Recent Advancement in Biological Microelectromechanical Systems (BioMEMS) and Biomimetic Coatings

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Engineering for Energy Harvesting, Conversion, and Storage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 18733

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Interests: bio-MEMS; tribology; wear; metal matrix composite materials; magnesium alloy; hydrogen storage materials; metallic materials for microbial fuel cell
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Interests: semiconductor wafer bonding science and technology; silicon photonic laser technology; electrochemical; bio-MEMS device for silicon-based materials; high-pressure die casting technique for automotive engines; thin-film solar cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure to announce this Special Issue on “Recent Advancement in Biological Microelectromechanical Systems (BioMEMS) and Biomimetic Coatings”, which will be published in Coatings this year.

Biomimetic micro- and nanotechnology has grown substantially in recent years, contributing to significant progress in the pharmaceutical and biomedical domains. The advancement of such technologies has led to the development of improved and new materials, tools, and devices, with various applications. The interdisciplinary nature of bio-MEMS combines material sciences, clinical sciences, medicine, surgery, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, optical engineering, chemical engineering, and biomedical engineering. Some of its major applications include genomics, proteomics, molecular diagnostics, point-of-care diagnostics, tissue engineering, single cell analysis, and implantable microdevices.

Biomimetic organic hybrid coatings used for the replacement and repair of biomedical devices, including certain types of metal, glass ceramic, and polymer materials are of interest. Furthermore, advanced organic and biological coatings applied in bioelectronics, biosensors, or tissue engineering are also important topics.

This Special Issue provides a platform to share knowledge around unsurpassed networking and relationship-building opportunities by presenting and discussing topics including but not limited to:

  • Lab-on-a-chip (LOC);
  • Microfluidic devices;
  • Micrototal analysis system (μTAS);
  • Organic materials and devices coatings;
  • Self-assembly hybrid materials coatings;
  • Biointerfaces;
  • Bioelectronics and biosensors;
  • Electrospinning coatings;
  • Plasma treatment;
  • The relationship between structure, properties, and biological materials applications.

Prof. Dr. Song-Jeng Huang
Prof. Dr. Ming-Tzer Lin
Dr. Chao-Ching Chiang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 205 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advancements in Biological Microelectromechanical Systems (BioMEMS) and Biomimetic Coatings
by Song-Jeng Huang, Ming-Tzer Lin, Chao-Ching Chiang, Kavya Arun Dwivedi and Aqeel Abbas
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121800 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Biomimetic micro- and nanotechnology have substantially grown in recent years, contributing to significant progress in the pharmaceutical and biomedical domains [...] Full article
5 pages, 195 KiB  
Editorial
Point-of-Care Testing Blood Coagulation Detectors Using a Bio-Microfluidic Device Accompanied by Raman Spectroscopy
by Song-Jeng Huang, Chao-Ching Chiang, Philip Nathaniel Immanuel and Murugan Subramania
Coatings 2022, 12(7), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12070893 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
An efficient technique was developed for the detection of human blood coagulation using a bio-microfluidic device based on Raman spectra [...] Full article

Research

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14 pages, 2242 KiB  
Article
Temperature Sensing via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Vapor
by Teh-Chau Liau, Jian-Qi Shen and Shun-Feng Su
Coatings 2023, 13(11), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13111887 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 696
Abstract
The behavior of multilevel atomic ensembles (e.g., alkali-metal atoms) can be influenced significantly by the intensity of a driving field (or controlling/coupling field). The phase coherence between two transition pathways driven by a probe light and a driving field can lead to the [...] Read more.
The behavior of multilevel atomic ensembles (e.g., alkali-metal atoms) can be influenced significantly by the intensity of a driving field (or controlling/coupling field). The phase coherence between two transition pathways driven by a probe light and a driving field can lead to the effect known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In EIT, the probe light can pass through a three-level alkali-metal atomic vapor without absorption or reflection when two coherent resonances (transition pathways driven by the driving and probe fields) are present and the linewidths of the transparency windows are sufficiently narrow. The optical characteristics of atomic systems can also be affected by the Doppler broadening of the absorption profile in a spectroscope. Our analysis indicates that both broadenings (related to the transitions excited by the driving and probe fields) can be expanded, leading to an increase in the transmittance and reflectance broadenings when a coupling field with adaptive strength is applied; the corresponding temperature would, thus, be implemented and readable. We show that the most suitable preparation for temperature sensing via an EIT vapor is to provide 80 times the spontaneous decay rate (SDR) of the excited atomic levels. This configuration results in reflectance and transmittance values that range between zero and one and cover a temperature range of 0 K to 600 K. As an example, we demonstrate the integration of specialized coating technologies with EIT ensembles for temperature sensing in the range of dozens of kelvins at and above room temperature. A key advantage of this temperature-sensing system is its ability to use adaptive resonant visible light as the probe field. This novel approach may find applications in providing unprecedented levels of precision and control in temperature sensing for coating processes and in the design of other photonic or optical devices. It can also be used to determine the temperature-dependent behavior of the specific heat of alkali-metal solids and gases (including the latent heats of vaporization or sublimation of alkali-metal solids) through the reflection and transmission spectra of the vaporized EIT atomic vapors. Full article
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14 pages, 4897 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Synergic Effects of WS2 and ECAP on Degradation Behavior of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy
by Aqeel Abbas and Song-Jeng Huang
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111710 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
In this research, WS2/AZ91 metal matrix composites were manufactured using the stir casting method. The composites were severely deformed using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The degradation behavior of severely deformed and as-cast samples was investigated using the three-electrode system in [...] Read more.
In this research, WS2/AZ91 metal matrix composites were manufactured using the stir casting method. The composites were severely deformed using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The degradation behavior of severely deformed and as-cast samples was investigated using the three-electrode system in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The corrosion products and surface morphology of the corroded surfaces were investigated using an x-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that as-cast monolithic AZ91 exhibited the highest corrosion potential of (−1.553 mV) and a minimum degradation rate (4.099 m·a−1). The reduction ion grain size after severe plastic deformation increased the degradability of WS2/AZ91 composites. Severe plastic deformation reduced the grain size, which led to an increase in the corrosion rate. The synergic effects of (tungsten disulfide) WS2 and ECAP increased the degradation rate to (4.59 m·a−1) in two-pass 1 wt% WS2/AZ91. The increase in WS2 contents decreased the degradation rate (4.512 m·a−1) in homogenized 1 wt% WS2/AZ91 composites. The degradability of AZ91 increased in all conditions under the synergic effects of WS2 and severe plastic deformation. Magnesium and magnesium hydroxide were observed as corrosion products. The maximum surface roughness in two-pass 1 wt% WS2/AZ91 indicated the highest material removed by corrosion from the surface of the composites. Full article
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11 pages, 15454 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Biodegradable Mg–Ca Alloy by ALD HfZrO2 Film
by Pi-Chen Lin, Kaifan Lin, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Kai-Chiang Yang, Vladimir Ivanovitch Semenov, Hsin-Chih Lin and Miin-Jang Chen
Coatings 2022, 12(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12020212 - 6 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Polycrystalline HfZrO2 (HZO) film can be fabricated on as-extruded Mg–Ca alloy, which is identified by the results of XRD and TEM. HZO film can improve the corrosion resistance of as-extruded Mg–Ca alloy to further result in a decrease in the corrosion rate [...] Read more.
Polycrystalline HfZrO2 (HZO) film can be fabricated on as-extruded Mg–Ca alloy, which is identified by the results of XRD and TEM. HZO film can improve the corrosion resistance of as-extruded Mg–Ca alloy to further result in a decrease in the corrosion rate of Mg–Ca alloy. Corrosion current density, pH value evaluation, and the corrosion surface image provide evidence of improvement in corrosion rate. Compared with ZrO2 film, HZO film shows better short-term corrosion resistance. The results of WST-1 assay and LDH assay show that HZO film has low toxicity and is suitable for the protective coating of biological implants. Full article
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14 pages, 4815 KiB  
Article
Microfluidic Simulation and Optimization of Blood Coagulation Factors and Anticoagulants in Polymethyl Methacrylate Microchannels
by Philip Nathaniel Immanuel, Yi-Hsiung Chiu and Song-Jeng Huang
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111394 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Blood coagulation is a critical and complex reaction that involves various chemical substances, such as prothrombin, fibrinogen, and fibrin. The process can be divided into three main steps, namely the formation of the prothrombin activator, conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, and conversion of [...] Read more.
Blood coagulation is a critical and complex reaction that involves various chemical substances, such as prothrombin, fibrinogen, and fibrin. The process can be divided into three main steps, namely the formation of the prothrombin activator, conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, and conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. In this study, an ANSYS simulation is carried out to determine the prothrombin time (PT) of blood, the chemical changes that occur during coagulation and the anticoagulation factor. The addition of deionized water to the microchannels before the addition of blood and reagents results in a two-phase flow. The evaluation of this two-phase flow is necessary, and dynamic simulations are required to determine the PT. The chemical rate constant and order of the chemical reaction are derived from the actual prothrombin time. Moreover, the genetic algorithms in PYTHON and ANSYS are used to estimate chemical reaction parameters for a 20 s PT. The blood and anticoagulant exhibit increased dynamic behavior in the microchannel. In addition, particles are added to the microchannel and the dynamic mesh method is used to simulate the flow behaviors of the red and white blood cells in the microchannel. The PTs for different volumes of blood are also reported. Full article
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16 pages, 8268 KiB  
Article
Use of Digital Image Correlation Method to Measure Bio-Tissue Deformation
by Terry Yuan-Fang Chen, Nhat Minh Dang, Zhao-Ying Wang, Liang-Wei Chang, Wei-Yu Ku, Yu-Lung Lo and Ming-Tzer Lin
Coatings 2021, 11(8), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11080924 - 1 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2911
Abstract
Traditionally, strain gauge, extensometer, and reflection tracking markers have been used to measure the deformation of materials under loading. However, the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of most biological materials restricted the accessibility of the real strain field. Compared to the video extensometer, digital image [...] Read more.
Traditionally, strain gauge, extensometer, and reflection tracking markers have been used to measure the deformation of materials under loading. However, the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of most biological materials restricted the accessibility of the real strain field. Compared to the video extensometer, digital image correlation has the advantage of providing full-field displacement as well as strain information. In this study, a digital image correlation method (DIC) measurement system was employed for chicken breast bio-tissue deformation measurement. To increase the contrast for better correlation, a mixture of ground black pepper and white sesame was sprayed on the surface of samples. The first step was to correct the distorted image caused by the lens using the inverse distorted calibration method and then the influence of subset size and correlation criteria, sum of squared differences (SSD), and zero-normalized sum of squared differences (ZNSSD) were investigated experimentally for accurate measurement. Test results of the sample was translated along the horizontal direction from 0 mm to 3 mm, with an increment of 0.1 mm and the measurement result was compared, and the displacement set on the translation stage. The result shows that the error is less than 3%, and accurate measurement can be achieved with proper surface preparation, subset size, correlation criterion, and image correction. Detailed examination of the strain values show that the strain εx is proportional to the displacement of crosshead, but the strain εy indicates the viscoelastic behavior of tested bio-tissue. In addition, the tested bio-tissue’s linear birefringence extracted by a Mueller matrix polarimetry is for comparison and is in good agreement. As noted above, the integration of the optical parameter measurement system and the digital image correlation method is proposed in this paper to analyze the relationship between the strain changes and optical parameters of biological tissue, and thus the relative optic-stress coefficient can be significantly characterized if Young’s modulus of biological tissue is known. Full article
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20 pages, 4614 KiB  
Article
Heterogeneous Bonding of PMMA and Double-Sided Polished Silicon Wafers through H2O Plasma Treatment for Microfluidic Devices
by Chao-Ching Chiang, Philip Nathaniel Immanuel, Yi-Hsiung Chiu and Song-Jeng Huang
Coatings 2021, 11(5), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11050580 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3633
Abstract
In this work we report on a rapid, easy-to-operate, lossless, room temperature heterogeneous H2O plasma treatment process for the bonding of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and double-sided polished (DSP) silicon substrates by for utilization in sandwich structured microfluidic devices. The heterogeneous bonding [...] Read more.
In this work we report on a rapid, easy-to-operate, lossless, room temperature heterogeneous H2O plasma treatment process for the bonding of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and double-sided polished (DSP) silicon substrates by for utilization in sandwich structured microfluidic devices. The heterogeneous bonding of the sandwich structure produced by the H2O plasma is analyzed, and the effect of heterogeneous bonding of free radicals and high charge electrons (e) in the formed plasma which causes a passivation phenomenon during the bonding process investigated. The PMMA and silicon surface treatments were performed at a constant radio frequency (RF) power and H2O flow rate. Changing plasma treatment time and powers for both processes were investigated during the experiments. The gas flow rate was controlled to cause ionization of plasma and the dissociation of water vapor from hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) bonds, as confirmed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES results show the relative intensity peaks emitted by the OH radicals, H and oxygen (O). The free energy is proportional to the plasma treatment power and gas flow rate with H bonds forming between the adsorbed H2O and OH groups. The gas density generated saturated bonds at the interface, and the discharge energy that strengthened the OH-e bonds. This method provides an ideal heterogeneous bonding technique which can be used to manufacture new types of microfluidic devices. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 3604 KiB  
Review
A Review of Paper-Based Sensors for Gas, Ion, and Biological Detection
by Phillip Nathaniel Immanuel, Song-Jeng Huang, Yudhistira Adityawardhana and Yi-Kuang Yen
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081326 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1983
Abstract
Gas, ion, and biological sensors have been widely utilized to detect analytes of great significance to the environment, food, and health. Paper-based sensors, which can be constructed on a low-cost paper substrate through a simple and cost-effective fabrication process, have attracted much interests [...] Read more.
Gas, ion, and biological sensors have been widely utilized to detect analytes of great significance to the environment, food, and health. Paper-based sensors, which can be constructed on a low-cost paper substrate through a simple and cost-effective fabrication process, have attracted much interests for development. Moreover, many materials can be employed in designing sensors, such as metal oxides and/or inorganic materials, carbon-based nanomaterials, conductive polymers, and composite materials. Most of these provide a large surface area and pitted structure, along with extraordinary electrical and thermal conductivities, which are capable of improving sensor performance regarding sensitivity and limit of detection. In this review, we surveyed recent advances in different types of paper-based gas, ion, and biological sensors, focusing on how these materials’ physical and chemical properties influence the sensor’s response. Challenges and future perspectives for paper-based sensors are also discussed below. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Plan Paper 1

Article
The Improvement of Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys by ALD HfZrO2 Film

Pi-Chen Lin, Wen-Pang Wang, Kaifan Lin, Kai-Chang Yang, Minn-Chang Chen, Hsin-Chih Lin*, Yin-Yi Han

Plan Paper 2

Article

Alloy design and preparation of controllable degradation magnesium alloy

Chuan-Jen Hsu 1, Yu-Chih Tzeng 2,*,Ying-Kuan Tsai 3 and Gunng-Shinng Chen 4

1   Casting Technology Section ,Metal Industries Research & Development Centre, Taiwan

2   Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung-Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan 33551, Taiwan

3   Department of Environmental Information and Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

4   School of Dentistry, Department of Dentistry of Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 

Abstract: Metal is suitable for biodegradable medical structural implants with excellent mechanical properties. Metal implants are gradually lost due to body fluid corrosion, causing material corrosion products to enter the organism and may cause harm to the organism. Therefore, biodegradable medical implants need to take into account the biocompatibility. The products of magnesium-zinc-calcium alloy degradation is non-toxic to organisms. The only disadvantage is that the degradation rate is difficult to control. In order to control the degradation rate of magnesium-zinc-calcium alloys, the fourth element is usually added, such as aluminum or rare earth elements. However, these elements will remain in the organism or cause negative effects of poor metabolism along with the degradation of the alloy. Therefore, there are safety concerns in clinical applications. In this study, magnesium alloy degradable materials are prepared by high-alloy mixed entropy magnesium-zinc-calcium alloys, and are prepared by powder metallurgy processes to avoid macro-segregation and degraded materials. The materials are hot pressed into billets, then extruded into bars, which are then machining into Degradable magnesium bone nails.

Keywords: controllable degradation rate; degradation of magnesium alloy; alloy design

 


 

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