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Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "D1: Advanced Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 22460

Special Issue Editors

BCMaterials, Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, UPV/EHU Science Park, 48940 Leioa, Spain
Interests: multifunctional materials; smart materials; energy storage; energy harvesting; sensors; actuators
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy and environment head the list of the top global problems that society will be facing for the next 50 years. In a society increasingly based on mobility, the efficient use of energy is often intimately related to energy storage. The most used energy storage systems are lithium-ion batteries, with a global market growth of 8.5% for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. The common challenges associated with lithium-ion battery systems include the improvement of performance, conversion efficiency, energy/power density, discharge rate, and lifetime, while reducing the production and operation costs. In order to improve lithium-ion battery performance it is essential to develop a new generation of smart and (multi)functional materials for both electrodes and separators, allowing the fine control and optimization of the key physico-chemical processes that influence battery performance.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit original research papers, short communications, or state-of-the-art reviews within the scope of this Special Issue. Contributions can range from fundamental properties of materials, their processing, and characterization to innovations in processing technologies, geometries, or lithium-ion battery applications.

Prof. Dr. Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez
Dr. Carlos Miguel Costa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart materials
  • multifunctional materials
  • battery separators
  • polymer electrolytes
  • ceramic electrolytes
  • active materials
  • polymer binders

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7713; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227713 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Climate change and energy dependence are nowadays critical issues that the world is facing, requiring effective and urgent actions to properly address them in a timely fashion [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery)

Research

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13 pages, 3236 KiB  
Article
Monoclinic and Orthorhombic NaMnO2 for Secondary Batteries: A Comparative Study
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051230 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3607
Abstract
In this manuscript, we report a detailed physico-chemical comparison between the α- and β-polymorphs of the NaMnO2 compound, a promising material for application in positive electrodes for secondary aprotic sodium batteries. In particular, the structure and vibrational properties, as well as electrochemical [...] Read more.
In this manuscript, we report a detailed physico-chemical comparison between the α- and β-polymorphs of the NaMnO2 compound, a promising material for application in positive electrodes for secondary aprotic sodium batteries. In particular, the structure and vibrational properties, as well as electrochemical performance in sodium batteries, are compared to highlight differences and similarities. We exploit both laboratory techniques (Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical methods) and synchrotron radiation experiments (Fast-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction). Notably the vibrational spectra of these phases are here reported for the first time in the literature as well as the detailed structural analysis from diffraction data. DFT+U calculations predict both phases to have similar electronic features, with structural parameters consistent with the experimental counterparts. The experimental evidence of antisite defects in the beta-phase between sodium and manganese ions is noticeable. Both polymorphs have been also tested in aprotic batteries by comparing the impact of different liquid electrolytes on the ability to de-intercalated/intercalate sodium ions. Overall, the monoclinic α-NaMnO2 shows larger reversible capacity exceeding 175 mAhg−1 at 10 mAg−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery)
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14 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Performance of LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery via TiN Coating
Energies 2021, 14(4), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040825 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
The present work addresses the issues related to the capacity fading of spinel LiMn2O4, such as Mn leaching and Jahn–Teller distortion and suggests an advanced TiN-coated LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4 (LAMO) cathode material as an electrode for [...] Read more.
The present work addresses the issues related to the capacity fading of spinel LiMn2O4, such as Mn leaching and Jahn–Teller distortion and suggests an advanced TiN-coated LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4 (LAMO) cathode material as an electrode for lithium-ion batteries. TiN coating layers with the same thickness but a different porosity cover the LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4 electrode via reactive magnetron sputtering, and present promising electrochemical behavior. In contrast with the pristine LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4, the dense TiN-coated LiAl0.1Mn1.9O4 electrode demonstrates a remarkable long-term cycling by reducing the contact area of the electrode/electrolyte interface, resulting in structure stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery)
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13 pages, 3175 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nitrogen Doping on the Performance of Mesoporous CMK-8 Carbon Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries
Energies 2020, 13(19), 4998; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13194998 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
Designing carbonaceous materials with heightened attention to the structural properties such as porosity, and to the functionalization of the surface, is a growing topic in the lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) field. Using a mesoporous silica KIT-6 hard template, mesoporous carbons belonging to the OMCs [...] Read more.
Designing carbonaceous materials with heightened attention to the structural properties such as porosity, and to the functionalization of the surface, is a growing topic in the lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) field. Using a mesoporous silica KIT-6 hard template, mesoporous carbons belonging to the OMCs (ordered mesoporous carbons) family, namely 3D cubic CMK-8 and N-CMK-8 were synthesized and thoroughly structurally characterized. XPS analysis confirmed the successful introduction of nitrogen, highlighting the nature of the different nitrogen atoms incorporated in the structure. The work aims at evaluating the electrochemical performance of N-doped ordered mesoporous carbons as an anode in LIBs, underlining the effect of the nitrogen functionalization. The N-CMK-8 electrode reveals higher reversible capacity, better cycling stability, and rate capability, as compared to the CMK-8 electrode. Coupling the 3D channel network with the functional N-doping increased the reversible capacity to ~1000 mAh·g−1 for the N-CMK-8 from ~450 mAh·g−1 for the undoped CMK-8 electrode. A full Li-ion cell was built using N-CMK-8 as an anode, commercial LiFePO4, a cathode, and LP30 commercial electrolyte, showing stable performance for 100 cycles. The combination of nitrogen functionalization and ordered porosity is promising for the development of high performing functional anodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery)
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11 pages, 4422 KiB  
Article
Effect of Synthesis Temperature on Structure and Electrochemical Performance of Spinel-Layered Li1.33MnTiO4+z in Li-Ion Batteries
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2962; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112962 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Herein, the spinel-layered cathode material Li1.33MnTiO4+z (0.8LiMnTiO4•0.2Li2Mn0.5Ti0.5O3) is investigated for the purpose of developing a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly cathode for Li-ion batteries. Sol-gel synthesis is conducted and [...] Read more.
Herein, the spinel-layered cathode material Li1.33MnTiO4+z (0.8LiMnTiO4•0.2Li2Mn0.5Ti0.5O3) is investigated for the purpose of developing a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly cathode for Li-ion batteries. Sol-gel synthesis is conducted and the relationships between synthesis temperature, structure, and electrochemical performance of the cathodes are studied. The effects of size and purity on the capacities of these cathodes are discussed. The samples fired at 500 and 600 °C contain an impurity phase of TiO2, thus delivering capacities of 208 and 210 mAh g−1 at C/10, respectively. The sample fired at 700 °C without the impurity phase of TiO2 shows a high capacity of 222 mAh g−1 at C/10 and capacity retention of 90.5% after 100 cycles at 1C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery)
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13 pages, 1710 KiB  
Article
Thermal Gradients with Sintered Solid State Electrolytes in Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2020, 13(1), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010253 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3886
Abstract
The electrolyte is one of the three essential constituents of a Lithium-Ion battery (LiB) in addition to the anode and cathode. During increasingly high power and high current charging and discharging, the requirement for the electrolyte becomes more strict. Solid State Electrolyte (SSE) [...] Read more.
The electrolyte is one of the three essential constituents of a Lithium-Ion battery (LiB) in addition to the anode and cathode. During increasingly high power and high current charging and discharging, the requirement for the electrolyte becomes more strict. Solid State Electrolyte (SSE) sees its niche for high power applications due to its ability to suppress concentration polarization and otherwise stable properties also related to safety. During high power and high current cycling, heat management becomes more important and thermal conductivity measurements are needed. In this work, thermal conductivity was measured for three types of solid state electrolytes: Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZO), Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ge 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 (LAGP), and Li 1.3 Al 0.3 Ti 1.7 (PO 4 ) 3 (LATP) at different compaction pressures. LAGP and LATP were measured after sintering, and LLZO was measured before and after sintering the sample material. Thermal conductivity for the sintered electrolytes was measured to 0.470 ± 0.009 WK 1 m 1 , 0.5 ± 0.2 WK 1 m 1 and 0.49 ± 0.02 WK 1 m 1 for LLZO, LAGP, and LATP respectively. Before sintering, LLZO showed a thermal conductivity of 0.22 ± 0.02 WK 1 m 1 . An analytical temperature distribution model for a battery stack of 24 cells shows temperature differences between battery center and edge of 1–2 K for standard liquid electrolytes and 7–9 K for solid state electrolytes, both at the same C-rate of four. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery)
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Review

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36 pages, 5258 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances on Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113145 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6522
Abstract
Environmental issues related to energy consumption are mainly associated with the strong dependence on fossil fuels. To solve these issues, renewable energy sources systems have been developed as well as advanced energy storage systems. Batteries are the main storage system related to mobility, [...] Read more.
Environmental issues related to energy consumption are mainly associated with the strong dependence on fossil fuels. To solve these issues, renewable energy sources systems have been developed as well as advanced energy storage systems. Batteries are the main storage system related to mobility, and they are applied in devices such as laptops, cell phones, and electric vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the most used battery system based on their high specific capacity, long cycle life, and no memory effects. This rapidly evolving field urges for a systematic comparative compilation of the most recent developments on battery technology in order to keep up with the growing number of materials, strategies, and battery performance data, allowing the design of future developments in the field. Thus, this review focuses on the different materials recently developed for the different battery components—anode, cathode, and separator/electrolyte—in order to further improve LIB systems. Moreover, solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) for LIBs are also highlighted. Together with the study of new advanced materials, materials modification by doping or synthesis, the combination of different materials, fillers addition, size manipulation, or the use of high ionic conductor materials are also presented as effective methods to enhance the electrochemical properties of LIBs. Finally, it is also shown that the development of advanced materials is not only focused on improving efficiency but also on the application of more environmentally friendly materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Functional Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery)
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