Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Catalytic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 20379

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Functional Materials, FunGlass – Centre for Functional and Surface Functionalized Glass, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín, 911 50 Trenčín, Slovakia
Interests: nanomaterials; semiconductors; surface chemistry; chemical sensors; gas separation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Functional Materials, FunGlass – Centre for Functional and Surface Functionalized Glass, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín, 911 50 Trenčín, Slovakia
Interests: heterogeneous catalysis; green chemistry; plasma catalysis; organic transformation reaction; water splitting; photocatalysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Functional Materials, FunGlass—Centre for Functional and Surface Functionalized Glass, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín, 911 50 Trenčín, Slovakia
Interests: semiconductors; water splitting; photocatalysis; glass and glass-ceramics; inorganic optical materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Functional Materials, FunGlass – Centre for Functional and Surface Functionalized Glass, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín, 911 50 Trenčín, Slovakia
Interests: glass and glass-ceramics; phosphors; inorganic optical materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to welcome you to our Special Issue, “Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis”. As you all know, catalysis is extensively used in innumerable chemical reactions. Catalysis can provide attractive solutions to energy exhaustion and environmental problems. Basically, noble metal-based nano-sized materials have been extensively used due to their highly controllable morphology as well as their tunable and remarkable electrical properties. However, limited sources and the high costs of noble metals have shifted the research trends to cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and renewable catalytic materials.

This Special Issue is devoted to the design and characterization of advanced catalytic materials for different types of applications. Novel composites and new synthesis routes or depositions methods as well as characterization techniques and applications will be assessed and collected under the scope of the current Special Issue.  The main aim is to accumulate the current state of information, the direction of ongoing expansion work, and avenues for further research.

Research articles (full papers), reviews, and communications are welcome. Potential topics include but are not limited to:

Carbon-based materials, metal oxides, composite materials, semiconductors, hybrid materials, zeolites, and nanomaterials:

  • Advanced synthesis approaches;
  • Synthesis and characterization;
  • Nanomaterials/smart materials;
  • Organic transformations;
  • Energy and environmental applications.

Dr. Orhan Şişman
Dr. Surjyakanta Rana
Dr. José Joaquín Velázquez García
Dr. Rajesh Dagupati
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • green synthesis
  • nanomaterials
  • supported catalysts
  • nano-composites materials
  • organic transformations
  • water splitting
  • chemical sensors
  • gas separation

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

19 pages, 33866 KiB  
Article
Highly Efficient Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation for Aliphatic Acid to Liquid Alkane: The Role of Molybdenum
by Jiangtao Li, Depeng Han and Shuqian Xia
Catalysts 2023, 13(10), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13101329 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
A series of NiM/SiO2 (M = Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Zr, Mo) catalysts are prepared and used in the selective hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of aliphatic acid to produce alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms as the reactant (alkane-Cx). The results [...] Read more.
A series of NiM/SiO2 (M = Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Zr, Mo) catalysts are prepared and used in the selective hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of aliphatic acid to produce alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms as the reactant (alkane-Cx). The results indicate the introduction of Mo promotes the hydrodehydration of aliphatic alcohol and suppresses the decarbonylation of aliphatic aldehyde. The selective to alkane-Cx is more than 70% in the case of a complete conversion of aliphatic acid. A mechanism study proves that, due to the higher electronegativity of Mo, electrons transfer from Ni to Mo easily and facilitate the reduction of Mo, and the partially reduced Mo species is favorable for the hydrodehydration of aliphatic alcohol. Meanwhile, the adsorption of alcohol on Mo is more favorable than on the Ni site, and the hydrogen bond between hydroxyl hydrogen and O atoms on the catalyst improves the adsorption stability of aliphatic alcohol. Further COHP analysis indicates that the C-OH bond was activated when alcohol was adsorbed on the Ni5/MoO2 surface, which promoted the hydrodehydration of aliphatic alcohols and improved carbon atom utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 7690 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Different Green Synthetic Routes on the Photocatalytic Potential of FeSnO2 for the Removal of Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet Dyes under Natural Sunlight Exposure
by Arifa Shaukat, Muhammad Akhyar Farrukh, Kok-Keong Chong, Rabia Nawaz, Muhammad Tariq Qamar, Shahid Iqbal, Nasser S. Awwad and Hala A. Ibrahium
Catalysts 2023, 13(7), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13071135 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
FeSnO2 nanocomposites were synthesized via the green method using aqueous leaf extracts of Lawsonia inermis and Phyllanthus embilica plants. The role of polyphenols based on reduction potentials for the synthesis of FeSnO2 was also highlighted. The synthesized materials were examined by [...] Read more.
FeSnO2 nanocomposites were synthesized via the green method using aqueous leaf extracts of Lawsonia inermis and Phyllanthus embilica plants. The role of polyphenols based on reduction potentials for the synthesis of FeSnO2 was also highlighted. The synthesized materials were examined by using TGA and DSC, FT-IR, XRD, and SEM with EDX analysis. Tetragonal rutile and distorted hexagonal structures were observed in SEM images of the FeSnO2 nanocomposites and compared with an FeSnO2 nanocomposite prepared using the sol-gel method. Scherer’s formula yielded crystallite sizes of 29.49, 14.54, and 20.43 nm; however, the average crystallite size assessed employing the Williamson–Hall equation was found to be 20.85, 11.30, and 14.86 nm by using the sol-gel and green techniques, using extracts from Lawsonia inermis and Phyllanthus embilica. The band gap was determined by using the Tauc and Wood equations, and photocatalytic activity was analyzed to determine the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) under the illumination of natural sunlight. It was observed that the sample prepared by means of the green method using the leaf extract of Lawsonia inermis showed the best photocatalytic activity of 84%, with a particle size of 14.54 nm, a 3.10 eV band gap, and a specific surface area of 55.68 m2g−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 3971 KiB  
Article
Innovative Synthetic Approaches for Sulphate-Promoted Catalysts for Biomass Valorisation
by Alessia Giordana, Cristina Pizzolitto, Elena Ghedini, Michela Signoretto, Lorenza Operti and Giuseppina Cerrato
Catalysts 2023, 13(7), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13071094 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
In the present research, we report on an innovative and quick procedure for the synthesis of metal oxides: a sol-gel procedure which is followed by two steps that are assisted by microwaves (MW) heating. First, MW heating promotes gel drying and successively permits [...] Read more.
In the present research, we report on an innovative and quick procedure for the synthesis of metal oxides: a sol-gel procedure which is followed by two steps that are assisted by microwaves (MW) heating. First, MW heating promotes gel drying and successively permits the calcination of the xerogel in a few minutes, using a susceptor that rapidly reaches high temperatures. The procedure was employed for the synthesis of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and MW-assisted calcination enables the collection of tetragonal ZrO2, as confirmed by different experimental techniques (PXRD, HR-TEM and Raman spectroscopy). Using this MW-assisted sol-gel procedure, a promoted sulphated zirconia (SZ) has been obtained. Both the nature and strength of SZ surface acidity have been investigated with FTIR spectroscopy using CO and 2,6-dimethylpyridine (2,6-DMP) as probe molecules. The obtained materials were tested as catalysts in acid hydrolysis of glucose to give 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). One of the obtained catalysts exhibited a better selectivity towards 5-HMF with respect to SZ material prepared by a classical precipitation route, suggesting that this procedure could be employed to obtain a well-known catalyst with a less energy-consuming procedure. Catalytic results also suggest that good selectivity to 5-HMF can be achieved in aqueous media in the presence of weak Lewis and Brønsted sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 6043 KiB  
Article
AAO-Assisted Nanoporous Platinum Films for Hydrogen Sensor Application
by Melike Sener, Orhan Sisman and Necmettin Kilinc
Catalysts 2023, 13(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13030459 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
The effects of the porosity and the thickness on the ability of hydrogen sensing is demonstrated through a comparison of compact and nanoporous platinum film sensors. The synthesis of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotubes with an average pore diameter of less than 100 [...] Read more.
The effects of the porosity and the thickness on the ability of hydrogen sensing is demonstrated through a comparison of compact and nanoporous platinum film sensors. The synthesis of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotubes with an average pore diameter of less than 100 nm served as the template for the fabrication of nanoporous Pt films using an anodization method. This was achieved by applying a voltage of 40 V in 0.4 M of a phosphoric acid solution at 20 °C. To compare the film and nanoporous Pt, layers of approximately 3 nm and 20 nm were coated on both glass substrates and AAO templates using a sputtering technique. FESEM images monitored the formation of nanoporosity by observing the Pt layers covering the upper edges of the AAO nanotubes. Despite their low thickness and the poor long-range order, the EDX and XRD measurements confirmed and uncovered the crystalline properties of the Pt films by comparing the bare and the Pt deposited AAO templates. The nanoporous Pt and Pt thin film sensors were tested in the hydrogen concentration range between 10–50,000 ppm H2 at room temperature, 50 °C, 100 °C and 150 °C. The results reveal that nanoporous Pt performed higher sensitivity than the Pt thin film and the surface scattering phenomenon can express the hydrogen sensing mechanism of the Pt sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3033 KiB  
Article
F,O,S-Codoped Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Efficient Photocatalyst for the Synthesis of Benzoxazoles and Benzimidazoles
by Alberto Santiago-Aliste, Eva Sánchez-Hernández, Celia Andrés-Juan, Pedro Chamorro-Posada, Guillermo Antorrena, Jesús Martín-Gil and Pablo Martín-Ramos
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020385 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a metal-free heterogeneous catalyst that has attracted attention because of its good chemical stability, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness. In the work presented herein, F,O,S-codoped carbon nitride was synthesized by heating a mixture of melamine [...] Read more.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a metal-free heterogeneous catalyst that has attracted attention because of its good chemical stability, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness. In the work presented herein, F,O,S-codoped carbon nitride was synthesized by heating a mixture of melamine cyanurate and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid at 550 °C for 50 min. The obtained product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, CHNS elemental analysis, total combustion-ion chromatography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Results point to an F,O,S-codoped g-C3N4. The material was applied as a photocatalyst for the formation of benzoxazoles and benzimidazoles by condensation–aromatization of 2-aminophenol or 1,2-phenylenediamine with suitable aldehydes (viz. benzaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, 2-naphthaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-methoxybenzaldehyde), obtaining yields of up to 90% in 15 min under visible light irradiation, with good selectivity and reusability. Thus, the reported findings suggest that this F,O,S-codoped g-C3N4 may hold promise as a metal-free photocatalyst for the rapid synthesis of 2-arylbenzoxazoles and 2-arylbenzimidazoles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3548 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Deposition of Vanadium-Oxide on the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanotubes and Its Photodiode Performance Interfaced with CH3NH3PbI3 Single Crystal
by Jelena Vujančević, Pavao Andričević, Veljko Djokić, Vladimir Blagojević, Vera P. Pavlović, Jovana Ćirković, Endre Horváth, László Forró, Abdennaceur Karoui, Vladimir B. Pavlović and Djordje Janaćković
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020352 - 04 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
In this study, we report the influence of vanadium oxide (VO), as a photosensitive component, on the photoactivity of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs). A series of TNTs of varying tube diameter were synthesized by the anodization of titanium foils at different voltages, while [...] Read more.
In this study, we report the influence of vanadium oxide (VO), as a photosensitive component, on the photoactivity of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs). A series of TNTs of varying tube diameter were synthesized by the anodization of titanium foils at different voltages, while vanadium oxide was deposited on TNTs by wet chemical deposition. An improvement in the optical properties of nanotubes was observed after the deposition of vanadium oxide. An improvement in the optical properties (redshift in UV-Vis spectra) of TNTs and TNT/VO was noted. The photocatalytic activity was improved with increasing tube diameter, while it was weakened after the deposition of VO. Furthermore, photoactivity was investigated in photodiodes based on TNTs or TNT/VO and single crystals of CH3NH3PbI3. The photoelectric measurement revealed that different TNT diameters did not influence the I-V characteristic of the photodiodes, while the deposition of VO improved the photocurrent for smaller TNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4964 KiB  
Article
Composite CdS/TiO2 Powders for the Selective Reduction of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde by Visible Light: Relation between Preparation, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity
by Martina Milani, Michele Mazzanti, Stefano Caramori, Graziano Di Carmine, Giuliana Magnacca and Alessandra Molinari
Catalysts 2023, 13(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13010074 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
A series of composite CdS/TiO2 powders was obtained by nucleation of TiO2 on CdS nanoseeds. This combination presents the appropriate band edge position for photocatalytic redox reactions: visible light irradiation of CdS allows the injection of electrons into dark TiO2 [...] Read more.
A series of composite CdS/TiO2 powders was obtained by nucleation of TiO2 on CdS nanoseeds. This combination presents the appropriate band edge position for photocatalytic redox reactions: visible light irradiation of CdS allows the injection of electrons into dark TiO2, increasing the lifetimes of separated charges. The electrons have been used for the quantitative photoreduction of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to 4-aminobenzaldehyde, whose formation was pointed out by 1H NMR and ESI-MS positive ion mode. Concomitant sacrificial oxidation of 2-propanol, which was also the proton source, occurred. The use of characterization techniques (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption) evidenced the principal factors driving the photocatalytic reaction: the nanometric size of anatase crystalline domains, the presence of dispersed CdS to form an extended active junction CdS/anatase, and the presence of mesopores as nanoreactors. The result is an efficient photocatalytic system that uses visible light. In addition, the presence of TiO2 in combination with CdS improves the stability of the photoactive material, enabling its recyclability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2036 KiB  
Communication
Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Organo-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for the Condensation Reaction
by Surjyakanta Rana, José J. Velázquez and Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101212 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Amine-functionalised mesoporous silica was prepared by the sonication method, a green approach. The method used aminopropyl trimethoxy silane as the amine source and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica source. We distinguished its performance compared to the amine-functionalised mesoporous silica sample prepared by the [...] Read more.
Amine-functionalised mesoporous silica was prepared by the sonication method, a green approach. The method used aminopropyl trimethoxy silane as the amine source and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica source. We distinguished its performance compared to the amine-functionalised mesoporous silica sample prepared by the co-condensation method. The sonication method offered better catalytic activity. The amine-functionalised material was fully characterised by different characterisation techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR, CHN, and SEM. The 12.8% of amine-functionalised material (12.A-MCM-41-S) gave excellent selectivity (98%) and conversion (95%). The activity remained almost unchanged for four cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 4957 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Cex-Mn0.8Fe0.2O2 Catalysts and Its Anti-Sulfur Denitration Performance
by Yelin Zhang, Chao Zhang, Yusi Wang, Li Zhang, Jing Zeng and Hanbing He
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101141 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
In order to meet the industrial denitrification demands, inexpensive ferrous metals Mn and Fe have been chosen as the raw materials for the catalysts of CO-SCR, and the anti-sulfur denitrification performance of ferromanganese catalysts can be greatly enhanced by Ce doping. In this [...] Read more.
In order to meet the industrial denitrification demands, inexpensive ferrous metals Mn and Fe have been chosen as the raw materials for the catalysts of CO-SCR, and the anti-sulfur denitrification performance of ferromanganese catalysts can be greatly enhanced by Ce doping. In this study, Cex-Mn0.8Fe0.2O2 catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation, and the effects of Ce addition on the structure and morphology of prepared catalysts and their anti-sulfur denitration performance were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the Cex-Mn0.8Fe0.2O2 catalysts consisted of nanoparticles sized 20–100 nm. Specifically, the Ce0.2-Mn0.8Fe0.2O2 catalyst had more active sites and the best anti-sulfur denitration performance, with a denitration rate of 90.36% at 350 °C, while the denitrification performance of the Mn0.8Fe0.2O2 catalyst was only 85%. Furthermore, the denitrification rate of the catalyst was maintained above 80% when the CO:NO:SO2 ratio was 3:1:1 for 4 h at 350 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3342 KiB  
Article
Cyanogel-Induced Synthesis of RuPd Alloy Networks for High-Efficiency Formic Acid Oxidation
by Qicheng Liu, Wei Yan, Jiachen Zhang, Yi Ren, Jiaqi Liu, Xin Zeng, Dongmei Sun and Yawen Tang
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101136 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1696
Abstract
For direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFC), palladium (Pd)-based alloy catalysts with competitive morphology and elemental composition are essential to boost the performance of the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) in the anode zone. Herein, we design and synthesize RuPdx alloy nano-network [...] Read more.
For direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFC), palladium (Pd)-based alloy catalysts with competitive morphology and elemental composition are essential to boost the performance of the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) in the anode zone. Herein, we design and synthesize RuPdx alloy nano-network structures (ANs) via the facile wet-chemical reduction of Pd-Ru cyanogel (Pdx [Ru(CN)6]y·aH2O) as an effective electrocatalyst for the FAOR. The formation of Pd-Ru cyanogel depends on the facile coordination of K2PdCl4 and K3 [Ru(CN)6]. The unique structure of cyanogel ensures the presentation of a three-dimensional mesoporous morphology and the homogeneity of the elemental components. The as-prepared RuPd3 ANs exhibit good electrocatalytic activity and stability for the FAOR. Notably, the RuPd3 ANs achieve a mass-specific activity of 2068.4 mA mg−1 in FAOR, which shows an improvement of approximately 16.9 times compared to Pd black. Such a competitive FAOR performance of RuPd3 ANs can be attributed to the advantages of structure and composition, which facilitate the exposure of more active sites, accelerate mass/electron transfer rates, and promote gas escape from the catalyst layer, as well as enhance chemical stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 3585 KiB  
Article
Elucidating Evidence for the In Situ Reduction of Graphene Oxide by Magnesium Hydride and the Consequence of Reduction on Hydrogen Storage
by D Pukazhselvan, Aliaksandr L. Shaula, Sergey M. Mikhalev, Igor Bdikin and Duncan P. Fagg
Catalysts 2022, 12(7), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12070735 - 02 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
The current study highlights important information regarding how graphene oxide (GO) additive interacts with magnesium hydride (MgH2) and transforms to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A mild reduction occurs during mechanical milling itself, whereas a strong reduction of GO happens concurrently with [...] Read more.
The current study highlights important information regarding how graphene oxide (GO) additive interacts with magnesium hydride (MgH2) and transforms to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A mild reduction occurs during mechanical milling itself, whereas a strong reduction of GO happens concurrently with the oxidation of Mg formed during the dehydrogenation of MgH2. Owing to the in situ transformation of GO to rGO, the dehydrogenation temperature of MgH2 reduces by about 60 °C, whereas the hydrogen ab/desorption reaction kinetics of MgH2 increases by two orders of magnitude and the dehydrogenation activation energy decreases by about 20 kJ/mol. We have thoroughly scrutinized the transformation of GO to rGO by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Interestingly, the GO to rGO transformation triggered by magnesium hydride in the current study further paves the way for the facile preparation of rGO- and MgO-decked rGO composites, which are important materials for energy storage applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

19 pages, 4708 KiB  
Review
A Concise Review of Multicomponent Reactions Using Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts under Microwave Irradiation
by Thirupathi Damera, Ramakanth Pagadala, Surjyakanta Rana and Sreekantha Babu Jonnalagadda
Catalysts 2023, 13(7), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13071034 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
Multi-component reactions for the construction of heterocycles have been fascinated by microwave energy as an alternative technique of heating, owing to the advantages over traditional reflux methods. The heterogeneous catalysts contribute significantly towards recycling, harmless, easy filtration, catalyst preparation, more life span, abundance, [...] Read more.
Multi-component reactions for the construction of heterocycles have been fascinated by microwave energy as an alternative technique of heating, owing to the advantages over traditional reflux methods. The heterogeneous catalysts contribute significantly towards recycling, harmless, easy filtration, catalyst preparation, more life span, abundance, and product yields. With novel and creative uses in organic and peptide synthesis, polymer chemistry, material sciences, nanotechnology, and biological processes, the usage of microwave energy has rapidly increased during the past 20 years. This article covers multicomponent reactions involving construction of chromenes, pyridines, pyrroles, triazoles, pyrazoles, tetrazoles, trans and cis julolidines using heterogeneous catalysts under microwave. It provides an overview of contemporary microwave-assisted heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Microwave chemistry is now an established technology with several advantages regarding reaction rate and production yield, improving energy savings as confirmed by many applications. Due to the widespread curiosity in medicinal chemistry, the heterogeneously catalysed construction of heterocycles under microwave irradiation is explored to reduce time and energy. By considering various aspects of economy, eco-friendly, and user-friendly factors, this review focuses on recent advances in the multi-component construction of heterocycles using heterogeneous catalysts under microwave irradiation. This review also discusses the benefits and limitations of reaction conditions and yields from the literature reports for the past five years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Application in Catalysis)
Show Figures

Scheme 1

Back to TopTop