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Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "C: Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 10878

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Interests: energy policy; environmental sustainability; global issues law and policy; tax policy; transportation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Systems and Automation Engineering, University of León, 24071 Leon, Spain
Interests: energy efficiency; energy economics; renewable energy; energy simulation; energy optimization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental sustainability for the energy industry, and especially oil and gas, is of great concern for governments and policy makers. The demand for oil and gas remains high, and policies are required to reduce the demand for these non-renewable resources to more sustainable forms of energy. Sustainability is now at the centre of strategy and investment decisions, with major investments being made towards renewable energy.

Many players in the oil and gas industry are making increasingly sizable investments in companies and technologies that bring renewable, low-carbon energy to consumers and attempt to reduce their own environmental and carbon footprints.

Technology advancements have also broadened the scope and pace of growth for low-carbon energy, autonomous and electric vehicles, energy efficiency, and distributed energy. Transportation is still heavily reliant on petrol and diesel, and policies are encouraging the shift toward sustainable and reduced carbon usage.

This Special Issue of Energies seeks to attract articles on policy, law, and taxation that address the opportunities of energy transition that are sustainable as well as economically and socially acceptable. We encourage the submission of articles that explore issues involved in advancing the oil, gas, and renewable energy community in order to meet the world’s energy demand in a safe, environmentally responsible, and sustainable manner.

Dr. Prafula Pearce
Prof. Dr. David Borge-Diez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy transition
  • energy security renewable energy
  • oil and gas
  • climate change
  • energy storage
  • future batteries industry
  • energy policy
  • environmental sustainability
  • energy efficiency
  • low-carbon energy
  • autonomous and electric vehicles

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 5135 KiB  
Article
Conducting a Geographical Information System-Based Multi-Criteria Analysis to Assess the Potential and Location for Offshore Wind Farms in Poland
by Magdalena Przewoźniak, Artur Wyrwa, Janusz Zyśk, Maciej Raczyński and Marcin Pluta
Energies 2024, 17(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020283 - 05 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Offshore wind energy is becoming an increasingly important element in the decarbonisation of energy systems. This study aims to estimate the technical potential for offshore wind energy in the Polish exclusive economic zone (EZZ) of the Baltic Sea. Such estimates are necessary to [...] Read more.
Offshore wind energy is becoming an increasingly important element in the decarbonisation of energy systems. This study aims to estimate the technical potential for offshore wind energy in the Polish exclusive economic zone (EZZ) of the Baltic Sea. Such estimates are necessary to plan the expansion of energy infrastructure. This paper proposes a multi-criteria analysis for the estimation of offshore wind potential and site selection using QGIS software (QGIS Desktop 3.28.6). The criteria include wind velocity, water depth, distance from nature conservation areas, distance from submarine cables and gas pipelines, distance from shipping routes, distance from fishing areas, distance from shipwrecks, and distance from the coastline. The best sites are identified through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results show that the total suitable marine area of 16,218.67 square kilometres can be divided into three parts, in which the highly suitable area for offshore wind farms accounts for 17.55%, the moderately suitable area accounts for 48.56%, and the marginally suitable area accounts for 10.26%. Two different wind turbine placement configurations are being considered, in which wind turbines with a nominal capacity of 15 MW are laid out: 2.5 km and 2 km apart from each other. The corresponding overall electrical capacities only in highly suitable areas equal ca. 9 GW and 15 GW, respectively. If this area is extended to also include the moderately suitable parts, these values increase to ca. 31 GW and 50 GW. The results indicate that the technical potential of offshore wind in the Polish EEZ is significant and should be taken into account when designing the future electricity generation mix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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18 pages, 2437 KiB  
Article
Towards Cleaner Cities: An Analysis of the Impact of Bus Fleet Decomposition on PM and NOX Emissions Reduction in Sustainable Public Transport
by Artur Jaworski, Vasyl Mateichyk, Hubert Kuszewski, Maksymilian Mądziel, Paweł Woś, Bożena Babiarz, Mirosław Śmieszek and Sławomir Porada
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6956; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196956 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The problem of poor air quality in urban areas has a negative impact on the health of residents. This is especially important during periods of smog. In Poland, as in other countries, the problem of poor air quality, especially during the winter season, [...] Read more.
The problem of poor air quality in urban areas has a negative impact on the health of residents. This is especially important during periods of smog. In Poland, as in other countries, the problem of poor air quality, especially during the winter season, is associated with a high concentration of particulate pollutants in ambient air (PM10, PM2.5). Sources of particulate emissions, in addition to solid-fuel boilers, include means of transportation, especially those equipped with diesel engines. In turn, during periods of strong sunshine (spring and summer), the problem of photochemical smog, whose precursors are nitrogen oxides NOX, arises in urban areas. Their main sources of emissions are internal combustion engines. Therefore, to improve air quality in urban areas, changes are being made in the transport sector, among which is upgrading the fleet of urban transport vehicles to low- or zero-emission vehicles, which are more environmentally friendly. In addition, measures that reduce the harmfulness of the transportation sector to air quality include the introduction of clean transportation zones, as well as park-and-ride (P&R) systems. The purpose of this article is to present the results in terms of PM10, PM2.5, and NOx emission reductions, implemented over a period of two years (2021–2022) in the area of the Rzeszow agglomeration, related to the modernization of the suburban bus fleet and the implementation of a P&R system for passenger cars. The results of the study were compared with the value of estimated emissions from coal-fired boilers used for residential heating and hot water, which also contribute to smog. Thanks to the implementation of the project, i.e., the replacement of 52 old buses with new buses of the Euro VI emission class and the construction of new P&R spaces, the total average annual reduction in emissions amounted to approximately 703.6 kg of PM10, approximately 692.7 kg of PM2.5, and a reduction of approximately 10.4 tons of NOX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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25 pages, 5114 KiB  
Article
Utilisation of Renewable Electricity to Produce Synthetic Methane
by Klemen Rola, Sven Gruber, Danijela Urbancl and Darko Goričanec
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6871; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196871 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
This study demonstrates the production of synthetic methane or synthetic natural gas via methanation of carbon dioxide (CO2), which could replace natural gas. For the power-to-methane (P2M) process, a simulation of two-stage methanation with simultaneous power generation was carried out in [...] Read more.
This study demonstrates the production of synthetic methane or synthetic natural gas via methanation of carbon dioxide (CO2), which could replace natural gas. For the power-to-methane (P2M) process, a simulation of two-stage methanation with simultaneous power generation was carried out in Aspen Plus. The process is based on an assumed production capacity of 1 t/h of synthetic methane and is also capable of simultaneous methanation of CO2 and biogas. The biogas flow rate was estimated from industry data. When co-methanation is carried out, it is possible to produce up to 1.3 t/h of synthetic methane. After the production of synthetic methane, compression of the product was added to the process scheme, followed by dehydration. The dehydration of the synthetic methane was carried out via dynamic simulation in Aspen Adsorption. The steady-state operation was determined. The final dehydrated product contained on average only about 4.85 × 10−4 mol.% water (H2O) and the methane (CH4) contents were above 97 mol.%, providing a composition suitable for injection into the pipelines of many European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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53 pages, 8042 KiB  
Article
Wind and Solar Energy for Sustainable Energy Production for Family Farms in Coastal Agricultural Regions of Libya Using Measured and Multiple Satellite Datasets
by Hamza S. Abdalla Lagili, Aşkın Kiraz, Youssef Kassem and Hüseyin Gökçekuş
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6725; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186725 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Generating electricity from renewable energy instead of fossil fuels brings great benefits to the environment and sustainable development. Thus, assessing the potential of wind and solar energy in agricultural coastal areas can identify sustainable energy solutions for meeting energy demand and producing fresh [...] Read more.
Generating electricity from renewable energy instead of fossil fuels brings great benefits to the environment and sustainable development. Thus, assessing the potential of wind and solar energy in agricultural coastal areas can identify sustainable energy solutions for meeting energy demand and producing fresh water for agricultural applications and domestic use. However, it is difficult to accurately assess the wind and solar energy potential in Libya due to the civil war, lack of measured data, and its limited availability. Consequently, this concise work is unique because it is the first to use daily measurement data from Az-Zāwiyah, Libya, for evaluating wind and solar energy based on one year of measured data for 2022. Moreover, the present study aims to investigate the potential of wind and solar energy as promising renewable sources for meeting energy demand in coastal agricultural regions in Libya using multiple datasets for the first time. In this paper, five satellite products (TerraClimate, ERA5, ERA5-Land, MERRA-2, and CFSR) were assessed and compared against measured data for January 2022–December 2022 to understand their suitability, accuracy, and reliability. The results showed that CFSR and ERA5-Land demonstrate the most favorable performance for assessing the wind resource, while all satellite products can be utilized for preliminary solar resource assessment. Then, the assessment of wind and solar resources was evaluated in five agricultural coastal regions (Aljmail, Az-Zāwiyah, Castelverde, Msallatah, and Sabratah) based on the best satellite product for the period of 2000–2022. Furthermore, the performance of the wind and solar power systems was investigated for typical farms, which were chosen to estimate the required energy demand according to daily electrical consumption. The results show that the positive outcomes of implementing these systems were highlighted, with an emphasis on their potential benefits to the entire Libyan agricultural sector. Accordingly, scaling up and generalizing the proposed systems and generalizing them to include all farms in Libya could have a significant impact on national electricity generation, mitigate greenhouse gases, and contribute to the development of the agricultural sector and the country’s economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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12 pages, 2349 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Use of EtG Synthetic Fuel in Spark-Ignition Engines on Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions
by Krzysztof Biernat, Zdzisław Chłopek and Paulina Luiza Grzelak
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6273; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176273 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 739
Abstract
This article presents the properties of EtG synthetic fuel (Ethanol to Gasoline) as a substitute for fuels in an installation using ethanol from food waste as a raw material. The results of this research on the process of supplying the engine with EtG [...] Read more.
This article presents the properties of EtG synthetic fuel (Ethanol to Gasoline) as a substitute for fuels in an installation using ethanol from food waste as a raw material. The results of this research on the process of supplying the engine with EtG fuel are presented, in which the operational suitability of this fuel was verified, including environmental requirements. The results of pollutant emission tests from vehicles with spark-ignition engines in dynamic driving conditions in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) type approval tests and the World Harmonized Test Cycle (WLTC) test, both on a “cold” and “hot engine”, are presented. It was found that EtG fuel is characterized by lower emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and methane, and higher emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons compared to E10 commercial gasoline, while the specific distance emission of carbon dioxide for both fuels was very similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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25 pages, 7622 KiB  
Article
Scenario Analysis of the Development of the Polish Power System towards Achieving Climate Neutrality in 2050
by Marcin Pluta, Artur Wyrwa, Janusz Zyśk, Wojciech Suwała and Maciej Raczyński
Energies 2023, 16(16), 5918; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16165918 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
The Polish power system has been reducing its impact on the environment for a long time, mainly through modernization and investments in new generation capacities, including renewable energy technologies. However, its starting point is still more difficult compared to other less coal-dependent power [...] Read more.
The Polish power system has been reducing its impact on the environment for a long time, mainly through modernization and investments in new generation capacities, including renewable energy technologies. However, its starting point is still more difficult compared to other less coal-dependent power systems in the European Union. The study was conducted in the direction of optimizing the Polish energy mix of electricity generation from the perspective of 2050. Two energy scenarios for the possible transformation of the Polish power system towards achieving at least a 95% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 with an increasing share of renewables were analyzed. The study was carried out with the use of the TIMES-PL model, which minimizes the total system cost over the analyzed time horizon. The model was calibrated according to data from 2018. The two scenarios show relatively similar pathways for CO2 emission reductions by 2050. In the case of no investment in nuclear power plants, power plants equipped with CO2 capture and storage systems are an alternative solution for achieving climate neutrality and increasing national energy security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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16 pages, 14797 KiB  
Article
Electromobility with Photovoltaic Generation in an Andean City
by Bryam Paúl Lojano-Riera, Carlos Flores-Vázquez, Juan-Carlos Cobos-Torres, David Vallejo-Ramírez and Daniel Icaza
Energies 2023, 16(15), 5625; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16155625 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
This research focuses on the measurement of the solar generation potential on the roads of the Andean city of Cuenca, Ecuador, and its application in electric vehicles. The tests were conducted in real environments, whereby natural and artificial structures obstruct direct radiation to [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the measurement of the solar generation potential on the roads of the Andean city of Cuenca, Ecuador, and its application in electric vehicles. The tests were conducted in real environments, whereby natural and artificial structures obstruct direct radiation to the panel during the trajectory. An initial study is presented with daily operating conditions, using an urban bus route as a case study. The methodology used consists of taking measurements on different days and weather conditions to evaluate the photovoltaic generation and its contribution to the energy autonomy of the electric vehicle. Additionally, the energy autonomy between the electric vehicle with its factory configuration versus the one equipped with the solar panel is compared. For this purpose, a photovoltaic panel is installed on the roof of the vehicle, connected to a control system that monitors the radiation and current data, regulating the charging and discharging of the batteries. The aim is to demonstrate that the installation of solar panels on electric vehicles can significantly increase their energy autonomy. The contribution of this research could serve as an initial guide for governments and private companies to make decisions on the deployment of electric buses, electric vehicles and other vehicles integrated with solar photovoltaic energy, taking into account their routes. The findings of the study reveal that the implementation of the mobile charging system improves the range of the electric vehicle used in this study. In detail, an average increase of 40% in range was achieved in favorable environmental conditions and an increase of 14% in unfavorable environmental conditions. It is important to highlight that Cuenca has favorable conditions for solar systems due to its geographical location: altitude, hours of radiation and angle of incidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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24 pages, 5679 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Smart Energy Systems and High Participation of V2G Impact for the Ecuadorian 100% Renewable Energy System by 2050
by Daniel Icaza, David Borge-Diez, Santiago Pulla Galindo and Carlos Flores-Vázquez
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4045; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104045 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
This research presents a 100% renewable energy (RE) scenario by 2050 with a high share of electric vehicles on the grid (V2G) developed in Ecuador with the support of the EnergyPLAN analysis tool. Hour-by-hour data iterations were performed to determine solutions among various [...] Read more.
This research presents a 100% renewable energy (RE) scenario by 2050 with a high share of electric vehicles on the grid (V2G) developed in Ecuador with the support of the EnergyPLAN analysis tool. Hour-by-hour data iterations were performed to determine solutions among various features, including energy storage, V2G connections that spanned the distribution system, and long-term evaluation. The high participation in V2G connections keeps the electrical system available; meanwhile, the high proportions of variable renewable energy are the pillar of the joint electrical system. The layout of the sustainable mobility scenario and the high V2G participation maintain the balance of the electrical system during most of the day, simplifying the storage equipment requirements. Consequently, the influence of V2G systems on storage is a significant result that must be considered in the energy transition that Ecuador is developing in the long term. The stored electricity will not only serve as storage for future grid use. Additionally, the V2G batteries serve as a buffer between generation from diversified renewable sources and the end-use stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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22 pages, 3007 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Power to Gas Technologies for Energy Intensive Industries in European Union
by David Borge-Diez, Enrique Rosales-Asensio, Emin Açıkkalp and Daniel Alonso-Martínez
Energies 2023, 16(1), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010538 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Energy Intensive Industries (EII) are high users of energy and some of these facilities are extremely dependent on Natural Gas for processing heat production. In European countries, where Natural Gas is mostly imported from external producers, the increase in international Natural Gas prices [...] Read more.
Energy Intensive Industries (EII) are high users of energy and some of these facilities are extremely dependent on Natural Gas for processing heat production. In European countries, where Natural Gas is mostly imported from external producers, the increase in international Natural Gas prices is making it difficult for some industries to deliver the required financial results. Therefore, they are facing complex challenges that could cause their delocalization in regions with lower energy costs. European countries lack on-site Natural Gas resources and the plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial sector make it necessary to find an alternative. Many different processes cannot be electrified, and in these cases, synthetic methane is one of the solutions and also represents an opportunity to reduce external energy supply dependency. This study analyzes the current development of power-to-gas technological solutions that could be implemented in large industrial consumers to produce Synthetic Methane using Green Hydrogen as a raw source and using Renewable Energy electricity mainly produced with photovoltaic or wind energy. The study also reviews the triple bottom line impact and the current development status and associated costs for each key component of a power-to-gas plant and the requirements to be fulfilled in the coming years to develop a cost-competitive solution available for commercial use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transition and Environmental Sustainability II)
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