Research on Vernacular Architecture

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 66055

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Ingeniería Agroforestal, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: vernacular architecture; farm buildings; reuse; built heritage analysis; rural landscape

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vernacular architecture can be defined as a type of regional construction made with techniques and local materials native from a particular area, representing a knowledge generally transmitted from one generation to the next. Its constitute a rich heritage and an important source of popular wisdom in order to make the best possible use of available resources to maximize the comfort of people. Despite the fact that it comprises more than 75% of the world's existing buildings, it is scarcely studied and its conservation represents a major challenge.

This Special Issue is dedicated to presenting current research on vernacular architecture worldwide. Contributions addressing traditional building materials and construction techniques, typological analysis, preservation problems and solutions, cultural value, climate adaptation and reuse of vacant traditional buildings, among some others, are welcome.

Dr. José María Fuentes-Pardo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vernacular architecture
  • traditional buildings
  • cultural heritage
  • materials & construction techniques
  • typological analysis
  • climate adaptation
  • built heritage preservation
  • reuse

Published Papers (17 papers)

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27 pages, 28120 KiB  
Article
Architectural Spatial Characteristics of Fujian Tubao from the Perspective of Chinese Traditional Ethical Culture
by Xiuhong Lin and Yilin Wu
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092360 - 16 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
Ethics was used as a building code in ancient China, not only to guide the construction of cities and buildings but also to define a strict hierarchy of architectural characteristics. The Fujian Tubao is a unique vernacular architecture and defensive rammed earth dwelling [...] Read more.
Ethics was used as a building code in ancient China, not only to guide the construction of cities and buildings but also to define a strict hierarchy of architectural characteristics. The Fujian Tubao is a unique vernacular architecture and defensive rammed earth dwelling in China. The existing research on architectural spatial characteristics from the perspective of traditional ethical culture focuses on official architecture and residential-oriented vernacular architecture, and research on defensive dwellings has not yet been carried out. Based on data from our field research over the last ten years and 11 case studies, this paper constructs a research framework through five aspects, the spatial axis, functional arrangement, building volume, settlement pattern, and defense system, and analyzes the architectural spatial characteristics of Tubao under the ethical perspective. We find that although the Fujian Tubao is a rammed earth dwelling with mainly defensive functions, it also follows the traditional Chinese ethical concept of “clear-cut hierarchy and order of superiority and inferiority”; however, because of its special defense performance, it has added practical and defensive space to the traditional dwelling arrangement pattern. This study helps to provide a manual for the restoration and sustainable development of the vernacular architecture heritage of the southeastern coastal regions of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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30 pages, 43111 KiB  
Article
Character-Defining Elements Comparison and Heritage Regeneration for the Former Command Posts of the Jinan Campaign—A Case of Chinese Rural Revolutionary Heritage
by Meng Chen, Bin Zhao, Hu Zhao, Qiaochu Jiang, Qi Zhou and Hui Tong
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13081923 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
Rural revolutionary heritage in China represents a distinctive form of vernacular heritage. It holds significance not only for its connection to historical events and prominent figures, but also encapsulates the distinctive features of vernacular architecture. Since 2020, the present authors have conducted a [...] Read more.
Rural revolutionary heritage in China represents a distinctive form of vernacular heritage. It holds significance not only for its connection to historical events and prominent figures, but also encapsulates the distinctive features of vernacular architecture. Since 2020, the present authors have conducted a survey of the rural revolutionary heritage in Jinan. The findings indicate that common challenges in this context are the issues of overprotection and low utilization efficiency. The two former command posts of the Jinan Campaign are representative of rural revolutionary heritage. The Yinjiadian command post building received the designation of revolutionary heritage earlier than the one located in Tangjiagou Village. However, it has undergone inappropriate repairs and alterations over time, which have compromised its original integrity. The Tangjiagou command post was granted heritage status towards the end of 2020, but despite retaining its vernacular architectural structure, material, and form, it has not been effectively conserved and utilized. In the present study, the history, characteristics, and current situation of the two command posts of the Jinan Campaign were explored using various methods such as historical data collection and analysis, field investigations, oral interviews, GIS analysis, and comparative research. The aim of the study was to determine regeneration strategies for the two command posts of the Jinan Campaign by identifying and comparing their character-defining elements. A comparative investigation of the two command posts in the Jinan Campaign was conducted and based on their different heritage characteristics and preservation status, regeneration strategies were proposed. Additionally, a systematic regeneration strategy for rural revolutionary heritage was explored, considering the unique challenges and opportunities associated with preserving and revitalizing these historic sites. Such measures promote the activation and survival of China’s rural revolutionary heritage while providing valuable reference for its protection and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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33 pages, 88236 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Comparison of Space Syntax in Regional Characteristics of Rural Architecture: A Study of Traditional Rural Houses in Jinhua and Quzhou, China
by Keyou Xu, Xingkang Chai, Ruyu Jiang and Yu Chen
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061507 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
In China’s rural renewal, the regional characteristics of rural traditional houses are often ignored. Local governments and real estate developers have distorted the perception of traditional buildings, damaging their sustainability. This paper analyzes the traditional rural houses of Jinhua and Quzhou, Zhejiang, China, [...] Read more.
In China’s rural renewal, the regional characteristics of rural traditional houses are often ignored. Local governments and real estate developers have distorted the perception of traditional buildings, damaging their sustainability. This paper analyzes the traditional rural houses of Jinhua and Quzhou, Zhejiang, China, based on space syntax. Its objective is to demonstrate concretely the regional characteristics of architecture through quantitative analysis. By summarizing the comparison of various variables, these characteristics can be further expressed. This will allow us to better understand the wishes of local residents for living space in a more accurate and quantified manner. As the subject of this study, 34 typical buildings are examined in 19 villages. According to the analysis of the RA, integration, and control values of space syntax, each room in these buildings is calculated. The courtyard, the hall, and the main room are chosen as the principal research areas. In addition, the exterior space is considered to be a key factor. As a result of this study, it is found that rural traditional houses in Jinhua and Quzhou have their own regional characteristics. These characteristics are presented as differences between the above-noted spaces in different comparative analyses and are consistent with the actual situation. It enables the rural traditional houses to be scientifically and quantitatively analyzed, which can be helpful for architectural renewal. As a consequence, it is possible to support the sustainability of rural buildings using data analysis, as well as safeguard the personalized rights and interests of local residents regarding housing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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14 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Framework for Preservation of Hawaii Indigenous Culture: Learning from Vernacular Knowledge
by Ming Hu, Junghwa Suh and Camryn Pedro
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051190 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Vernacular architecture represents the traditional architecture that developed over time within a particular culture or region that embodied indigenous knowledge. These buildings provide an invaluable cultural heritage, and learning from them is an important way to preserve indigenous culture. However, the negative view [...] Read more.
Vernacular architecture represents the traditional architecture that developed over time within a particular culture or region that embodied indigenous knowledge. These buildings provide an invaluable cultural heritage, and learning from them is an important way to preserve indigenous culture. However, the negative view commonly held about indigenous knowledge in architectural theory and historical research that developed during the colonial era has not begun to change; the indigenous knowledge embedded in vernacular architecture has been ignored. This article discusses a proposed framework in which we can learn from vernacular architecture to preserve indigenous culture, including studying traditional building techniques, incorporating traditional materials and designs, adapting traditional designs to contemporary needs, involving local communities, and encouraging sustainable building practices. This proposed framework is applied to learning from Native Hawaiian architecture as a way to demonstrate its practicality and necessity. By studying the designs, materials, and techniques used in vernacular buildings, we can gain a deeper understanding of the cultural, environmental, and social contexts in which they were created. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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21 pages, 6685 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Winter Environment Based on CFD Simulation: A Case Study of Long–Hu Sand Feng Shui Layout at Jiangxi Bailudong Academy Complex
by Zhiqing Zhao, Siyi Zhang and Yizhan Peng
Buildings 2023, 13(4), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13041101 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
In ancient Chinese architecture, Feng Shui was a prevalent practice used to enhance the built environment. This study utilized computer simulation techniques to assess the effectiveness of Long–Hu Sand layout Feng Shui in the Bailudong Academy complex in Jiangxi, China, compared to a [...] Read more.
In ancient Chinese architecture, Feng Shui was a prevalent practice used to enhance the built environment. This study utilized computer simulation techniques to assess the effectiveness of Long–Hu Sand layout Feng Shui in the Bailudong Academy complex in Jiangxi, China, compared to a layout without Feng Shui principles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were employed to simulate the winter courtyard wind environment, and the resulting simulations were used to analyze the winter courtyard ventilation of both layouts. The findings indicate that the Feng Shui layout provided better wind speed and pressure ratios in the winter courtyard, which were more conducive to human comfort and helped prevent the infiltration of cold winter air. The area of ideal wind pressure difference between the front and back of the main house for indoor ventilation in winter was also larger in the Feng Shui layout compared to the non-Feng Shui layout, meeting the standard for wind environment evaluation. The study highlights the ecological wisdom of ancient Chinese people and confirms that optimizing Feng Shui improves the wind environment of the courtyard in winter. The practical implications of these results include improving comfort and sustainability in contemporary architecture and urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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27 pages, 18470 KiB  
Article
Heritage and Rehabilitation Strategies for Confucian Courtyard Architecture: A Case Study in Liaocheng, China
by Weihan Rong and Azizi Bahauddin
Buildings 2023, 13(3), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030599 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5418
Abstract
During the past decades, many traditional vernacular buildings have been forced to be demolished or abandoned due to the accelerating trend of urbanisation in China, which has resulted in regional culture, historical memory, and architectural narratives being gradually lost. The contemporary development of [...] Read more.
During the past decades, many traditional vernacular buildings have been forced to be demolished or abandoned due to the accelerating trend of urbanisation in China, which has resulted in regional culture, historical memory, and architectural narratives being gradually lost. The contemporary development of courtyard-style architecture under the influence of Confucianism, an important architectural form that carries Chinese culture, remains unclear. To preserve these vernacular buildings and local culture, this paper traces the historical value of courtyard houses. Through a case study, the effectiveness of local courtyard-style building rehabilitation in Shandong is assessed, and key components, building materials, and construction techniques corresponding to Confucian cultural connotations are examined, leading to a more comprehensive dialectical analysis of building rehabilitation. The results indicated that rehabilitation can be effective in preserving vernacular components and cultural narratives in the context of sustainable development strategies for traditional buildings. Moreover, by identifying and evaluating the sense of place and rehabilitation strategies of the architectural heritage, new perspectives are offered to the world of vernacular architectural practice, and existing knowledge of the architectural courtyard is expanded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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26 pages, 306394 KiB  
Article
From Heritage to Sustainability: The Future of the Past in the Hot Arid Climate of the UAE
by Muna Salameh and Basim Touqan
Buildings 2023, 13(2), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020418 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7549
Abstract
Achieving future energy objectives and promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability can be inspired by heritage and historic structures, which make up a sizeable component of the existing building industry. Heritage architecture and urban sites are known for their capability of positive interaction [...] Read more.
Achieving future energy objectives and promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability can be inspired by heritage and historic structures, which make up a sizeable component of the existing building industry. Heritage architecture and urban sites are known for their capability of positive interaction with the climate to provide better thermal conditions, beside their capability of strengthening cultural identity and improving the economic sector for the related sites. Thus, the main purpose of this research is to highlight the positive sustainable effects (social, economic and environmental) for a proposal of conserving and reconstructing a vernacular heritage architecture site in the hot arid climate in the UAE. The research used a qualitative methodology based on multicriteria descriptive schemes beside ENVI-met software. The research’s findings presented the capability of the conserved heritage area to strengthen the social and cultural identity and improve the economic sector. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the conserved heritage district had a better microclimate and predicted mean vote for outdoor thermal comfort compared to the basic case heritage district prior to rehabilitation and another modern district. The conclusion promotes heritage conservation in hot arid climates and encourages the preservation of vernacular architecture and traditional sites to achieve the sustainable goals for creating sustainable cities that can mitigate climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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18 pages, 8099 KiB  
Article
The Legacy of Lithuanian Urban and Semi-Urban Vernacular Architecture and Possibilities of Its Preservation
by Almantas Liudas Samalavičius and Arnoldas Gabrėnas
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122087 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Interest in vernacular architecture and vernacular buildings has grown significantly during recent decades. Nevertheless, despite the number of important studies that have been proliferating, there is a lot of material in various geographic localities that still requires further scrutiny. Vernacular architecture in the [...] Read more.
Interest in vernacular architecture and vernacular buildings has grown significantly during recent decades. Nevertheless, despite the number of important studies that have been proliferating, there is a lot of material in various geographic localities that still requires further scrutiny. Vernacular architecture in the post-Soviet/post-communist space is one such area. In the Lithuanian context, vernacular buildings have been long neglected and marginalized in research projects, even though traditional Lithuanian architecture (previously often referred to as “folk architecture”) has been quite well-researched and remains an object of interest. There are, however, certain particular forms of contemporary vernacular architecture—urban and suburban in particular—that have rarely been scrutinized for numerous reasons. The former suburb of Šnipiškės, now being converted into a new center of the city of Vilnius, is an area where modern housing and office towers co-exist with older vernacular buildings. Having been constructed in different historical periods and socio-cultural contexts, they represent the features of local vernacular architecture as well as certain relations to rural vernacular architecture. As an urban quarter, Šnipiškės is comparable to the kampungs (or urban villages) that exist in Indonesia and some other countries. The peculiarities of vernacular buildings in Šnipiškės are discussed in this article. The other type of vernacular discussed is the suburban “collective garden” house, largely constructed during the Soviet period when city-dwellers were allowed to maintain small pieces of land for individual semi-urban farming and erect simple structures on their sites. After the fall of the regime, this type of house underwent numerous changes: some of them, designed with the help of architectural professionals, were eventually reshaped and reconstructed by their owners according to the “Do it yourself” principle. Both types represent a culture of contemporary urban and semi-urban vernacular architecture. As cities in the eastern part of Europe, including Lithuania, are undergoing rapid and often heedless transformations, understanding the value of vernacular buildings and preserving some legacy of surviving vernacular structures of various types is culturally important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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14 pages, 3428 KiB  
Article
Examining Variance, Flexibility, and Centrality in the Spatial Configurations of Yazd Schools: A Longitudinal Analysis
by Fatemeh Fallah Tafti and Ju Hyun Lee
Buildings 2022, 12(12), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12122080 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Past historical research on Iranian educational architecture has highlighted three socio-spatial characteristics: (i) the topological variance of spatial properties, (ii) the flexibility of spatial configuration, and (ii) the centrality of outdoor spaces, which remain under scrutiny. This paper aims to quantitatively examine the [...] Read more.
Past historical research on Iranian educational architecture has highlighted three socio-spatial characteristics: (i) the topological variance of spatial properties, (ii) the flexibility of spatial configuration, and (ii) the centrality of outdoor spaces, which remain under scrutiny. This paper aims to quantitatively examine the topological changes in the spatial configurations of Yazd schools over time. The study entails the application of a Justified Plan Graph (JPG) method to quantify and compare the morphological properties of three historical sets of 20 Yazd schools (traditional, transitional and modern, and contemporary). The results confirm the historical changes in the Yazd schools’ flexibility and their outdoor spaces’ centrality, although the variance of spatial properties over time is not clearly observed. In particular, due to the relatively higher centrality values of outdoor spaces, the traditional schools, regardless of their rigid spatial logics, developed more integrated and interactive spatial configurations. As a first historical study on the socio-spatial configuration of Yazd schools, this paper precisely demonstrates the JPG method for this longitudinal spatial analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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19 pages, 9588 KiB  
Article
Wind Tunnel Experiments and Field Observations of Aeolian Sand Encroachment around Vernacular Settlements in the Saharan and Arabian Deserts
by Mohammed Fareed Sherzad and Dirk Goossens
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112006 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3964
Abstract
One of the key repercussions of the desertification process in the Sahara and the Arabian desert is increased aeolian sand drift and sand deposition. Despite its isolated location and severe desert climate—particularly in terms of solar radiation, sand drift, and sand deposition—the region [...] Read more.
One of the key repercussions of the desertification process in the Sahara and the Arabian desert is increased aeolian sand drift and sand deposition. Despite its isolated location and severe desert climate—particularly in terms of solar radiation, sand drift, and sand deposition—the region of El-Oued Souf in the Grand Erg Oriental in the Algerian Sahara has been a key cultural and trade center for many centuries. To resist the extreme weather conditions, the architecture of the vernacular settlements in the region of El-Oued Souf has unique design traits. Newly constructed buildings, on the other hand, frequently employ technologies based on models imported or imposed from climates that bear little resemblance to the desert. As a result, the inhabitants of these structures live more ‘in the desert’ than ‘with the desert’. This study investigates the impact and the effectiveness of vernacular desert architecture to resist aeolian sand encroachment problems in sandy desert areas. The sand accumulation patterns around vernacular buildings were identified and quantified using wind tunnel experiments. The size and shape of the buildings, as well as their geometric configuration within the settlement, were investigated in relation to the shape and dimension of sand accumulation formations. Field observations in north Algeria and the United Arab Emirates confirmed the accumulation patterns produced by the wind tunnel experiments. The study proposes possible design indicators for building forms to minimize the impact of sand deposition on such forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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19 pages, 7543 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Structural Behavior of the Oldest Timber Frame in China
by Songfeng Jing and Hidekazu Nishizawa
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111860 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
The main hall of the Nanchan Temple, the oldest wooden building of the Tang Dynasty (782 C.E.) in China, was built 1200 years ago, representing a valuable heritage building. Thus far, research on the Nanchan Temple has focused on stylistic comparisons and historical [...] Read more.
The main hall of the Nanchan Temple, the oldest wooden building of the Tang Dynasty (782 C.E.) in China, was built 1200 years ago, representing a valuable heritage building. Thus far, research on the Nanchan Temple has focused on stylistic comparisons and historical documentary evidence. This study concentrates on the oldest timber-framed structure, with our experiments designed to understand the structural behavior of the hall. In this study, a 1:10-scaled specimen of a timber-framed building was fabricated based on the construction method of Yingzao Fashi, and the main hall of the Nanchan Temple was first reviewed; then, quasi-static tests were conducted under different vertical loads to ascertain the seismic mechanism of the oldest wooden building. The stiffness, energy dissipation, vertical load transfer path, bending stress of the component, and axial force were investigated. According to the results obtained on the vertical load transfer path, the roof was found to cause stress to the structural sections. The results indicate that the vertical load of the roof above Cha Shou is transferred down through Ping Liang; it then passes through Ping Liang to Tuo Feng and eventually passes to Sichuan Fu, which causes deformation. We increased the vertical loads, resulting in the increased lateral resistance (resilience) of the Nanchan Temple, and the stability of the timber-framed building in relation to the vertical loads was investigated. Moreover, the effects of horizontal and vertical loads were studied, and thus, we provide proposals for repair and conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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23 pages, 154645 KiB  
Article
Traditional Passive Design Solutions as a Key Factor for Sustainable Modern Urban Designs in the Hot, Arid Climate of the United Arab Emirates
by Muna Salameh and Basim Touqan
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111811 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5959
Abstract
Sustainable architecture is a key approach for creating sustainable cities and reducing the impact of climate change. In hot, arid regions, the passive design traditional architecture is known for its ability to provide comfortable indoor environments and outdoor shaded areas, in contrast to [...] Read more.
Sustainable architecture is a key approach for creating sustainable cities and reducing the impact of climate change. In hot, arid regions, the passive design traditional architecture is known for its ability to provide comfortable indoor environments and outdoor shaded areas, in contrast to the use of energy-intensive air conditioners in a great deal of modern architecture. Thus, this research used a qualitative methodology based on ENVI-met software to study, investigate, and compare the thermal performance of two urban fabrics as case studies (traditional and modern districts) in the hot, arid climate of the United Arab Emirates. The thermal performance of the old urban districts was better than the new ones, with a lower maximum potential air temperature and an improvement in the level of thermal comfort, measured by a predicted mean vote. Moreover, it was found that enhancing the shade in the outdoor open areas in the modern district, mimicking the traditional passive design solutions, resulted in lower air temperature and PMVs. This research is expected to be one step among many towards creating sustainable, innovative modern architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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16 pages, 4202 KiB  
Article
Digital Technologies Role in the Preservation of Jewish Cultural Heritage: Case Study Heyman House, Oradea, Romania
by Vasile Grama, Gabriela Ilies, Bahodirhon Safarov, Alexandru Ilies, Tudor Caciora, Nicolaie Hodor, Dorina Camelia Ilies, Damiannah Kieti, Zharas Berdenov, Ioana Josan and Kurmanbek Narynbek uulu
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101617 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The Jewish architectural heritage is and will remain an integral part of the local cultural heritage, but part of it still needs to be discovered, rehabilitated, maintained and valued. For Oradea, a Central–Eastern European city, this challenge is very specific because the Jewish [...] Read more.
The Jewish architectural heritage is and will remain an integral part of the local cultural heritage, but part of it still needs to be discovered, rehabilitated, maintained and valued. For Oradea, a Central–Eastern European city, this challenge is very specific because the Jewish communities before World War II were very strong and prosperous and because of the current desire to assert the city in the tourism market through urban regeneration. The Jewish community of Oradea had an important representative in Éva Heyman, a child of the Holocaust, nicknamed “Anne Frank of Transylvania”, which became famous. At the age of 13 years, Éva Heyman kept a diary during the Jewish ghettos in Oradea. In addition to the diary, her story is about the house where she grew up, built in the Art Nouveau style at the center of Oradea. Even though this house is of inestimable value from an aesthetic and cultural point of view, very little is known among the local population. Moreover, it is not listed as a historical monument, and its current state of preservation is precarious. With the increasing importance of preserving cultural heritage and computer graphics development, the digitization of historical buildings began to be used more and more for evaluation, preservation and promotion. This paper attempts to highlight the story of Éva Hayman and the house where she grew up. The paper further presents the innovative methods by which it is desired to achieve the presented goal for this architectural jewel. The results show that three-dimensional digitization methods are powerful tools for preservation and use for the benefit of the general public, education professionals, administrators and investors, art historians, restorers, etc., who are concerned with the collection preservation, exploration and mediation of the Jewish cultural heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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17 pages, 5046 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Evaluation of Vernacular Housing: Comparing Case Studies of Waste PET Bottles, Stone, and Adobe Houses
by Flavio Roberto Ceja Soto, José de Jesús Pérez Bueno, Maria Luisa Mendoza López, Martín Hernández Chavela, Martha Elva Pérez Ramos and Alejandro Manzano-Ramírez
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081162 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
This work shows the humidity and thermal evaluation of different case studies of houses. The analyses focused on room prototypes and houses built in different regions of Querétaro, México. Three different climatic zones were included with the evaluations of houses and prototypes. The [...] Read more.
This work shows the humidity and thermal evaluation of different case studies of houses. The analyses focused on room prototypes and houses built in different regions of Querétaro, México. Three different climatic zones were included with the evaluations of houses and prototypes. The assessments of internal and external parameters in residential buildings are also shown. The internal parameter measurements were done with hydro-thermometers and thermography images. Six structures were evaluated, one of the conventional housing materials and five of alternative or vernacular materials. The predicted mean vote (PMV) and the predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) were determined using the average temperature and relative humidity values, and they were considered to be dynamic because they can change depending on many factors. The six dwelling insulating properties were associated with their construction materials, design, location, and other factors. The six houses have many differences, but considering their behavior in their location, the two floor porous stone house got the best results. On the contrary, the flagstone house with a gabled roof of galvanized sheets had a cold perception despite many advantageous elements, failing to provide comfort in such a cold location. Contrasting these with other adobe constructions, the analyzed one had low thermal insulation, which was explained by its characteristics. PET and adobe uninhabited prototypes had medium to cold perceptions. The PET prototype has excellent and adjustable insulations, both on temperature and RH, considering the passive illumination and ventilation of its glass bottle skylights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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22 pages, 7998 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Studies on Repaired Wooden Beam of Traditional Buildings in Huizhou Region, China
by Yunpeng Jiang and Qiang Sun
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071025 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
In this study, three different repair methods are proposed for the common broken parts of traditional wooden beams. Four wooden beams without initial damage and six repaired beams in a planar wooden frame are tested and numerical simulated. The test phenomena, bearing capacity, [...] Read more.
In this study, three different repair methods are proposed for the common broken parts of traditional wooden beams. Four wooden beams without initial damage and six repaired beams in a planar wooden frame are tested and numerical simulated. The test phenomena, bearing capacity, and stiffness of all the wooden beams are analyzed. Compared with the wooden beams without initial damage, the bearing capacity of the beams with upper inlay repair, upper core repair, partial tenon repair, and lower core repair increases by 38.93%, 13.06%, 5.08%, and 3.94%, respectively. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results indicate that the upper and lower parts of the wooden beam with initial damage can be more effectively repaired by the inlay and core methods, respectively. When the tenon is partially damaged, the mechanical properties of the wooden beam are improved after repair. The simulation of lower inlay repair shows that the bearing capacity of the wooden beam is inversely proportional to the repair height and the distance between the repair position and the span. Based on the experimental results, a dovetail form of inlay repair is proposed, and it is numerically verified that this method can effectively reduce the stress concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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23 pages, 28473 KiB  
Article
Understanding Ganghwa Dondae Forts as a Vernacular Model of Construction and Reuse
by Wanghoon Rhee and Young-Jae Kim
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050568 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
The Dondae forts of Ganghwa Island in the late Joseon dynasty are significant as a maritime defense heritage. Thus far, research on Dondae has focused on historical sources. This study concentrates on essential interpretation to comprehend the vernacular architectural characteristics of the forts [...] Read more.
The Dondae forts of Ganghwa Island in the late Joseon dynasty are significant as a maritime defense heritage. Thus far, research on Dondae has focused on historical sources. This study concentrates on essential interpretation to comprehend the vernacular architectural characteristics of the forts as a fixed facility. Confirming the purpose of the construction provides a deeper understanding of the appearance of the late Joseon dynasty beyond the current modified Ganghwa Dondae. This study utilizes standard models of fort architecture established during King Sukjong’s regime and confirms the unique value of military forts, which evolved through a myriad of political changes. Furthermore, this study addresses the sustainable conservation of fort architecture through the continual reuse of the yeongjochek (a construction measurement unit), even though combat techniques had been ceaselessly advanced for the more efficient discharge of cannons. The construction activities of Dondae forts in the 18th century unveil a management system in pre-modern times that is comparable to the modern model in terms of repetitive repairs and incessant production, designed to support military purposes based on norms established during the planning stage. Sustainable architectural models have been standardized since pre-modern times and allow the continued production and conservation of monuments for future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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16 pages, 1299 KiB  
Perspective
Challenges and Current Research Trends for Vernacular Architecture in a Global World: A Literature Review
by José María Fuentes Pardo
Buildings 2023, 13(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010162 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 14167
Abstract
Vernacular architecture can be defined as a type of regional construction influenced by geography, available materials, climate, traditions, and culture that is produced by non-experts through knowledge transmitted and enriched from one generation to the next. In addition to their heritage value, traditional [...] Read more.
Vernacular architecture can be defined as a type of regional construction influenced by geography, available materials, climate, traditions, and culture that is produced by non-experts through knowledge transmitted and enriched from one generation to the next. In addition to their heritage value, traditional buildings are usually considered a model of sustainability in the use of available resources, with a minimal negative environmental impact, minimization of costs, and a reduction of energy demand. In the current context of the globalization of construction techniques and high requirements of comfortable dwellings, the preservation of vernacular architecture means a major challenge, given that this kind of architecture represents more than 75% of the world’s existing buildings. Based on a study of selected peer-reviewed literature indexed in the Web of Science for the period between 2000 and 2022, this paper qualitatively analyzes the current areas of research on vernacular architecture, with particular attention to the scope of the studies, traditional building materials and construction techniques, preservation problems and solutions, climate adaptation, and the reuse of abandoned vernacular buildings. In order to achieve the goal of preserving vernacular architecture in the coming centuries, research should continue in interdisciplinary teams by promoting fieldwork in under-studied regions and incorporating modern materials and solutions in old vernacular buildings to satisfy current comfort standards without excessively changing their essential features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Vernacular Architecture)
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