Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Aspects in Colloid and Interface Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 22 June 2024 | Viewed by 16965

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: fractal theory; microstructure; pore structure; durability predicting; mathematical model
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Co-Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Interests: Interfacial behavior of RC and composite structures; finite element simulation of interfacial behavior; mechanical performance of corroded RC structures; structural use of advanced materials; seismic performance of composite structures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Concrete has become the mostly widely used construction material since its invention. Working together with steel inside concrete, reinforced concrete can withstand both compressive and tension forces. The requirements for concrete raw materials, such as natural stones and river sand, have been increasing, especially in developed countries where massive amounts of infrastructure are being built. The consumption of these materials is incredibly rapid, in some cases already being in limited local supply. This trend certainly promotes the requirement for longer service life of reinforced concrete structures.

Reinforced concrete structures can be subjected to different environmental actions, for example, steel corrosion in concrete can be caused by chloride ions from marine environments and where deicing salts are used, and carbonation by CO2 in the atmosphere. Immersed concrete structures could suffer from sulfate attack when sulfate ions are present in the surrounding water. Corrosion of steel in concrete has become the most important durability and safety concern for reinforced concrete structures. Additionally, cracks may facilitate the ingress of these harmful substances into concrete and thereby accelerate the corrosion process of steel. All of these affect the service life of reinforced concrete structures.

Effective coating barriers could provide protection to reinforced concrete in withstanding the effects of harmful substances. Effective coating barriers include coatings on concrete surfaces and steel surfaces. The coatings on concrete surface could be silane or other waterproof materials that prevent the ingress of water. The coating on steel surface could be epoxy, which isolates the steel from harmful substances. Other innovative coatings could also be applied. There is an urgent demand to understand the performance of these coatings, especially their long-term performance, including in terms of bonding loss, degradation, etc.

In particular, topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Long-term performance of coatings on steel or concrete surfaces in reinforced concrete
  • Degradation mechanisms of coatings
  • Epoxy coatings on steel in concrete
  • Silane coatings on concrete surfaces
  • Innovative coatings on concrete surface, such as waterproof coatings, breathable coatings, etc.

Dr. Junjie Wang
Dr. Hongwei Lin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Effective Coating System Should Be Applied to Concrete with Recycled Waste Materials
by Junjie Wang
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081133 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
With global concerns over increasing CO2 emissions, many countries have set up different strategies to achieve net zero CO2 emissions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 9264 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Pretreatment on the Properties of Cement-Based Recycled Powder
by Jianglin Li, Yuan Feng, Huaicheng Zhong, Baifa Zhang, Junjie Wang, Bin Zhang and Jianhe Xie
Coatings 2024, 14(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings14010107 - 13 Jan 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Three pretreatment methods including calcination, carbonization, and a carbonization-calcination combined pretreatment were studied to understand the pretreatment mechanisms for cement-based recycled powder (CRP). The mineral and microstructure of the CRP sample were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravity [...] Read more.
Three pretreatment methods including calcination, carbonization, and a carbonization-calcination combined pretreatment were studied to understand the pretreatment mechanisms for cement-based recycled powder (CRP). The mineral and microstructure of the CRP sample were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravity (TG) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after exposure to different thermal temperatures (400 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C), carbonization times (6 h, 1 d, and 3 d), and pre-carbonization for 1 d followed by heating at 800 °C. The results showed that the optimal thermal pretreatment temperature was approximately 720–800 °C. Through the process of calcination, the C-S-H, Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3 minerals in the CRP sample underwent decomposition to produce CaO or C2S. During carbonation, the pretreatment not only results in the increased production of CaCO3 owing to the reaction of the C-S-H gel and Ca(OH)2 with CO2, but also enhances its properties and the strength of chemical bond between CaCO3 and the post-hydration products. Both CaCO3 and CaO were present after the combined pretreatment, which indicates that the CaCO3 mineral formed superior stability after it had been pre-carbonated. Due to fewer impurities in CRP, the positive effect of the pretreatment on CRP was significantly better than that on recycled powder derived from construction and demolition waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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14 pages, 3501 KiB  
Article
Physicomechanical Properties of Gypsum with Mineral Additions at Elevated Temperatures
by Junjie Wang and Engui Liu
Coatings 2023, 13(12), 2091; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13122091 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Gypsum, from either nature or industrial by-products, can be a lower-cost and cleaner alternative binder to Portland cement used in construction projects, such as affordable housing in developing countries. Although various building products have successfully used gypsum as the binder, some drawbacks of [...] Read more.
Gypsum, from either nature or industrial by-products, can be a lower-cost and cleaner alternative binder to Portland cement used in construction projects, such as affordable housing in developing countries. Although various building products have successfully used gypsum as the binder, some drawbacks of this material have still been claimed, for example, in the aspects of mechanical strength and some other physical properties. Using mineral additions to gypsum seems to be a possible solution to create composite gypsum with improved properties. This work has investigated the possibility of two common minerals (silica flour and talc powder) in modifying composite gypsum’s physical and mechanical performance at elevated temperatures (100–1100 °C), including hydration, strength, thermal conduction and stability, and microstructure. The results suggest that 10% gypsum replacement by silica flour or talc powder modifies gypsum’s physical and mechanical properties, with silica flour performing better than talc powder. The performance of composite gypsum at elevated temperatures depends on the treatment temperature and reflects the combined effects of gypsum phase change and the filler effects of silica flour or talc powder. Thermal treatment at ≤200 °C increased the thermal resistance of all gypsum boards but decreased their compressive strength. Thermal treatment at ≥300 °C significantly increased the compressive strength of gypsum with silica flour and talc powder but induced intensive microcracks and thus failed the thermal insulation. This investigation indicates that silica flour can potentially raise the mechanical performance of gypsum. At the same time, talc powder can hold water and lubricate, which may help with the continuous hydration of gypsum phases and the rheology of its mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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22 pages, 10045 KiB  
Article
Influence of Combined Air-Entraining Superplasticizer and Surface Treatments on Airport Pavement Concrete against Salt Freezing
by Molan Li, Yong Lai, Daoxun Ma, Junjie Wang, Lei Xu, Zhibin Gao, Yan Liu, Le Li, Yaopu Guo, Lifan Zheng and Yi Zhang
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020372 - 06 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Effective improvement of the frost resistance of concrete in cold regions is critical for the durability of airport pavement concrete in plateau. This paper intends to contribute to a better knowledge of the effects of combined air-entraining superplasticizer and surface treatments on the [...] Read more.
Effective improvement of the frost resistance of concrete in cold regions is critical for the durability of airport pavement concrete in plateau. This paper intends to contribute to a better knowledge of the effects of combined air-entraining superplasticizer and surface treatments on the resistance against freezing-thawing and salt freezing. First, an optimum mixing by considering w/c, cement content, sand ratio, and air-entraining superplasticizer was obtained by comparing compressive and flexural strength, microstructure, pore distribution, and resistance to freezing-thawing of different mixes. From the results, a concrete mix with air-entraining superplasticizer, w/c = 0.4, cement amount at 330 kg/m3, and sand ratio = 0.3 was selected for airport pavement. Then, this mix was subjected to salt freezing with different surface treatments (smoothing, brushing, spraying with silane, and impregnating with silane), and the spalled mass loss in salt freeze cycles was reported. The results show that combined use air-entraining superplasticizer and surface treatments can provide an obvious improvement on the resistance to salt freezing. Compared to silane impregnation, surface treatment by silane spraying performed much better in early time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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15 pages, 3879 KiB  
Article
Novel Perimidine Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors of HRB400 Steel in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution
by Qi Ma, Jingshun Cai, Song Mu, Hao Zhang, Kai Liu, Jianzhong Liu and Jinxiang Hong
Coatings 2023, 13(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13010073 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
1H-Perimidine (PMD) and 1H-perimidine-2-thiol (SPMD) were developed as inhibitors for reinforcing steel in a simulated concrete pore (SCP) solution. Electrochemical measurements, contact angle experiments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantum chemical calculations were used to investigate the corrosion performance and adsorption mechanisms. The [...] Read more.
1H-Perimidine (PMD) and 1H-perimidine-2-thiol (SPMD) were developed as inhibitors for reinforcing steel in a simulated concrete pore (SCP) solution. Electrochemical measurements, contact angle experiments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantum chemical calculations were used to investigate the corrosion performance and adsorption mechanisms. The experimental results showed that owing to the structure of SPMD containing a 2-position sulfhydryl group, SPMD is superior to PMD as a corrosion inhibitor for HRB400 reinforced steel in the SCP solution, and its corrosion efficiency can reach more than 80%. Moreover, the introduction of nitrogen and sulfur atoms into the inhibitor not only can coordinate with Fe atoms to form strong bonds but also is useful for preventing charge transfer in the metal corrosion process. More importantly, the perimidine derivatives can spontaneously adsorb on iron, and the adsorption process obeys the Langmuir isotherm. The research results show that the perimidine derivatives can improve the durability of concrete structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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13 pages, 15254 KiB  
Article
Effect of Phaeodactylum Tricornutum in Seawater on the Hydration of Blended Cement Pastes
by Junjie Wang, Lei Xu, Jiatong Guo, Yimu Jiang, Hang He, Yuli Wang, Weiqi Fu, Yi Zhu, Zhe Ye, Pukang He and Yi Zhang
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111639 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Seawater can be used as mixing water for concrete with no steel reinforcement in some areas with difficult access to fresh water. Diatoms such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum are among the most abundant micro-organisms living in seawater, and they could be unavoidable when collecting [...] Read more.
Seawater can be used as mixing water for concrete with no steel reinforcement in some areas with difficult access to fresh water. Diatoms such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum are among the most abundant micro-organisms living in seawater, and they could be unavoidable when collecting seawater. In fact, diatoms can provide bio-SiO2 and bio-CaCO3 sources, namely amorphous nano-SiO2 and crystallised nano-CaCO3, which could be beneficial to cement hydration. Thus, the effects of different Phaeodactylum tricornutum concentrations (0%, 2.5% and 5% by weight of suspension of seawater and diatoms) in seawater on cement hydration in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mixes (100% OPC) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) mixes (70% OPC + 30% GGBS) were investigated through tests of compressive strength, XRD, DTG–DTA and SEM. The results show that diatoms accelerated cement hydration by providing the nucleus for C-S-H structure and contributed pozzolanic reactions by amorphous nano-SiO2 and nano-CaCO3. The accelerated cement hydration was also confirmed by the fact that more Ca(OH)2 was formed in cement pastes with diatoms. However, it has also been found that diatoms decreased the compressive strength of cement pastes by leaving more weak bonds between the C-S-H structure, which was considered to be caused by the organic parts and the micron gap formed in diatoms. When comparing an OPC paste mix with 5% diatoms to a blank OPC paste, the reduction in compressive strength at 28 days can reach a maximum of 50.1%. The ability to provide bridging effects between C-S-H particles in GGBS paste was discovered to depend on the development of additional ettringite. This resulted in a 7.6% loss in compressive strength after 28 days in a GGBS paste with 5% diatoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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14 pages, 3877 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Bio-Waste-Derived Carbon Doping on De-Icing Performance of an Electrically Resistant Concrete
by Baglan Bakbolat, Chingis Daulbayev, Fail Sultanov, Azamat Taurbekov, Aidos Tolynbekov, Mukhtar Yeleuov, Alina V. Korobeinyk and Zulkhair Mansurov
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111629 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
This paper proposes a modified carbon-based concrete filler composition, which can potentially be used as a self-de-icing pavement. Carbon fibers (CNFs), graphene-like porous carbon (GLC), and a CNF/GLC composite were developed to reinforce concrete with the aim to improve its electrical conductivity and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a modified carbon-based concrete filler composition, which can potentially be used as a self-de-icing pavement. Carbon fibers (CNFs), graphene-like porous carbon (GLC), and a CNF/GLC composite were developed to reinforce concrete with the aim to improve its electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. The effect of the CNF and GLC loadings on the electrical conductivity of the filled concrete was evaluated in a climatic chamber at temperatures simulating water-freezing conditions on a concrete road. The results show that even a negligible loading (0.2 wt.%) of concrete with CNF/GLC results in a dramatic decrease in its resistance when compared to the same loadings for CNF and GLC added separately. Depending on the number of fillers, the temperature of the modified concrete samples reached up to +19.8 °C at low voltage (10 V) at −10 °C, demonstrating the perspective of their heat output for anti-icing applications. Additionally, this study shows that adding 2.0 wt.% of the CNF/GLC composite to the concrete improves its compressive strength by 33.93% compared to the unmodified concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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16 pages, 2218 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Double-Sulfate Composite Early Strength Agent to Improve the Hydration Hardening Properties of Portland Cement Paste
by Yuli Wang, Luyi Sun, Songhui Liu, Shuaijie Li, Xuemao Guan and Shuqiong Luo
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101485 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
A novel double-sulfate composite early strength agent (DSA) incorporating aluminum sulfate and sodium sulfate was developed to improve the early strength of Portland cement paste. The effect of the DSA dosage on the setting and hardening properties, hydration process, hydration product composition, microstructure, [...] Read more.
A novel double-sulfate composite early strength agent (DSA) incorporating aluminum sulfate and sodium sulfate was developed to improve the early strength of Portland cement paste. The effect of the DSA dosage on the setting and hardening properties, hydration process, hydration product composition, microstructure, and pore structure of the Portland cement paste was investigated to reveal its synergistic enhancement mechanism. The results show that the 3 d and 28 d compressive strengths of the Portland cement paste incorporating with 1.0% aluminum sulfate and 1.5% sodium sulfate performed the best, with a 21.3% and 29.7% increase, respectively, compared to the control group. The heat of hydration, XRD, TG, SEM, and MIP tests showed that aluminum sulfate and sodium sulfate acted synergistically, with more AFt (Ettringite) being produced by the synergistic use of 1.0% aluminum sulfate and 1.5% sodium sulfate. Moreover, the hydration of C3S and C2S was accelerated, which resulted in a denser microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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10 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Half-Cell Potential Measurements for Reinforced Concrete Corrosion
by Yousef Almashakbeh, Eman Saleh and Nabil M. Al-Akhras
Coatings 2022, 12(7), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12070975 - 09 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
The evaluation of half-cell potential measurements in reinforced concrete (RC) members can be a key issue for civil engineers. The primary reason for this is that the interpretation of half-cell potential measurements based on the available standards provides information related only to the [...] Read more.
The evaluation of half-cell potential measurements in reinforced concrete (RC) members can be a key issue for civil engineers. The primary reason for this is that the interpretation of half-cell potential measurements based on the available standards provides information related only to the possibility of corrosion in concrete, but it does not provide a clear perception of the influence of corrosion on the capacity of the RC members. The objective of this study is two-fold: (1) to explore the influence of corrosion level on the flexural capacity of RC members; and (2) to provide engineers with a better understanding of the correlation between half-cell potential measurements and flexural capacity of RC members. To establish this, twelve RC beams were cast and then exposed to accelerated corrosion utilizing an impressed current. After that, half-cell potential tests were performed on the entire surface of the beams. Next, a four-point loading test was performed on the beams to determine their flexural behavior. The analysis of measurements showed that there is a high positive correlation between the half-cell potential measurements and the flexural capacity of the tested beams which demonstrates the potential of half-cell measurements to predict the capacity degradation level of the RC beams due to corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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18 pages, 2802 KiB  
Article
Effect of Slurry Coating Modified Methods on Water Absorption of Recycled Coarse Aggregate
by Lei Yu, Sizhong Lv, Zhijie Zhao and Zhaolei Liu
Coatings 2022, 12(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030363 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Water absorption rate of the recycled coarse aggregate is higher than the natural ones. Until now, there is no test method to record the instantaneous value of the water absorption although this could help us to understand the recycled coarse aggregate better. This [...] Read more.
Water absorption rate of the recycled coarse aggregate is higher than the natural ones. Until now, there is no test method to record the instantaneous value of the water absorption although this could help us to understand the recycled coarse aggregate better. This paper developed a new device that can record the water absorption continuously and calculate the water absorption rate automatically. The water absorption curve from 0 min to 60 min can be plotted smoothly. The performances of modified recycled coarse aggregate and concretes with recycled coarse aggregate have also been studied. The result shows that the water absorption rate increases fast and about 90% water has been absorbed during the first 10 min. The slurry of silicon nitride with 500 nm particle size can reduce the 10 min water absorption rate of the recycled coarse aggregate from above 4.5% to below 2.5%. A recycled coarse aggregate wrapped with wet slurry is better than the ones wrapped with dry slurry shell for the slump of concrete. Compared to the concrete without any recycled coarse aggregate, the compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength of the concrete with recycled coarse aggregate modified by fresh cement slurry have been increased by more than 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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13 pages, 5071 KiB  
Article
Carbonation Resistance of Surface Protective Materials Modified with Hybrid NanoSiO2
by Kailun Xia, Yue Gu, Linhua Jiang, Mingzhi Guo, Lei Chen and Feilong Hu
Coatings 2021, 11(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11030269 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
To date, reinforcement concrete is the main construction material worldwide. As the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is steadily increasing, carbonation of the reinforcement concrete becomes a pressing concern. In this study, novel surface protective materials (SPMs) modified with hybrid nanoSiO2 (HNS), [...] Read more.
To date, reinforcement concrete is the main construction material worldwide. As the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is steadily increasing, carbonation of the reinforcement concrete becomes a pressing concern. In this study, novel surface protective materials (SPMs) modified with hybrid nanoSiO2 (HNS), fly ash, and slag were developed to reduce CO2 emissions and extend the service life of the reinforcement concrete. The carbonation depths were measured by phenolphthalein to reflect the carbonation resistance. X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted to analyze the chemical components of the samples after carbonation. In addition, MIP was carried out to examine the microstructures of the samples prior to carbonation. Thermodynamic modeling was employed to calculate the changes in the phase assemblages of each blends in an ideal situation. The experimental results showed that the carbonation depth and CaCO3 content of the SPM modified with HNS decreased by 79.0% and 64.6% compared with the reference, respectively. The TGA results showed that after carbonation, the CaCO3 contents were 4.40% and 12.42% in the HNS modified samples and reference samples, respectively. MIP analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of HNS in SPM led to a 48.3% and 58.5% decrease in big pores and capillary pores, respectively. Overall, the SPMs modified with HNS in this study possessed better carbonation resistance and refined pore structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Coating Barriers for Protection of Reinforced Concrete)
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