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Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 11 July 2024 | Viewed by 9496

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
Interests: renewable energy; wind energy; computational fluid dynamics; fluid–structure interaction; aerodynamics; aeroelasticity; thermofluids

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
Interests: renewable energy; fluid dynamics; turbomachinery; multi-physics interaction; aerodynamics; aeroelasticity

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
Interests: fluid mechanics; renewable energy; energy storage; wind turbine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wind power is a critical source of renewable energy for the decarbonisation of electricity systems with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It is anticipated that 40 GW of electricity will be generated from offshore wind in the UK alone by 2030. To maximise the power production of wind power systems, wind turbines are being upscaled to capture wind energy more effectively and efficiently. As a result of significantly long and slender blades, the interaction between fluid flows and wind turbine blades introduces a complex vortex generation process that influences the aerodynamic and aeroelastic performance of wind turbines, including aeroelastic instabilities. Moreover, a modern wind farm consists of large-scale multi-megawatt wind turbines, and it is expected that the performance a wind turbine is highly affected by the wake deficits and turbulence from neighbouring wind turbines. Technical advances made and research conducted over the past decade led to the deployment of innovative floating offshore wind power systems in deep water. The unsteady wind-wave conditions and the six degrees of freedom motions of floating structures all contribute to a highly complex unsteady flow around a wind turbine, which has a significant impact on the performance of wind power systems. Therefore, extensive investigations of unsteady flow behaviours and an accurate prediction of the aerodynamics of wind turbines become indispensable, and advanced techniques and knowledge in fluid dynamics play a vital role in optimising the power generation from wind energy systems.

This Special Issue aims to bring together the most recent advances in fluid dynamics to tackle the challenges and issues faced by modern wind power systems. Original research and review articles are welcome.

The potential topics of the present Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Fluid –structure interaction;
  • Rotor aerodynamics;
  • Blade aeroelasticity;
  • Aeroelastic instabilities;
  • Wake modelling;
  • Wake interaction;
  • Turbulence modelling;
  • High-resolution modelling of vortex structures;
  • Modelling of wind turbines in array configurations;
  • Wind farm optimisation;
  • Analysis and control of various unsteady flows for wind turbines;
  • Modelling of unsteady wind conditions;
  • Modelling of floating platforms.

Dr. Shine Win Naung
Dr. Mohammad Rahmati
Dr. Mahdi Erfanian Nakhchi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • wind energy
  • fluid dynamics
  • fluid–structure interaction
  • aerodynamics
  • aeroelasticity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 15720 KiB  
Article
Research on Flutter Characterization of Flexible Blade Response under Typhoon Operating Conditions
by Huiyuan Liu, Qiaoli Han, De Tian, Xiaomei Feng, Zhiyong Guo and Minghui Zhang
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051254 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Wind turbine blades, being flexible, are susceptible to damage during typhoons. Studying the aeroelastic response of these blades in typhoon conditions is crucial for providing a theoretical foundation for their optimization and design. This research focuses on the NREL 5 MW flexible blade, [...] Read more.
Wind turbine blades, being flexible, are susceptible to damage during typhoons. Studying the aeroelastic response of these blades in typhoon conditions is crucial for providing a theoretical foundation for their optimization and design. This research focuses on the NREL 5 MW flexible blade, employing the B-L stall model for dynamic inflow and geometrically exact beam theory to develop an aeroelastic model capable of predicting the blade’s flutter limit. Through quantitative analysis, we assess the stability of the wind turbine’s flexible blade under typhoon conditions and examine the blade tip’s transient response. The findings indicate that the model’s flutter speed is 21.5 rpm, marked by a significant increase in tip deflection’s mean square error of over 80% and a coupling of flapwise and torsional modes at 4.81 Hz. The blade tip’s transient response under typhoon conditions does not satisfy the flutter criterion, thus preventing instability. Under typhoon conditions, the deflection in the flapwise, edgewise, and twist directions of the blade shows an increase of 12.1%, 10.5%, and 119.2%, respectively, compared to standard operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
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16 pages, 29082 KiB  
Article
On the Preferential Concentration of Particles in Turbulent Channel Flow: The Effect of the Added-Mass Factor
by Domenico Zaza and Michele Iovieno
Energies 2024, 17(4), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17040783 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Preferential concentration, observed in turbulent flows when particle response times are of the same order of the flow’s characteristic timescales, manifests as non-uniform particle distributions in space. Unraveling its governing mechanisms holds crucial implications for both natural and industrial processes reliant on particle-laden [...] Read more.
Preferential concentration, observed in turbulent flows when particle response times are of the same order of the flow’s characteristic timescales, manifests as non-uniform particle distributions in space. Unraveling its governing mechanisms holds crucial implications for both natural and industrial processes reliant on particle-laden flows. Focusing on particles with small inertia, this study employs Direct Numerical Simulations coupled with Lagrangian particle tracking to investigate the influence of the added-mass factor on the preferential concentration of particles denser than the fluid in the one-way coupling regime. It is shown how the added-mass factor β affects particle distribution within the channel through the statistical correlations between particle concentration and typical descriptors of the flow topology. The results suggest that increasing values of β (corresponding to lighter particles) significantly reduce the effectiveness of turbophoresis in producing particle accumulation in the near-wall region. Resulting in a gradual decorrelation between particle concentration and both the strain-rate and the vorticity tensors, higher values of β lead to a more uniform particle distribution, regardless of the Stokes number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
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16 pages, 1684 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of Actuator-Based Turbine Structure Parametrizations for High-Fidelity Modeling of Utility-Scale Wind Turbines under Neutral Atmospheric Conditions
by Christian Santoni, Fotis Sotiropoulos and Ali Khosronejad
Energies 2024, 17(3), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17030753 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
This study compared the efficacy of the actuator line and actuator surface models in carrying out large-eddy simulations of a utility-scale wind turbine. A large-eddy simulation with the actuator surface and line models was employed to study the wake flow and power production [...] Read more.
This study compared the efficacy of the actuator line and actuator surface models in carrying out large-eddy simulations of a utility-scale wind turbine. A large-eddy simulation with the actuator surface and line models was employed to study the wake flow and power production of the turbine. While both the actuator models were employed for the blade representation, the nacelle was modeled using the actuator surface approach. Both of the actuator models demonstrated agreement in the mean velocity field, power production, and turbulence kinetic energy of the wake flow. Comparing the wake flow, power production, and turbulence kinetic energy results, it was found that the mean discrepancy between the two models was 0.6%, 0.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. Despite the minor discrepancies, both actuator models accurately captured the hub vortex in the wake of the nacelle, evidenced by an energy peak in wind speed spectra at f/fω0.34. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
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30 pages, 18136 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Utility of Coupled Aero-Hydrodynamic Analysis Using a CFD Solver versus a Potential Flow Solver for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines
by Mohd Atif Siddiqui, Finn-Christian Wickmann Hanssen, Marilena Greco and Eirik Anda
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7833; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237833 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 976
Abstract
There has been a great effort towards development of renewable energy systems to combat global warming with significant interest towards research and development of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). With commercial projects such as Hywind Scotland, Hywind Tampen and others, there is a [...] Read more.
There has been a great effort towards development of renewable energy systems to combat global warming with significant interest towards research and development of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). With commercial projects such as Hywind Scotland, Hywind Tampen and others, there is a shift of industry attention from bottom-fixed offshore turbines to FOWTs. In this work, we focus on comparing industry standard Potential Flow (PF) methods versus Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers for a scaled version of the IEA 15 MW turbine and associated FOWT system. The results from the two solvers are compared/validated using experimental thrust values for the fixed turbine. The motions and the thrust for the FOWT system are then compared for the two solvers along with hydrodynamic properties of the floater hull. The wake features downstream of the turbine are analyzed for the fixed and floating turbine using the CFD solver. The wake from the CFD solver is also compared with a simplified PF model. Finally, a simplified cost-benefit analysis is presented for the two solvers to compare the usefulness and utility of a CFD solver as compared to presently used industry-standard PF methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
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20 pages, 6419 KiB  
Article
Physics-Informed Neural Networks for Low Reynolds Number Flows over Cylinder
by Elijah Hao Wei Ang, Guangjian Wang and Bing Feng Ng
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4558; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124558 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2982
Abstract
Physics-informed neural network (PINN) architectures are recent developments that can act as surrogate models for fluid dynamics in order to reduce computational costs. PINNs make use of deep neural networks, where the Navier-Stokes equation and freestream boundary conditions are used as losses of [...] Read more.
Physics-informed neural network (PINN) architectures are recent developments that can act as surrogate models for fluid dynamics in order to reduce computational costs. PINNs make use of deep neural networks, where the Navier-Stokes equation and freestream boundary conditions are used as losses of the neural network; hence, no simulation or experimental data in the training of the PINN is required. Here, the formulation of PINN for fluid dynamics is demonstrated and critical factors influencing the PINN design are discussed through a low Reynolds number flow over a cylinder. The PINN architecture showed the greatest improvement to the accuracy of results from the increase in the number of layers, followed by the increase in the number of points in the point cloud. Increasing the number of nodes per hidden layer brings about the smallest improvement in performance. In general, PINN is much more efficient than computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in terms of memory resource usage, with PINN requiring 5–10 times less memory. The tradeoff for this advantage is that it requires longer computational time, with PINN requiring approximately 3 times more than that of CFD. In essence, this paper demonstrates the direct formulation of PINN without the need for data, alongside hyperparameter design and comparison of computational requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
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21 pages, 7122 KiB  
Article
Direct Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Flow over Low-Pressure Turbine Blades with Aeroelastic Vibrations and Inflow Wakes
by Mahdi Erfanian Nakhchi, Shine Win Naung and Mohammad Rahmati
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062803 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1522
Abstract
In the present work, direct numerical simulation is employed to investigate the unsteady flow characteristics and energy performance of low-pressure turbines (LPT) by considering the blades aeroelastic vibrations and inflow wakes. The effects of inflow disturbance (0 < φ < 0.91) and reduced [...] Read more.
In the present work, direct numerical simulation is employed to investigate the unsteady flow characteristics and energy performance of low-pressure turbines (LPT) by considering the blades aeroelastic vibrations and inflow wakes. The effects of inflow disturbance (0 < φ < 0.91) and reduced blade vibration (0 < f < 250 Hz) on the turbulent flow behavior of LPTs are investigated for the first time. The transient governing equations on the vibrating blades are modelled by the high-order spectral/hp element method. The results revealed that by increasing the inflow disturbances, the separated bubbles tend to shrink, which has a noticeable influence on the pressure in the downstream region. The maximum wake loss value is reduced by 16.4% by increasing the φ from 0.31 to 0.91. The flow separation is majorly affected by inflow wakes and blade vibrations. The results revealed that the maximum pressure coefficient in the separated flow region of the vibrating blade has been increased by 108% by raising φ from 0 to 0.91. The blade vibration further intensifies the vortex generation process, adding more energy to the flow and the downstream vortex shedding. The vortex generation and shedding are intensified on the vibrating blade compared to the non-vibrating one that is subject to inflow wakes. The results and findings from this paper are also useful for the design and modeling of turbine blades that are prone to aeroelastic instabilities, such as large offshore wind turbine blades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
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Review

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43 pages, 7225 KiB  
Review
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wind Turbines Operating under Hazard Environmental Conditions: A Review
by Eleni Douvi and Dimitra Douvi
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7681; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227681 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
This paper provides a review of the aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines operating in hazardous environmental conditions. Over the past decade, renewable energy use has accelerated due to global warming, depleting fossil fuel reserves, and stricter environmental regulations. Among renewable options, [...] Read more.
This paper provides a review of the aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines operating in hazardous environmental conditions. Over the past decade, renewable energy use has accelerated due to global warming, depleting fossil fuel reserves, and stricter environmental regulations. Among renewable options, solar and wind energy have shown economic viability and global growth. Horizontal axis wind turbines offer promising solutions for sustainable energy demand. Since wind turbines operate in an open environment, their efficiency depends on environmental conditions. Hazard environmental conditions, such as icing, rainfall, hailstorms, dust or sand, insects’ collisions, increased humidity, and sea spray, result in degraded aerodynamic characteristics. The outcome of most studies has been that the airfoils’ lift is degraded, and at the same time, drag is increased when wind turbines operate under these conditions. The objective of this review is to improve our comprehension of these crucial aspects so they are taken into account when designing wind turbine blades, and it offers suggestions for future research paths. It serves as a valuable resource that can inspire researchers who are dedicated to enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
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