Recent Advancement in Thin Film Deposition, Characterization, and Surface Engineering

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Characterization, Deposition and Modification".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 16041

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701401, Taiwan
Interests: tribology; nanomechanics; nanotechnology; biomaterial; surface texture; semiconductor fabrication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure to announce this Special Issue “Recent Advancement in Thin Film Deposition, Characterization, and Surface Engineering” in Coatings.

Thin film deposition, characterization, and surface engineering are eminent topics, attracting great interest from the scientific community. The subjects include the experimental, theoretical, and fabricating issues associated with the development of new thin film materials and processes, novel methods of analysis and characterization, and approaches for industrial applications. 

This Special Issue focused on science and engineering for a wide spectrum of aspects related to thin films, coatings, and plasma technologies for sustainable energy, semiconductor, optoelectronics, flexible device, tribological, organic, biological, protective, and functional surface engineering. Submissions should be in the form of original research articles or authoritative review papers on the following, non-exhaustive list of topics:

  • Nanostructured and nanocomposite thin films;
  • Semiconductor, optoelectronic, and flexible device thin films;
  • Tribological and protective thin films;
  • Sustainable energy thin films;
  • Organic and biological thin films;
  • Metallic and high-entropy alloy thin films;
  • Theory, simulation, and modeling; quantitative surface analysis of thin films

Prof. Yeau-Ren Jeng
Prof. Dr. Ming-Tzer Lin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Thin film
  • Deposition
  • Characterization
  • Surface engineering
  • Plasma technologies

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
Controllable Water Penetration through a Smart Brass Mesh Modified by Mercaptobenzoic Acid and Naphthalenethiol
by Cong-Cong Luan, Yu-Ping Zhang, Cheng-Xing Cui, De-Liang Chen, Yuan Chen and Meng-Jun Chen
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111729 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
In this paper, a novel pH-responsive brass mesh modified by 3-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) and 2-naphthalenethiol (NPT) was demonstrated via a facile chemical etching method followed by surface modification. The smart wettability was dependent on the assembled MBA and NPT with suitable thiol proportions. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel pH-responsive brass mesh modified by 3-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) and 2-naphthalenethiol (NPT) was demonstrated via a facile chemical etching method followed by surface modification. The smart wettability was dependent on the assembled MBA and NPT with suitable thiol proportions. The on–off control of water penetrating intelligently into the nanostructured brass mesh substrate was carried out by the pH change in the outside environment. The brass mesh modified with XNPT = 0.4 (mole fraction of NBT in the mixed solution) exhibited the strongest pH responsivity from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity. Furthermore, the resulted Janus membrane (JM) fabricated by the integration of a smart brass mesh and hydrophobic Ni foam could be used as a water diode in air and liquid systems. Unidirectional penetration for the water droplet was realized by the resulting smart JM with a hydrophobic upper layer and a pH-responsive layer below. Full article
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14 pages, 20496 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effect of Pt Addition on the Fracture Behavior of CrN Coatings by Finite Element Simulation
by Haifeng Sun, Weilun Zhang, Yongjun Feng, Suying Hu, Hua Tian and Zhiwen Xie
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081131 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Previous research confirmed that Pt addition induced a prominent refinement effect of CrN coating, resulting in an enhanced conductivity and corrosion resistance. In this work, a detailed finite element simulation and scratch test were employed to calculate and characterize the fracture failure behaviors [...] Read more.
Previous research confirmed that Pt addition induced a prominent refinement effect of CrN coating, resulting in an enhanced conductivity and corrosion resistance. In this work, a detailed finite element simulation and scratch test were employed to calculate and characterize the fracture failure behaviors (stress distribution, crack damage process, critical coating load, and coating–substrate adhesion energy) of CrN coatings with different Pt contents. Simulation results showed that the synergistic action of dynamic scratch load and extrusion load induced the fracture of the coatings. S11 and S22 caused transverse cracks in the CrN coating, S11 caused longitudinal cracks in the CrN-Pt coating and CrN-3Pt coatings, S22 led to the inclined propagation of cracks in these coatings, and S11 and S22 jointly induced the separation of the coating from the substrate. The doping Pt element in the CrN coating will make the coating easier to fracture and reduce the adhesion strength between the coating and substrate. Scratch test results revealed that adding Pt into the CrN coating will make this coating easier to fracture and cause more serious damage; the simulation results are in good accordance with the scratch test characterizations. The current founding provided a comprehensive understanding for the fracture damage mechanism of Pt-doped nitride coatings. Full article
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12 pages, 3759 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Degradation Behaviors of Ti6Al4V Alloys in Simulated Marine Environments
by Wei Chen, Dalu Zhang, Enlei Wang, Feng Yan, Lin Xiang and Zhiwen Xie
Coatings 2022, 12(7), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12071028 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Detailed tests and characterizations were used to investigate the corrosion degradation behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloys in simulated marine environments. These alloys suffered from very slight pitting and a miniscule weight loss of 0.018 mg/cm2 during the 50 cycle salt spray exposure but [...] Read more.
Detailed tests and characterizations were used to investigate the corrosion degradation behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloys in simulated marine environments. These alloys suffered from very slight pitting and a miniscule weight loss of 0.018 mg/cm2 during the 50 cycle salt spray exposure but experienced significant oxygen erosion in the high-temperature oxidation test, resulting in a high weight gain of 2.657 mg/cm2 at 400 h. The oxidation and degradation reactions simultaneously occurred during the high-temperature hot salt test. The chlorine (Cl2) induced by the eutectic reaction of the mixed salts accelerated the degradation of the substrate and led to a higher weight gain of 4.265 mg/cm2 at 400 h. In contrast, this alloy suffered from severe corrosion damage during the high-temperature hot salt–water vapor synergy test. The degradation of TiO2, Al2O3, and V2O5 was aggravated by the synergistic action of chlorine salt and water. The reaction forming hydrochloric acid (HCl) further degraded the matrix metal and consequently led to a high weight loss of 16.358 mg/cm2 at 400 h. These current findings provide a comprehensive understanding for the degradation mechanisms of Ti alloys in these specific marine environments. Full article
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18 pages, 6035 KiB  
Article
Vibration Reduction Characteristics and Vibration Control of Aviation Hydraulic Pipeline by Hard Coating
by Zhining Cui, Xiaoguang Yu, Ziqing Ran, Jiaming Liu, Chunqiu Li and Lei Gao
Coatings 2022, 12(6), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12060775 - 04 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Aviation hydraulic pipelines are an important channel for power transmission in aviation hydraulic systems. Due to long-term exposure to complex vibration environments, hydraulic pipeline systems are susceptible to accumulated fatigue damage failure, which poses a great threat to aircraft safety and reliability. At [...] Read more.
Aviation hydraulic pipelines are an important channel for power transmission in aviation hydraulic systems. Due to long-term exposure to complex vibration environments, hydraulic pipeline systems are susceptible to accumulated fatigue damage failure, which poses a great threat to aircraft safety and reliability. At present, there are only passive ways to reduce hydraulic pipeline vibration, such as adding vibration isolators and damping bearings. These methods have a poor vibration damping effect and are not safe. In this study, a hard coating was used as a new vibration reduction method for aviation hydraulic pipelines to reduce the damage caused by vibrations. For this purpose, three different hard-coating materials were optimally selected, and model creation, finite element analysis, and experimental research were carried out to study the vibration responses of hard-coated aviation hydraulic pipelines under the actual working conditions of an aircraft. The optimal solution was obtained through orthogonal experiments. The vibration reduction rate of the aviation hydraulic pipelines could reach 20.33% under the constant-frequency excitation of the low-pressure rotor of the engine, and the vibration reduction rate under the constant-frequency excitation of the high-pressure rotor could reach 26.60%. The rationality of the model was verified, and it was proven that the hard coating could meet the demands of vibration control in practical engineering and provide a reference for the vibration analysis and vibration control design of aviation hydraulic piping systems. Full article
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14 pages, 4663 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Residual Stress Measurement of TiN/Ti Duplex Coating Using HiPIMS TiN on Cold Spray Ti
by Nhat Minh Dang, Wen-Yen Lin, Zhao-Ying Wang, Sima Ahmad Alidokht, Richard R. Chromik, Terry Yuan-Fang Chen and Ming-Tzer Lin
Coatings 2022, 12(6), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12060759 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
This study investigated the mechanical properties and the residual stress of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) titanium nitride (TiN) thin film capping on cold spray titanium (Ti) coating. This TiN/Ti duplex coating was deposited on the Ti substrate, and the cold spray titanium [...] Read more.
This study investigated the mechanical properties and the residual stress of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) titanium nitride (TiN) thin film capping on cold spray titanium (Ti) coating. This TiN/Ti duplex coating was deposited on the Ti substrate, and the cold spray titanium (Ti) coating was prepared in three cases with different numbers of layers. The study determined Young’s modulus, hardness, and roughness of TiN thin film and cold spray Ti coatings by nano-indentation and AFM. The residual stress measurement of TiN/Ti duplex coating was conducted using the ring-core drilling method. A focused ion beam (FIB) drilled the TiN/Ti duplex coating with various milling depth steps. The corresponding images were obtained with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The relationship between surface deformations and relaxation stress after each milling depth step was obtained using the digital image correlation (DIC) method. The results showed TiN/Ti duplex coating exhibited excellent mechanical properties, and the residual stresses were not significantly changing with different Ti cold spray substrates, showing the feasibility of coating technology for the future applications in the aerospace industry. Full article
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20 pages, 10013 KiB  
Article
Influence of Particle Concentration on the Elemental Penetration Region and Properties of Ni-P-SiC Composite Coatings Prepared through Sandblasting and Scanning Electrodeposition on 45 Steel Surfaces
by Zhengwei Zhang, Jieyu Xian, Hongbin Wu, Meifu Jin and Zhenyu Shen
Coatings 2021, 11(10), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11101237 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Ni-P-SiC composite coating was prepared on 45 steel surfaces through sandblasting and scanning electrodeposition to explore the relationship between element penetration region and composite coating properties. The single-factor control variable method with particle concentration as the research variable was used. Results showed that [...] Read more.
Ni-P-SiC composite coating was prepared on 45 steel surfaces through sandblasting and scanning electrodeposition to explore the relationship between element penetration region and composite coating properties. The single-factor control variable method with particle concentration as the research variable was used. Results showed that with the gradually increasing concentration of SiC nanoparticles, a trend of first increasing and then gradually decreasing was observed for the surface and cross-sectional microstructure of the coating, interpenetration ability of the elements, adhesion performance, and corrosion resistance. The best deposition quality of the coating was obtained when the concentration of SiC nanoparticles was 3 g·L−1. For cross-sectional microstructure, the scratch test revealed that the maximum coating thickness was 17.3 μm, the maximum range of elemental penetration region was 28.39 μm, and the maximum adhesion of the composite coating was 36.5 N. The electrochemical test showed that the composite coating had a −0.30 V self-corrosion potential and 8.45 × 10−7 A·cm−2 self-corrosion current density, the slowest corrosion rate. In addition, the composite coating had the best corrosion resistance and the largest impedance arc radius corresponding to an equivalent impedance value R2 of 3108 Ω. Full article
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9 pages, 44192 KiB  
Article
Adhesion of Electrospun Poly(acrylonitrile) Nanofibers on Conductive and Isolating Foil Substrates
by Christian Hellert, Martin Wortmann, Natalie Frese, Georg Grötsch, Carsten Cornelißen and Andrea Ehrmann
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020249 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2563
Abstract
Electrospinning can be used to prepare nanofibers from various polymers and polymer blends. The adhesion of nanofibers to the substrates on which they are electrospun varies greatly with the substrate material and structure. In some cases, good adhesion is desired to produce sandwich [...] Read more.
Electrospinning can be used to prepare nanofibers from various polymers and polymer blends. The adhesion of nanofibers to the substrates on which they are electrospun varies greatly with the substrate material and structure. In some cases, good adhesion is desired to produce sandwich structures by electrospinning one material directly onto another. This is the case, e.g., with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). While both pure foil DSSCs and pure electrospun DSSCs have been examined, a combination of both technologies can be used to combine their advantages, e.g., the lateral strength of foils with the large surface-to-volume ratio of electrospun nanofibers. Here, we investigate the morphology and adhesion of electrospun nanofibers on different foil substrates containing materials commonly used in DSSCs, such as graphite, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) or TiO2. The results show that the foil material strongly influences the adhesion, while a plasma pretreatment of the foils showed no significant effect. Moreover, it is well known that conductive substrates can alter the morphology of nanofiber mats, both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. However, these effects could not be observed in the current study. Full article
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14 pages, 3013 KiB  
Perspective
Recent Report on the Hydrothermal Growth of LiFePO4 as a Cathode Material
by Dimitra Vernardou
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101543 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2782
Abstract
Various growth processes have been utilized for the development of lithium iron phosphate including microwave treatment, spray thermal decomposition, sol-gel and the hydrothermal route. However, microwave treatment, spray process and sol-gel suffer from high costs and difficulties in controlling growth parameters. In this [...] Read more.
Various growth processes have been utilized for the development of lithium iron phosphate including microwave treatment, spray thermal decomposition, sol-gel and the hydrothermal route. However, microwave treatment, spray process and sol-gel suffer from high costs and difficulties in controlling growth parameters. In this review paper, recent synthetic strategies, including the raw materials utilized for the hydrothermal growth of lithium iron phosphate, their effect on the basic characteristics and, as a consequence, the electrochemical performance of cathodes, are reported. The advantages of the hydrothermal process, including high material stability, eco-friendliness, low production costs and material abundance, are explained along with the respective processing parameters, which can be easily tuned to modify lithium iron phosphate characteristics such as structure, morphology and particle size. Specifically, we focus on strategies that were applied in the last three years to improve the performance and electrochemical stability of the cathode utilizing carbon-based materials, N-doped graphene oxide and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), along with the addition of metallic nanoparticles such as silver. Finally, future perspectives on the hydrothermal process are discussed including the simultaneous growth of powders and solid-state electrodes (i.e., growth of lithium iron phosphate on a rigid substrate) and the improvement in morphology and orientation for its establishment and standardization for the growth of energy storage materials. Full article
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