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Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A4: Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2022) | Viewed by 16120

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering and Innovation, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Studies Guglielmo Marconi, 00193 Rome, Italy
Interests: energy; renewable energy; biomass; hydrogen; gasification; solar power; automotive
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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, University of L’Aquila, Piazzale Ernesto Pontieri, Monteluco di Roio, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Interests: biomass gasification; hydrogen energy; chemical engineering; thermochemical processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Unit of Process Engineering, Department of Engineering, University "Campus Bio-Medico" di Roma, via Álvaro Del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome, Italy
Interests: biomass gasification; hydrogen production; chemical engineering; thermochemical processes; agro-industrial processes and systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last several decades, global warming, climate change issues, national energy security, and energy dependency issues have led to the need for alternatives to fossil fuels. Biomass, the fourth largest source of energy in the world after oil, coal, and natural gas, seems to be one of the most favorable renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels. Among biomasses and the various conversion processes, biomass waste gasification seems to have higher commercial potential, social acceptance, and cross-fertilization with many sectors, but new and more efficient and low-emissions technologies must be investigated and developed. This Special Issue invites papers that consider the various aspects of converting biomass waste gasification to valuable products, covering all the technical chains from biomass production to residue management and, in particular, experimental and simulation works that investigate new processes and technologies at industrial, pilot, and bench scales.

Topics of interests include, but are not restricted to:

  • Advanced biomass pre-treatment (e.g., hydrothermal carbonization, torrefaction);
  • Advanced cleaning and conditioning (e.g., plasma-enhanced catalytic oxidation, membranes);
  • Advanced/integrated electrical/thermal energy, biofuel, bioplastic, biomaterials production (e.g., chemical looping gasification; carbon capture, storage, and use; power to gas);
  • Advanced residues management;
  • Life cycle assessment.

Prof. Dr. Enrico Bocci
Prof. Dr. Andrea Di Carlo
Dr. Vera Marcantonio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Waste
  • Pre-treatment
  • Gasification
  • Cleaning and conditioning
  • Bioenergy
  • Biofuels
  • Bioplastic
  • Biomaterials
  • Residues management

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2674 KiB  
Article
Biomass Polygeneration System for the Thermal Conversion of Softwood Waste into Hydrogen and Drop-In Biofuels
by Lorenzo Bartolucci, Enrico Bocci, Stefano Cordiner, Emanuele De Maina, Francesco Lombardi, Vera Marcantonio, Pietro Mele, Vincenzo Mulone and Davide Sorino
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031286 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
In order to keep the +1.5 °C over-temperature, previously predicted with high confidence by IPPC Sixth Assessment, as minimal as feasible, it is more than vital to achieve a low-emission energy system. Polygeneration systems based on thermochemical processes involve biomass conversion in multi-output [...] Read more.
In order to keep the +1.5 °C over-temperature, previously predicted with high confidence by IPPC Sixth Assessment, as minimal as feasible, it is more than vital to achieve a low-emission energy system. Polygeneration systems based on thermochemical processes involve biomass conversion in multi-output of bioenergy carriers and chemicals. Due to reduced energy input and input/output diversification, polygeneration energy systems are considered interesting pathways that can increase competitiveness of biomass-derived products. The proposed route of fast pyrolysis, sorption-enhanced biochar gasification and crude bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation to produce drop-in biofuel and hydrogen is examined. Both kinetic and equilibrium approaches were implemented in Aspen Plus to take into account the effect of the major operating parameters on the process performance and then validated against the literature data. Results show how the process integration leads to improved mass conversion yield and increases overall energy efficiency up to 10%-points, reaching the maximum value of 75%. Among the various parameters investigated, pyrolysis temperature influences mainly the products distribution while Steam/Biochar and Sorbent/Biochar affect the energy conversion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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20 pages, 10303 KiB  
Article
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of the Wet Desulfurization Reaction of ZnO Sorbents at High Temperatures
by Erwin Ciro, Alessandro Dell’Era, Arda Hatunoglu, Enrico Bocci and Luca Del Zotto
Energies 2023, 16(2), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020792 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Hot gas conditioning is a remarkable stage for decreasing typical and harsh contaminants of syngas produced in the biomass gasification process. Downstream contaminants containing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can significantly deteriorate fuel stream conversion reactors and fuel cell systems. Thus, an effective [...] Read more.
Hot gas conditioning is a remarkable stage for decreasing typical and harsh contaminants of syngas produced in the biomass gasification process. Downstream contaminants containing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can significantly deteriorate fuel stream conversion reactors and fuel cell systems. Thus, an effective gas cleaning stage is required to remove critical streams that endanger the whole pathway toward the biomass conversion process. In this work, we studied H2S capture from biofuel syngas by using a kinetic deactivation model to analyze the effect of the operating conditions on the adsorption performance. Furthermore, the particle sorbent influence on other reactions, such as methane reforming and water gas shift (WGS), were also evaluated. Breakthrough curves were plotted and fitted following a first-order linearized deactivation model to perform both the H2S adsorption capacity and thermodynamic analysis. Moreover, the influence of the operating conditions was studied through a breakthrough curve simulation. By using the Arrhenius and Eyring–Polanyi expressions, it was possible to calculate the activation energy and some thermodynamic parameters from the transition state theory. Finally, a mathematical analysis was performed to obtain the diffusion coefficient (D) and the kinetic reaction constant (k¯0) of H2S gas within ZnO particles, considering a spherical geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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14 pages, 7101 KiB  
Article
Synergic Effects of Bed Materials and Catalytic Filter Candle for the Conversion of Tar during Biomass Steam Gasification
by Alessandro Antonio Papa, Elisa Savuto, Andrea Di Carlo, Alessandra Tacconi and Sergio Rapagnà
Energies 2023, 16(2), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020595 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
This work concerns the activities of the European project BLAZE that aims to integrate a pilot-scale gasifier unit with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The objective is to identify the optimal operating conditions for a gasifier and hot gas cleaning and conditioning [...] Read more.
This work concerns the activities of the European project BLAZE that aims to integrate a pilot-scale gasifier unit with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The objective is to identify the optimal operating conditions for a gasifier and hot gas cleaning and conditioning unit to produce H2-rich syngas with contaminants levels within the limits for the safe operation of the SOFC (750 mg/Nm3 and 75 mg/Nm3 for toluene and naphthalene, respectively). Experimental tests were carried out on a bench-scale gasification plant with a catalytic filter candle placed in the freeboard, to study the influence of temperature (1032 up to 1137 K), bed materials (olivine or olivine/dolomite 80/20%), and a nickel-based catalyst. The tests with a ceramic filter candle filled with catalyst and the mixture of olivine and dolomite in the bed gave the best results in terms of gas composition and gas yield, but the tar content was still higher than the limits for the SOFC. To increase the residence time of the gas in the catalytic bed a new metallic filter candle was tested. This candle, with almost the same external volume, allowed doubling the amount of catalyst used. Under these conditions, the content of toluene and naphthalene was reduced below 150 and 50 mg/Nm3, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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13 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Biodegradation of Synthetic Organic Compounds by Methanogenic Microbiome as an Alternative Approach for Wastewater Purification and Energy Production
by Iryna Bida, Oleksandra Shabliy, Olesia Havryliuk, Vira Hovorukha, Galina Gladka, Larysa Yastremska, Antonina Kalinichenko, Daniel Janecki and Oleksandr Tashyrev
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6556; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186556 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
The use of fossil fuels (methane, oil, etc.) is undergoing an unprecedented crisis now. There is the urgent need to search for alternative energy sources. A wide range of degraded organic materials can be effectively used to provide energy together with environmental protection. [...] Read more.
The use of fossil fuels (methane, oil, etc.) is undergoing an unprecedented crisis now. There is the urgent need to search for alternative energy sources. A wide range of degraded organic materials can be effectively used to provide energy together with environmental protection. Soapstock is a hazardous waste containing a high concentration of toxic organic compounds of man-made origin (fatty acids, surfactants, dyes, etc.). To prevent environmental contamination such substances require an effective treatment approach. The goal of the study was to isolate the adapted-to-fatty-acids methanogenic microbiome and investigate the patterns of sodium acetate and soapstock degradation with simultaneous biomethane synthesis. The effectiveness of the degradation of sodium acetate and soapstock by non-adapted and adapted microbiomes was evaluated by decreasing the concentration of dissolved organic compounds. The effectiveness of the fermentation process was determined by the biogas (mixture of CH4 and CO2) yield. The most effective degradation occurred in the variant with sodium acetate and adapted methanogens and amounted to 77.9%. In other variants, the patterns and the efficiency of purification were similar ranging from 60.6 to 68.0%. The biomethane was mostly synthesized by adapted methanogens on the soapstock and sodium acetate as substrates. Thus, the CH4 yield was 368.4 L/kg of dissolved organic compounds or 127.5 L/kg of soapstock. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of methanogenic microorganisms in the biodegradation of soapstock with simultaneous biogas synthesis. The results can serve as a basis to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels by generating biomethane via the fermentation of toxic organics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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16 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
Investigation of an Intensified Thermo-Chemical Experimental Set-Up for Hydrogen Production from Biomass: Gasification Process Integrated to a Portable Purification System—Part II
by Donatella Barisano, Giuseppe Canneto, Francesco Nanna, Antonio Villone, Emanuele Fanelli, Cesare Freda, Massimiliano Grieco, Andrea Lotierzo, Giacinto Cornacchia, Giacobbe Braccio, Vera Marcantonio, Enrico Bocci, Claire Courson, Marco Rep, Tom Oudenhoven, Steffen Heidenreich and Pier Ugo Foscolo
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4580; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134580 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Biomass gasification is a versatile thermochemical process that can be used for direct energy applications and the production of advanced liquid and gaseous energy carriers. In the present work, the results are presented concerning the H2 production at a high purity grade [...] Read more.
Biomass gasification is a versatile thermochemical process that can be used for direct energy applications and the production of advanced liquid and gaseous energy carriers. In the present work, the results are presented concerning the H2 production at a high purity grade from biomass feedstocks via steam/oxygen gasification. The data demonstrating such a process chain were collected at an innovative gasification prototype plant coupled to a portable purification system (PPS). The overall integration was designed for gas conditioning and purification to hydrogen. By using almond shells as the biomass feedstock, from a product gas with an average and stable composition of 40%-v H2, 21%-v CO, 35%-v CO2, 2.5%-v CH4, the PPS unit provided a hydrogen stream, with a final concentration of 99.99%-v and a gas yield of 66.4%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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14 pages, 3834 KiB  
Article
Deactivation Model Study of High Temperature H2S Wet-Desulfurization by Using ZnO
by Arda Hatunoglu, Alessandro Dell’Era, Luca Del Zotto, Andrea Di Carlo, Erwin Ciro and Enrico Bocci
Energies 2021, 14(23), 8019; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238019 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
High-temperature desulfurization techniques are fundamental for the development of reliable and efficient conversion systems of low-cost fuels and biomass that answer to the nowadays environmental and energy security issues. This is particularly true for biomass gasification coupled to SOFC systems where the sulfur [...] Read more.
High-temperature desulfurization techniques are fundamental for the development of reliable and efficient conversion systems of low-cost fuels and biomass that answer to the nowadays environmental and energy security issues. This is particularly true for biomass gasification coupled to SOFC systems where the sulfur content has to be minimized before being fed to the SOFC. Thus, commercially available zinc oxide has been studied and characterized as a desulfurizing agent in a fixed-bed reactor at high temperatures from 400 °C to 600 °C. The sorbent material was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, and EDS analyses before and after adsorption. The sorbent’s sorption capacity has been evaluated at different temperatures, as well as the breakthrough curves. Moreover, the kinetic parameters as the initial sorption rate constant k0, the deactivation rate constant kd, and the activation energy have been calculated using the linearized deactivation model. The best performances have been obtained at 550 °C, obtaining a sorption capacity of 5.4 g per 100 g of sorbent and a breakthrough time of 2.7 h. These results can be used to extend ZnO desulfurization techniques to a higher temperature than the ones used today (i.e., 550 °C with respect to 400 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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13 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
Energy Analysis of an Integrated Plant: Fluidized Bed Steam Gasification of Hydrothermally Treated Biomass Coupled to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
by Alessandro Antonio Papa, Andrea Di Carlo, Enrico Bocci, Luca Taglieri, Luca Del Zotto and Alberto Gallifuoco
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7331; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217331 - 4 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
An innovative process based on hydrothermal carbonization, gasification, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) technologies was developed using a commercial process simulation software called ASPEN Plus. The object of this work is to study plant efficiency under various operating conditions. The hydrothermal pre-treatment [...] Read more.
An innovative process based on hydrothermal carbonization, gasification, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) technologies was developed using a commercial process simulation software called ASPEN Plus. The object of this work is to study plant efficiency under various operating conditions. The hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTC) at 200 and 250 °C was modelled as a black box based on the experimental results. The gasifier was modelled as a single reactor vessel with both the fluidized bed steam gasification of solid fuel and the hot gas cleaning system. The SOFC was modelled as a simple grey box with the ASPEN Plus blocks. The effect of HTC temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio on the syngas composition and yield and plant efficiency was studied. The results show that the gasification of hydrochar obtained at 200 °C with S/C ratio of 0.6 gives the best results, namely an energy output of SOFC equal to 1.81 kW/kgBiomass, and overall process efficiency of 36%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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Review

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17 pages, 2014 KiB  
Review
Dioxin Formation in Biomass Gasification: A Review
by Aysan Safavi, Christiaan Richter and Runar Unnthorsson
Energies 2022, 15(3), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030700 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
The amount of PCDD/F emissions produced by gasification operations is often within standard limits set by national and international laws (<0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3). However, a recent assessment of the literature indicates that gasification cannot always reduce PCDD/Fs emissions to acceptable levels, [...] Read more.
The amount of PCDD/F emissions produced by gasification operations is often within standard limits set by national and international laws (<0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3). However, a recent assessment of the literature indicates that gasification cannot always reduce PCDD/Fs emissions to acceptable levels, and thus a common belief on the replacement of incineration with gasification in order to reduce PCDD/Fs emissions seems overly simplistic. A review that summarizes the evidence on when gasification would likely result in environmentally benign emissions with PCDD/F below legal limits, and when not, would be of scientific and practical interest. Moreover, there are no reviews on dioxin formation in gasification. This review discusses the available data on the levels of dioxins formed by gasifying different waste streams, such as municipal solid wastes, plastics, wood waste, animal manure, and sewage sludge, from the existing experimental work. The PCDD/Fs formation in gasification and the operational parameters that can be controlled during the process to minimize PCDD/Fs formation are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass Waste Gasification)
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