Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 12015

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
2. Advanced Computing (AdvComp), Centre of Excellence (CoE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
Interests: biomedical imaging; image processing; digital signal processing; artificial intelligence; feature extraction; recognition and classification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Systems and Informatics Engineering, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan
Interests: image processing; digital signal processing; artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Medical data can be defined as obtaining information from patients (such as signals, images, sounds, chemical components and their concentration, body temperature, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and different treatment measurements) to quantify the patient’s status and the disease stage. Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems use classical image processing, computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning methods for image analysis. Using image classification or segmentation algorithms, they find a region of interest (ROI) pointing to a specific location within the given image or the outcome of interest in the form of a label pointing to a diagnosis or prognosis. Computer science, with the evolution of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques, facilitates the modeling and interpretation of results from carrying out measurements, experiments, and observations. Employing technological tools for collection, processing, and analysis will incorporate understanding the patient’s status and developing the treatment plan. Achieving highly accurate models requires a huge dataset. This issue can be solved by having enough knowledge around medical data processing and its analysis.

This Special Issue of the journal Diagnostics provides you with the opportunity to disseminate the findings of your research that highlight innovative aspects of biomedical data processing and/or modeling in healthcare. Applications such as patient monitoring, disease diagnosis and progression, patient rehabilitation, and medical image analysis are encouraged. It is expected that you clearly indicate the novel aspects of signal processing or modeling that assisted you in solving your problem.

Dr. Wan Azani Mustafa
Dr. Hiam Alquran
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomedical image processing
  • biomedical signal processing
  • medical data analysis
  • pattern recognition
  • health system
  • bioinformatics
  • mental health
  • biomedical systems
  • biomedical physics
  • decision support system
  • diagnostic aid
  • AI-based screening system
  • medical image and signal classification
  • biomedical image retrieval
  • medical image annotation
  • biomedical image summarization
  • cancer diagnosis
  • medical images
  • machine learning
  • deep learning
  • artificial intelligence

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Multi-Layer Preprocessing and U-Net with Residual Attention Block for Retinal Blood Vessel Segmentation
by Ahmed Alsayat, Mahmoud Elmezain, Saad Alanazi, Meshrif Alruily, Ayman Mohamed Mostafa and Wael Said
Diagnostics 2023, 13(21), 3364; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13213364 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Retinal blood vessel segmentation is a valuable tool for clinicians to diagnose conditions such as atherosclerosis, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. This paper presents a new framework for segmenting blood vessels in retinal images. The framework has two stages: a multi-layer preprocessing stage [...] Read more.
Retinal blood vessel segmentation is a valuable tool for clinicians to diagnose conditions such as atherosclerosis, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. This paper presents a new framework for segmenting blood vessels in retinal images. The framework has two stages: a multi-layer preprocessing stage and a subsequent segmentation stage employing a U-Net with a multi-residual attention block. The multi-layer preprocessing stage has three steps. The first step is noise reduction, employing a U-shaped convolutional neural network with matrix factorization (CNN with MF) and detailed U-shaped U-Net (D_U-Net) to minimize image noise, culminating in the selection of the most suitable image based on the PSNR and SSIM values. The second step is dynamic data imputation, utilizing multiple models for the purpose of filling in missing data. The third step is data augmentation through the utilization of a latent diffusion model (LDM) to expand the training dataset size. The second stage of the framework is segmentation, where the U-Nets with a multi-residual attention block are used to segment the retinal images after they have been preprocessed and noise has been removed. The experiments show that the framework is effective at segmenting retinal blood vessels. It achieved Dice scores of 95.32, accuracy of 93.56, precision of 95.68, and recall of 95.45. It also achieved efficient results in removing noise using CNN with matrix factorization (MF) and D-U-NET according to values of PSNR and SSIM for (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) levels of noise. The LDM achieved an inception score of 13.6 and an FID of 46.2 in the augmentation step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Medical Image Despeckling Using the Invertible Sparse Fuzzy Wavelet Transform with Nature-Inspired Minibatch Water Wave Swarm Optimization
by Ahila Amarnath, Poongodi Manoharan, Buvaneswari Natarajan, Roobaea Alroobaea, Majed Alsafyani, Abdullah M. Baqasah, Ismail Keshta and Kaamran Raahemifar
Diagnostics 2023, 13(18), 2919; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13182919 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Speckle noise is a pervasive problem in medical imaging, and conventional methods for despeckling often lead to loss of edge information due to smoothing. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach that combines a nature-inspired minibatch water wave swarm optimization (NIMWVSO) [...] Read more.
Speckle noise is a pervasive problem in medical imaging, and conventional methods for despeckling often lead to loss of edge information due to smoothing. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach that combines a nature-inspired minibatch water wave swarm optimization (NIMWVSO) framework with an invertible sparse fuzzy wavelet transform (ISFWT) in the frequency domain. The ISFWT learns a non-linear redundant transform with a perfect reconstruction property that effectively removes noise while preserving structural and edge information in medical images. The resulting threshold is then used by the NIMWVSO to further reduce multiplicative speckle noise. Our approach was evaluated using the MSTAR dataset, and objective functions were based on two contrasting reference metrics, namely the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the mean structural similarity index metric (MSSIM). Our results show that the suggested approach outperforms modern filters and has significant generalization ability to unknown noise levels, while also being highly interpretable. By providing a new framework for despeckling medical images, our work has the potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of medical imaging diagnosis and treatment planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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19 pages, 5750 KiB  
Article
A New Weighted Deep Learning Feature Using Particle Swarm and Ant Lion Optimization for Cervical Cancer Diagnosis on Pap Smear Images
by Mohammed Alsalatie, Hiam Alquran, Wan Azani Mustafa, Ala’a Zyout, Ali Mohammad Alqudah, Reham Kaifi and Suhair Qudsieh
Diagnostics 2023, 13(17), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13172762 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
One of the most widespread health issues affecting women is cervical cancer. Early detection of cervical cancer through improved screening strategies will reduce cervical cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Using a Pap smear image is a novel method for detecting cervical cancer. [...] Read more.
One of the most widespread health issues affecting women is cervical cancer. Early detection of cervical cancer through improved screening strategies will reduce cervical cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Using a Pap smear image is a novel method for detecting cervical cancer. Previous studies have focused on whole Pap smear images or extracted nuclei to detect cervical cancer. In this paper, we compared three scenarios of the entire cell, cytoplasm region, or nucleus region only into seven classes of cervical cancer. After applying image augmentation to solve imbalanced data problems, automated features are extracted using three pre-trained convolutional neural networks: AlexNet, DarkNet 19, and NasNet. There are twenty-one features as a result of these scenario combinations. The most important features are split into ten features by the principal component analysis, which reduces the dimensionality. This study employs feature weighting to create an efficient computer-aided cervical cancer diagnosis system. The optimization procedure uses the new evolutionary algorithms known as Ant lion optimization (ALO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Finally, two types of machine learning algorithms, support vector machine classifier, and random forest classifier, have been used in this paper to perform classification jobs. With a 99.5% accuracy rate for seven classes using the PSO algorithm, the SVM classifier outperformed the RF, which had a 98.9% accuracy rate in the same region. Our outcome is superior to other studies that used seven classes because of this focus on the tissues rather than just the nucleus. This method will aid physicians in diagnosing precancerous and early-stage cervical cancer by depending on the tissues, rather than on the nucleus. The result can be enhanced using a significant amount of data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
NeuPD—A Neural Network-Based Approach to Predict Antineoplastic Drug Response
by Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Atif Tahir, Musaed Alhussein, Ansharah Mobin, Rauf Ahmed Shams Malick and Muhammad Shahid Anwar
Diagnostics 2023, 13(12), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13122043 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
With the beginning of the high-throughput screening, in silico-based drug response analysis has opened lots of research avenues in the field of personalized medicine. For a decade, many different predicting techniques have been recommended for the antineoplastic (anti-cancer) drug response, but still, there [...] Read more.
With the beginning of the high-throughput screening, in silico-based drug response analysis has opened lots of research avenues in the field of personalized medicine. For a decade, many different predicting techniques have been recommended for the antineoplastic (anti-cancer) drug response, but still, there is a need for improvements in drug sensitivity prediction. The intent of this research study is to propose a framework, namely NeuPD, to validate the potential anti-cancer drugs against a panel of cancer cell lines in publicly available datasets. The datasets used in this work are Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). As not all drugs are effective on cancer cell lines, we have worked on 10 essential drugs from the GDSC dataset that have achieved the best modeling results in previous studies. We also extracted 1610 essential oncogene expressions from 983 cell lines from the same dataset. Whereas, from the CCLE dataset, 16,383 gene expressions from 1037 cell lines and 24 drugs have been used in our experiments. For dimensionality reduction, Pearson correlation is applied to best fit the model. We integrate the genomic features of cell lines and drugs’ fingerprints to fit the neural network model. For evaluation of the proposed NeuPD framework, we have used repeated K-fold cross-validation with 5 times repeats where K = 10 to demonstrate the performance in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient determination (R2). The results obtained on the GDSC dataset that were measured using these cost functions show that our proposed NeuPD framework has outperformed existing approaches with an RMSE of 0.490 and R2 of 0.929. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 1190 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effectiveness of Metaheuristic Methods on Bayesian Optimization in the Classification of Visual Field Defects
by Masyitah Abu, Nik Adilah Hanin Zahri, Amiza Amir, Muhammad Izham Ismail, Azhany Yaakub, Fumiyo Fukumoto and Yoshimi Suzuki
Diagnostics 2023, 13(11), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13111946 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Bayesian optimization (BO) is commonly used to optimize the hyperparameters of transfer learning models to improve the model’s performance significantly. In BO, the acquisition functions direct the hyperparameter space exploration during the optimization. However, the computational cost of evaluating the acquisition function and [...] Read more.
Bayesian optimization (BO) is commonly used to optimize the hyperparameters of transfer learning models to improve the model’s performance significantly. In BO, the acquisition functions direct the hyperparameter space exploration during the optimization. However, the computational cost of evaluating the acquisition function and updating the surrogate model can become prohibitively expensive due to increasing dimensionality, making it more challenging to achieve the global optimum, particularly in image classification tasks. Therefore, this study investigates and analyses the effect of incorporating metaheuristic methods into BO to improve the performance of acquisition functions in transfer learning. By incorporating four different metaheuristic methods, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Optimization, Harris Hawks Optimization, and Sailfish Optimization (SFO), the performance of acquisition function, Expected Improvement (EI), was observed in the VGGNet models for visual field defect multi-class classification. Other than EI, comparative observations were also conducted using different acquisition functions, such as Probability Improvement (PI), Upper Confidence Bound (UCB), and Lower Confidence Bound (LCB). The analysis demonstrates that SFO significantly enhanced BO optimization by increasing mean accuracy by 9.6% for VGG-16 and 27.54% for VGG-19. As a result, the best validation accuracy obtained for VGG-16 and VGG-19 is 98.6% and 98.34%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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51 pages, 10706 KiB  
Article
Real-World Driver Stress Recognition and Diagnosis Based on Multimodal Deep Learning and Fuzzy EDAS Approaches
by Muhammad Amin, Khalil Ullah, Muhammad Asif, Habib Shah, Arshad Mehmood and Muhammad Attique Khan
Diagnostics 2023, 13(11), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13111897 - 29 May 2023
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Mental stress is known as a prime factor in road crashes. The devastation of these crashes often results in damage to humans, vehicles, and infrastructure. Likewise, persistent mental stress could lead to the development of mental, cardiovascular, and abdominal disorders. Preceding research in [...] Read more.
Mental stress is known as a prime factor in road crashes. The devastation of these crashes often results in damage to humans, vehicles, and infrastructure. Likewise, persistent mental stress could lead to the development of mental, cardiovascular, and abdominal disorders. Preceding research in this domain mostly focuses on feature engineering and conventional machine learning approaches. These approaches recognize different levels of stress based on handcrafted features extracted from various modalities including physiological, physical, and contextual data. Acquiring good quality features from these modalities using feature engineering is often a difficult job. Recent developments in the form of deep learning (DL) algorithms have relieved feature engineering by automatically extracting and learning resilient features. This paper proposes different CNN and CNN-LSTSM-based fusion models using physiological signals (SRAD dataset) and multimodal data (AffectiveROAD dataset) for the driver’s two and three stress levels. The fuzzy EDAS (evaluation based on distance from average solution) approach is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed models based on different classification metrics (accuracy, recall, precision, F-score, and specificity). Fuzzy EDAS performance estimation shows that the proposed CNN and hybrid CNN-LSTM models achieved the first ranks based on the fusion of BH, E4-Left (E4-L), and E4-Right (E4-R). Results showed the significance of multimodal data for designing an accurate and trustworthy stress recognition diagnosing model for real-world driving conditions. The proposed model can also be used for the diagnosis of the stress level of a subject during other daily life activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 1668 KiB  
Article
Improving the Trustworthiness of Interactive Visualization Tools for Healthcare Data through a Medical Fuzzy Expert System
by Abdullah M. Albarrak
Diagnostics 2023, 13(10), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13101733 - 13 May 2023
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
Successful healthcare companies and illness diagnostics require data visualization. Healthcare and medical data analysis are needed to use compound information. Professionals often gather, evaluate, and monitor medical data to gauge risk, performance capability, tiredness, and adaptation to a medical diagnosis. Medical diagnosis data [...] Read more.
Successful healthcare companies and illness diagnostics require data visualization. Healthcare and medical data analysis are needed to use compound information. Professionals often gather, evaluate, and monitor medical data to gauge risk, performance capability, tiredness, and adaptation to a medical diagnosis. Medical diagnosis data come from EMRs, software systems, hospital administration systems, laboratories, IoT devices, and billing and coding software. Interactive diagnosis data visualization tools enable healthcare professionals to identify trends and interpret data analytics results. Selecting the most trustworthy interactive visualization tool or application is crucial for the reliability of medical diagnosis data. Thus, this study examined the trustworthiness of interactive visualization tools for healthcare data analytics and medical diagnosis. The present study uses a scientific approach for evaluating the trustworthiness of interactive visualization tools for healthcare and medical diagnosis data and provides a novel idea and path for future healthcare experts. Our goal in this research was to make an idealness assessment of the trustworthiness impact of interactive visualization models under fuzzy conditions by using a medical fuzzy expert system based on an analytical network process and technique for ordering preference by similarity to ideal solutions. To eliminate the ambiguities that arose due to the multiple opinions of these experts and to externalize and organize information about the selection context of the interactive visualization models, the study used the proposed hybrid decision model. According to the results achieved through trustworthiness assessments of different visualization tools, BoldBI was found to be the most prioritized and trustworthy visualization tool among other alternatives. The suggested study would aid healthcare and medical professionals in interactive data visualization in identifying, selecting, prioritizing, and evaluating useful and trustworthy visualization-related characteristics, thereby leading to more accurate medical diagnosis profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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23 pages, 2283 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Acid-Base and Potassium Imbalances in Intensive Care Patients Using Machine Learning Techniques
by Ratchakit Phetrittikun, Kerdkiat Suvirat, Kanakorn Horsiritham, Thammasin Ingviya and Sitthichok Chaichulee
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061171 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
Acid–base disorders occur when the body’s normal pH is out of balance. They can be caused by problems with kidney or respiratory function or by an excess of acids or bases that the body cannot properly eliminate. Acid–base and potassium imbalances are mechanistically [...] Read more.
Acid–base disorders occur when the body’s normal pH is out of balance. They can be caused by problems with kidney or respiratory function or by an excess of acids or bases that the body cannot properly eliminate. Acid–base and potassium imbalances are mechanistically linked because acid–base imbalances can alter the transport of potassium. Both acid–base and potassium imbalances are common in critically ill patients. This study investigated machine learning models for predicting the occurrence of acid–base and potassium imbalances in intensive care patients. We used an institutional dataset of 1089 patients with 87 variables, including vital signs, general appearance, and laboratory results. Gradient boosting (GB) was able to predict nine clinical conditions related to acid–base and potassium imbalances: mortality (AUROC = 0.9822), hypocapnia (AUROC = 0.7524), hypercapnia (AUROC = 0.8228), hypokalemia (AUROC = 0.9191), hyperkalemia (AUROC = 0.9565), respiratory acidosis (AUROC = 0.8125), respiratory alkalosis (AUROC = 0.7685), metabolic acidosis (AUROC = 0.8682), and metabolic alkalosis (AUROC = 0.8284). Some predictions remained relatively robust even when the prediction window was increased. Additionally, the decision-making process was made more interpretable and transparent through the use of SHAP analysis. Overall, the results suggest that machine learning could be a useful tool to gain insight into the condition of intensive care patients and assist in the management of acid–base and potassium imbalances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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Review

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0 pages, 1714 KiB  
Review
Emerging Technology-Driven Hybrid Models for Preventing and Monitoring Infectious Diseases: A Comprehensive Review and Conceptual Framework
by Bader M. Albahlal
Diagnostics 2023, 13(19), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13193047 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
The emergence of the infectious diseases, such as the novel coronavirus, as a significant global health threat has emphasized the urgent need for effective treatments and vaccines. As infectious diseases become more common around the world, it is important to have strategies in [...] Read more.
The emergence of the infectious diseases, such as the novel coronavirus, as a significant global health threat has emphasized the urgent need for effective treatments and vaccines. As infectious diseases become more common around the world, it is important to have strategies in place to prevent and monitor them. This study reviews hybrid models that incorporate emerging technologies for preventing and monitoring infectious diseases. It also presents a comprehensive review of the hybrid models employed for preventing and monitoring infectious diseases since the outbreak of COVID-19. The review encompasses models that integrate emerging and innovative technologies, such as blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT), big data, and artificial intelligence (AI). By harnessing these technologies, the hybrid system enables secure contact tracing and source isolation. Based on the review, a hybrid conceptual framework model proposes a hybrid model that incorporates emerging technologies. The proposed hybrid model enables effective contact tracing, secure source isolation using blockchain technology, IoT sensors, and big data collection. A hybrid model that incorporates emerging technologies is proposed as a comprehensive approach to preventing and monitoring infectious diseases. With continued research on and the development of the proposed model, the global efforts to effectively combat infectious diseases and safeguard public health will continue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Data Processing and Analysis—2nd Edition)
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