Application of GIScience and Remote Sensing in Biodiversity Conservation

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This special issue belongs to the section "Biodiversity Conservation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 3478

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Geomatics Department, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Interests: geomatics; GeoSpatial technology; GeoAnalytics GIS; remote sensing

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Guest Editor
Centre for Transformative Agricultural and Food Systems, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South Africa
Interests: physical geography; spatial analysis; mapping; environmental impact assessment; Satellite image analysis; image processing; GIS

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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, 0022 Gaborone, Botswana
Interests: spatial epidemiology; GIS; population geography; medical geography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geospatial technology (Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing) entails the collection, manipulation, management, analysis, retrieval and display of geospatial information. Geospatial technology deals with remotely sensed data from unmanned aerial vehicles, aircraft and satellites. The remotely sensed data is used to assess, monitor, quantify and map the properties of the Earth's land, water and human societies. Geospatial techniques such as spatial statistics are quite crucial in the analysis of spatial patterns/trends of terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. The latest trends in computer innovation such as Machine Learning, Deep learning, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Science and Cloud Computing offers a great opportunity in the conservation of biodiversity. This is helping in addressing the Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) that pertains to biodiversity, conservation, water and climate change. There are challenges that are affecting biodiversity (terrestrial and aquatic), and these includes population increase, pollution, urbanisation, urban sprawl and many others. There are many approaches that has been used by researchers, planners and decision makers to help conserve biodiversity. So, this Special Issue aims to report the recent advances and trends in the collection, management, and analysis of geospatial data in conservation biodiversity at local and regional scale.

Dr. James Magidi
Dr. Tsitsi Bangira
Dr. Matlhogonolo Kelepile
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • geospatial technology
  • remote sensing
  • geographic information systems
  • spatial statistics
  • machine learning and deep learning
  • cloud computing
  • big data science
  • image processing
  • spatial ecology, landscape ecology, sustainable development goals (SDGs)

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 10775 KiB  
Article
Application of Path Analysis and Remote Sensing to Assess the Interrelationships between Meteorological Variables and Vegetation Indices in the State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil
by Adriano Posse Senhorelo, Elias Fernandes de Sousa, Alexandre Rosa dos Santos, Jéferson Luiz Ferrari, João Batista Esteves Peluzio, Rita de Cássia Freire Carvalho, Kaíse Barbosa de Souza and Taís Rizzo Moreira
Diversity 2024, 16(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/d16020090 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Utilizing path analysis, we examined the interconnectedness among six meteorological variables. Among these, three pertain to energy conditions—air temperature, net solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration (ET0)—while the others are associated with hydrological conditions: precipitation, relative humidity, and water deficiency. These variables were assessed [...] Read more.
Utilizing path analysis, we examined the interconnectedness among six meteorological variables. Among these, three pertain to energy conditions—air temperature, net solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration (ET0)—while the others are associated with hydrological conditions: precipitation, relative humidity, and water deficiency. These variables were assessed across five distinct temporal delay levels to understand their influences on the normalized difference vegetation Index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) within grassland areas situated in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The images underwent processing using analytical algorithms and a geographic information system (GIS). The direct and indirect impacts of these variables on the NDVI and EVI exhibited remarkable similarity across varying temporal delays and geographic regions. Meteorological variables explained over 50% of the observed variation in both indices, occasionally even reaching levels of 70%. Temperature and relative humidity primarily exerted direct effects on the indices. Conversely, precipitation exhibited indirect effects on the indices, often in conjunction with other hydrological variables. ET0 demonstrated a direct effect on the vegetation indices, particularly after a delay of 32 days. Solar radiation and water deficiency displayed direct effects up to the 32-day mark, implying that vegetation responds more promptly to these variables. The proposed methodology enabled a consistent and stable assessment of the direct and indirect effects of meteorological variables on vegetation indices. Full article
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23 pages, 5316 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Evolution and Factors Influencing Ecological Land in Northwest Yunnan from the Perspective of Leading the Construction of a National Ecological Civilization
by Xian Wang, Shiqin Yang, Renyi Yang and Zisheng Yang
Diversity 2023, 15(10), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15101074 - 10 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Yunnan Province has emerged as a trailblazer in fostering an ecological civilization, assuming a prominent and pioneering role as the vanguard of ecological conservation in the southwestern region of China. Within the expansive tapestry of Yunnan Province, the northwest region has assumed a [...] Read more.
Yunnan Province has emerged as a trailblazer in fostering an ecological civilization, assuming a prominent and pioneering role as the vanguard of ecological conservation in the southwestern region of China. Within the expansive tapestry of Yunnan Province, the northwest region has assumed a pivotal and indispensable position in spearheading the advancement of ecological civilization. To unravel the intricate and complex dynamics at play, this investigation employed a comprehensive array of methodologies, encompassing the sophisticated land use transfer matrix, the dynamic degree of land use, the center-of-gravity migration model, and the standard deviation ellipse. These sophisticated approaches were employed to delve deeply into the nuanced characteristics of the spatiotemporal evolution of ecologically pristine land in northwest Yunnan, while meticulously exploring the multifaceted factors that have intricately shaped its trajectory. The research findings illuminated several pivotal domains: (1) In terms of quantitative transformations, a substantial conversion of vast grassland expanses into cultivated land transpired from 2000 to 2010, spanning an expansive territory of 1303 km2. The most significant transformations were observed between forested land and grassland (591.81 km2) and from cropland to built-up land (51.99 km2). (2) Turning our attention to the pace of transformation, a closer examination of the land use dynamic degree revealed that urban construction land exhibited the highest degree of dynamism throughout the study period, demonstrating an average annual growth rate of 3.89% from 2000 to 2010, followed by a more accelerated growth rate of 6.14% from 2010 to 2020. In terms of the comprehensive land use dynamic degree, the annual rates of land use change from 2000 to 2010 and from 2010 to 2020 were only 0.1% and 0.03%, respectively. These figures indicate a gradual and deliberate overall pace of land use change in the northwest region of Yunnan throughout the entire study period. (3) Regarding spatial transformations, between 2000 and 2010, there was a discernible southeastern displacement of the center of gravity for ecological land. However, from 2010 to 2020, the center of ecological land experienced a migration towards the northwest, covering an impressive migration distance of up to 48,657.35 m. Simultaneously, the index of biological abundance exhibited high values in the northwest and low values in the southeast, indicative of favorable ecological conditions in the northwest region. (4) An analysis of the influencing factors revealed that the adaptive and dynamic nature of social and economic factors played a pivotal role in shaping the alterations observed in the ecological landscape. The study of ecological land use in northwest Yunnan holds the potential to provide valuable support for the protection and sustainable utilization of regional ecological land use, thereby contributing to the consolidation of the ecological security barrier in southwestern Yunnan and the preservation of biodiversity. Full article
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26 pages, 6219 KiB  
Article
A Study on Spatiotemporal Changes of Ecological Vulnerability in Yunnan Province Based on Interpretation of Remote Sensing Images
by Zisheng Yang, Shiqin Yang, Renyi Yang and Qiuju Wu
Diversity 2023, 15(9), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15090963 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
The inherent ecological environment of mountainous regions is highly fragile, and the degree of sustainable development is low. There has not yet been a multi-phase ecological vulnerability evaluation (EVE) study based on remote sensing (RS) and GIS for mountainous provinces, for which there [...] Read more.
The inherent ecological environment of mountainous regions is highly fragile, and the degree of sustainable development is low. There has not yet been a multi-phase ecological vulnerability evaluation (EVE) study based on remote sensing (RS) and GIS for mountainous provinces, for which there is an urgent need to establish a system that is appropriate, practicable and easily operated and applied. In this study, an integrated “RS and GIS + multi-phase land use/cover change (LUCC) + practically quantitative theory and methods of EVE” approach was adopted for analysis based on the interpretation results of five phases of the land use/land cover (LULC) RS images of Yunnan, with 129 counties being considered as the evaluation units. The organic combination of quantitative multi-index comprehensive evaluation (QMCE) and qualitative comprehensive analysis (QCA) methods was adopted to perform quantitative calculations of a system of county-level evaluation indicators which includes “innate” natural ecological vulnerability (INEV), land use ecological vulnerability (LUEV) and land cover ecological vulnerability (LCEV); the degree of ecological vulnerability (DEV) was assessed for the 129 counties within the province during the five study phases (1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020). The spatiotemporal variation characteristics and laws of DEV from 1980 to 2020 in the whole province and 129 counties were revealed, aiming to provide a basis for meeting the SDGs for mountainous provinces. The results are as follows: (1) Overall, INEV is high because of the high mountains and steep slopes, and the entire province is classified as “highly vulnerable” on average. In terms of counties, more than 79.07% are classified as “moderately vulnerable”, “highly vulnerable” and “very highly vulnerable”. (2) The degree of LUEV and LCEV caused by acquired human socioeconomic activities was higher in 1980. However, after a series of ecological measures in the past 40 years, the values of DEVLU and DEVLC in the whole province and counties in 2020 have decreased to different degrees. Accordingly, the degree of overall ecological vulnerability of Yunnan province and counties decreased significantly from 1980 to 2020. The basic law of change is that the number of counties with high DEV decreases significantly, while the number of counties with low DEV increases significantly. (3) The regional difference in the DEV of Yunnan province is large. In general, the degree of ecological vulnerability is lower in the southern, southwestern, western and central areas of Yunnan and higher in the northwest high mountain canyon, northeast mountain areas and east and southeast karst areas. (4) Overall, the DEV in Yunnan province is currently still high. There is an urgent need to enhance the construction of ecological civilization across the whole province and take effective measures to protect the ecological environment according to local conditions, so as to steadily reduce the DEV. Full article
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