717, and R134a as the working fluid) and the precooled Linde–Hampson process—as the open system (with R717). The three-stage vapor-compression process R290 shows the lowest energy consumption, and the CO2 liquefaction cost 21.3 USD/tCO2. Although the power consumption of precooled Linde–Hampson process is 3.1% higher than the vapor-compression process with R209, the lowest total capital expenditures are notable. The CO2 liquefaction cost of precooled Linde–Hampson process is 21.13 USD/tCO2. The exergetic efficiency of the three-stage vapor-compression process with R290 is 66.6%, while the precooled Linde–Hampson process is 64.8%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4606 KiB  
Article
Performance Optimizations of the Transcritical CO2 Two-Stage Compression Refrigeration System and Influences of the Auxiliary Gas Cooler
by Yuyao Sun, Jinfeng Wang and Jing Xie
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5578; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175578 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
To optimize the performance of the transcritical CO2 two-stage compression refrigeration system, the energy analysis and the exergy analysis are conducted. It is found that higher COP, lower compression power, and less exergy destruction can be achieved when the auxiliary gas cooler [...] Read more.
To optimize the performance of the transcritical CO2 two-stage compression refrigeration system, the energy analysis and the exergy analysis are conducted. It is found that higher COP, lower compression power, and less exergy destruction can be achieved when the auxiliary gas cooler is applied. Moreover, the discharge temperature of the compound compressor (HPS) can be reduced by decreasing the temperature at the outlet of the auxiliary gas cooler (Tagc,out). When the Tagc,out is reduced from 30 to 12 °C, the discharge temperature of the compound compressor (HPS) can be decreased by 13.83 °C. Furthermore, the COP and the exergy efficiency can be raised by enhancing the intermediate pressure. Based on these results, the optimizations of system design and system operation are put forward. The application of the auxiliary gas cooler can improve the performance of the transcritical CO2 two-stage compression refrigeration system. Operators can decrease the discharge temperature of the compound compressor (HPS) by reducing the Tagc,out, and increase the COP and the exergy efficiency by enhancing the intermediate pressure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

26 pages, 9204 KiB  
Review
Magnetic Refrigeration Design Technologies: State of the Art and General Perspectives
by Ali Alahmer, Malik Al-Amayreh, Ahmad O. Mostafa, Mohammad Al-Dabbas and Hegazy Rezk
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4662; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154662 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6611
Abstract
Magnetic refrigeration is a fascinating superior choice technology as compared with traditional refrigeration that relies on a unique property of particular materials, known as the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). This paper provides a thorough understanding of different magnetic refrigeration technologies using a variety of [...] Read more.
Magnetic refrigeration is a fascinating superior choice technology as compared with traditional refrigeration that relies on a unique property of particular materials, known as the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). This paper provides a thorough understanding of different magnetic refrigeration technologies using a variety of models to evaluate the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling capacity outputs. Accordingly, magnetic refrigeration models are divided into four categories: rotating, reciprocating, C-shaped magnetic refrigeration, and active magnetic regenerator. The working principles of these models were described, and their outputs were extracted and compared. Furthermore, the influence of the magnetocaloric effect, the magnetization area, and the thermodynamic processes and cycles on the efficiency of magnetic refrigeration was investigated and discussed to achieve a maximum cooling capacity. The classes of magnetocaloric magnetic materials were summarized from previous studies and their potential magnetic characteristics are emphasized. The essential characteristics of magnetic refrigeration systems are highlighted to determine the significant advantages, difficulties, drawbacks, and feasibility analyses of these systems. Moreover, a cost analysis was provided in order to judge the feasibility of these systems for commercial use. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop